Thomas Aquinas: Catena Aurea - Mark: English

St. Thomas Aquinas, Catena Aurea (Golden Chain)

Expositio in Marcum
Gospel of Mark

translated by
John Henry Newman
except for Dedication and Prologue
by Joseph Kenny, O.P.

(John Henry Parker, v. II, J.G.F. and J. Rivington:London, 1842)


CONTENTS
Chapters:
*1**2**3**4**5**6**7**8*
*9**10**11**12**13**14* *15**16*



DedicatioDedication
Reverendo in Christo patri domino Hannibaldo, basilicae duodecim apostolorum venerabili presbytero cardinali, frater Thomas de Aquino ordinis fratrum praedicatorum se totum. To the Reverend Father, Lord Hannibald, Venerable Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, I, Brother Thomas of Aquino of the Order of Friars Preachers, [place] myself totally [at your disposition].
Rerum opifex Deus solo suae bonitatis intuitu cuncta in esse producens, naturalem boni amorem omnibus indidit creaturis, ut dum unaquaeque res bonum sibi conveniens naturaliter amat et appetit, quadam conversione mirabili in suum recurrere demonstretur auctorem. God, the maker of everything, by a simple glance of his goodness, brought everything into being, and endowed all creatures with a natural love of goodness. Thus, as each thing naturally loves and desires the good that befits it, it displays a wonderful turn about and pursuit of its author.
Sed in hoc praefertur ceteris rationalis natura, quod ipsum universalem bonitatis fontem per sapientiam intueri potest, et per caritatis amorem suaviter degustare: unde fit ut sapientiae bonum, quo ad ipsum fontem bonitatis accedimus, omnibus humanis bonis secundum rectae rationis iudicium praeferatur. Haec est enim quae fastidium nescit: ita ut qui eam edit, adhuc esuriat, et qui eam bibit, sitire non cesset. Haec est quae intantum peccato repugnat, ut qui secundum ipsam operantur, non peccent. Haec est quae indeficientem fructum suis ministris largitur, ut qui eam elucidant, vitam possideant sempiternam. Praecellit itaque voluptates dulcedine, securitate sedes et regna, utilitateque divitias universas. But in this rational creatures excell, because through wisdom they can discern the very universal source of goodness, and through love which is charity they can taste its sweetness. Therefore, the gift of wisdom, by with we have access to the very fount of goodness, is, in the judgment of right reason, the highest of all human goods. Wisdom never grows stale. He who eats it, hungers for more. He who drinks it, never loses his thirst. Wisdom diametrically opposes sin; so those who act with it do not sin. It gives its workers never-ending fruit. Thus those who elucidate it possess eternal life. And it is sweeter than any pleasure, more secure than any office or rule, and more useful than all riches.
Huiusmodi igitur delectatus muneribus, evangelicae sapientiae a saeculis in mysterio absconditae, quam in lucem produxit Dei sapientia incarnata, ministerium expositionis adhibui, sacrorum doctorum sententias compilando; ad quod me induxit primitus felicis recordationis Urbani Papae quarti mandatum. Verum quia, eo summo pontifice ex hac vita subtracto, tria Evangelia, Marci, Lucae et Ioannis exponenda restabant, ne opus quod obedientia inceperat, negligentia imperfectum relinqueret, cum multo labore diligens adhibui studium, ut quatuor Evangeliorum expositionem complerem, eadem in omnibus forma servata in ponendis sanctorum auctoritatibus et eorum nominibus praescribendis. It has been my pleasure to take on the task of commenting on the wisdom of the Gospel, hidden for ages but brought to light by the incarnate Wisdom of God. I did this by compiling the views of the sacred doctors. Pope Urban IV, of holy memory, first entrusted me with this task. Although that Supreme Pontif has been taken from this life, the three gospels of Mark, Luke and John remained without commentary. I did not wish negligence to leave unfinished a work that obedience began. Therefore, I worked very hard to complete the commentary on the four gospels, following the same pattern of quoting texts from the saints and indicating their names.
Et ut magis integra et continua praedicta sanctorum expositio redderetur, quasdam expositiones doctorum Graecorum in Latinum feci transferri, ex quibus plura expositionibus Latinorum doctorum interserui, auctorum nominibus praenotatis. To make this commentary of the saints more complete and continuous, I had some Greek commentaries translated into Latin, which I included among the commentaries of the Latin doctors, indicating their names.
Verum quia congruit ut de laborum fructibus oblationes sacerdotibus offerantur, expositionis evangelicae opus, laboris mei fructum, apostolorum presbytero censui offerendum: in quo vestra suscipiat auctoritas debitum, ut scientis industria iudicii censuram exerceat; et antiqua dilectio, amoris affectum in offerentis munere comprehendat. Because it is fitting for offerings to be made to the priests from the fruit of labor, this commentary on the Gospel, the fruit of my work, I deemed necessary to offer to an apostolic priest. May your authority accept this payment and give it a critical review, and may your long-time affection accept in the gift I offer a sign of my love.

ProoemiumPrologue
Deus meus factus est fortitudo mea, et dixit: parum est ut sis mihi servus ad suscitandas tribus Iacob, et faeces Israel convertendas. Dedi te in lucem gentium, ut sis salus mea usque ad extremum terrae.
My God has been my strength. He says: It is too little for you to be my servant, to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back the survivors of Israel; I shall make you a light to the nations, so that my salvation may reach the remotest parts of the earth. (Is 49:5-6)
Glossa: Vocationem gentium et causam salutis earum Isaias propheta manifesto praenuntiat oraculo, dicens Deus meus factus est fortitudo mea, et cetera. Gloss: Isaiah foretold the calling of the gentiles and the cause of their salvation, saying: My God has been my strength etc.
Hieronymus super Isaiam: In quibus verbis ostenditur Christum appellari servum, inquantum est formatus ex utero; nam ante verba ista praemittitur: haec dicit dominus, formans me ex utero servum sibi. Fuerat siquidem voluntas patris, ut pessimi vinitores missum susciperent filium; unde de ipsis Christus ad discipulos loquitur: in viam gentium ne abieritis; sed ite magis ad oves perditas domus Israel. Quia igitur Israel non est reductus ad Deum, propterea Dei filius loquitur Iudaeis non credentibus, dicens Deus meus factus est fortitudo mea: qui et consolatus est me super abiectione populi mei, et dixit: parum est si servias mihi ad suscitandas tribus Iacob, quae suo vitio corruerunt, et ad faeces, sive reliquias, Israel convertendas; pro illis enim dedi te in lucem gentium omnium, ut illumines universum mundum, et salutem meam, per quam homines salvi fiunt, usque ad extrema terrae facias pervenire. Jerome on Isaiah: These words show that Christ is called a servant, in that he was formed from a womb. For, before these words, it is said: Thus says the Lord, forming me from the womb as his servant. It was the will of the Father that the very wicked vine dressers should receive the son who was sent. So Christ is telling his disciples about them: Do not go the way of the gentiles; go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Because Israel was not subject to God, therefore, the Son of God speaks to the unbelieving Jews, saying that My God has been my strength, and he consoled me over my people's rejecting me. He saidj: It is not so important for you to serve me in resuscitating the tribes of Jacob who crashed by their wickedness, and to convert the remnant of Israel. In their place, I set you as a light for all nations, to enlighten the whole world, and make my salvation, which is for humanity's salvation, reach the ends of the earth.
Glossa: Ex praemissis igitur verbis duo possumus colligere: quorum primum est divina virtus, quae fuit in Christo, ex qua efficax fuit ad gentium illuminationem; quia dicitur Deus meus factus est fortitudo mea. Deus igitur erat in Christo mundum reconcilians sibi, ut apostolus, dicit; unde et Evangelium, per quod credentes salvantur, virtus Dei est in salutem omni credenti, ut idem apostolus dicit. Secundum autem est illuminatio gentium et salus mundi ex dispositione patris per Christum completa: quia dicitur dedi te in lucem gentium: unde post resurrectionem suam dominus ut dispositionem patris impleret, ad praedicandum discipulos misit, dicens: docete omnes gentes, quorum quidam ad praedicandum Iudaeis, quidam ad praedicandum gentibus ministerium acceperunt. Quia vero Evangelium oportuit non solum praedicari propter praesentes, sed etiam scribi propter futuros, eadem distinctio est in scriptoribus Evangelii observata; nam Matthaeus Iudaeis Evangelium Hebraico sermone scripsit; Marcus autem primus Evangelium scripsit in gentibus. Gloss: We can make two conclusions from the preceding words: The first is that the divine power, which was in Christ, was capable of enlightening the nations —where it is said: My God is my strength. For God, as the Apostle said, was in Christ reconciling the world to himself. Therefore, the Gospel, by which believers are saved, is the power of God for the salvation of every believer, as the same Apostle says. The second is the enlightenment of the nations and the salvation of the world effected, by the disposition of the Father, through Christ —where it is said: I placed you as a light for the nations. Thus after his resurrection, to fulfil the disposition of the Father, the Lord sent the disciples to preach, saying: Teach all nations. Some of them took the ministry of preaching to the Jews, others that of preaching to the gentiles. Because the Gospel had not only to be preached to those of that time, but also to be written for future generations, the same distinction is found in the writers of the Gospel. For Matthew wrote in Hebrew for the Jews, Mark was the first to write the Gospel for the gentiles.
Eusebius in Eccl. Hist: Cum enim Romanae urbi clarum verbi Dei lumen fuisset exortum, sermo veritatis et lucis, qui per Petrum praedicabatur, universorum mentes placido illustravit auditu; ita ut quotidie audientibus eum nulla unquam satietas fieret: unde neque eis auditio sola sufficiebat; sed Marcum discipulum eius omnibus precibus exorant, ut ea quae ille verbo praedicabat, ad perpetuam eorum commonitionem habendam Scripturae traderet, quo domi forisque in huiusmodi verbi meditationibus permanerent; nec prius ab obsecrando desistunt quam quae oraverant, impetrarent: et haec fuit causa scribendi Evangelium secundum Marcum. Petrus vero ut per spiritum sanctum religioso se comperit furto spoliatum, delectatus est, fidem eorum per hoc devotionemque considerans; factumque confirmavit et in perpetuum legendam Scripturam Ecclesiis tradidit. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History: Since the clear light of the word of God rose on the city of Rome, the story of truth and light, which was preached by Peter, instructed the minds of all by its pleasing sound. Thus every day those who heard it never heard enough. It was not enough just to hear it, but they begged the disciple Mark to put into writing what Peter preached orally, to have a perpetual record of it, which they could always meditate both at home and outside. They did not give up pressing him, until they got what they asked for. This was what led to the writing of the Gospel according to Mark. Peter, who by the Holy Spirit found himself subjected to a religious theft, was delighted, considering their faith and devotion. So he ratified what was done, and bequeathed this to the churches as Scripture to be read forever.
Hieronymus super Marcum: Principium autem a perfectioris aetatis Christi praedicatione inchoat, nec laborat in nativitate infantuli qui loquitur de perfectione filii Dei. Jerome on Mark: The Gospel begins from the preaching of Christ as an adult. It does not concern itself with the birth of the little chile, since it speaks of the perfection of the Son of God.
Chrysostomus: Compendiosam autem ac brevem narrationem facit, in quo magistrum imitatus est, scilicet Petrum, brevitati studentem. Chrysostom: His narration is a short summary, wherein he imitates his master, Peter, who always tried to be brief.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Unde Matthaeus qui regiam Christi personam narrandam susceperat, habuit Marcum sibi tamquam comitem et abbreviatorem adiunctum, qui sua vestigia quodammodo sequeretur: regum enim est non esse sine comitum obsequio. Sacerdos autem quoniam in sancta sanctorum solus intrabat, propterea Lucas, cuius circa sacerdotium Christi erat intentio, non habuit tamquam socium obsequentem, qui suam narrationem quodammodo breviaret. Augustine, Consistency of the Gospels: Matthew, who described the royal person of Christ, had Mark as an associate and summarizer. In this respect he followed his example, for kings are never without assistants who wait on them. But since a priest enters the Holy of Holies alone, Luke, who was concerned with the priesthood of Christ, did not have an assistant to summarize his narration.
Beda: Notandum est etiam, quod Evangelistae sancti diversum narrationis suae primordium, singuli diversum statuere terminum. Matthaeus namque a nativitate dominica exordium sumens, ad tempus usque dominicae resurrectionis seriem suae narrationis perduxit; Marcus ab initio evangelicae praedicationis incipiens, pervenit usque ad tempus ascensionis domini et praedicationis discipulorum eius cunctis gentibus per orbem; Lucas autem a nativitate praecursoris inchoans Evangelium, terminavit in ascensione dominica; Ioannes ab aeternitate verbi Dei principium sumens, usque ad tempus dominicae resurrectionis evangelizando pertingit. Bede: Note that the Holy Evangelists had different beginnings of their story, and different endings. Matthew started from the birth of the Lord and continued until the resurrection. Mark started with the beginning of the evangelical preaching and reached the ascension of the Lord and the preaching of the disciples to all nations of the world. Luke began from the birth of the Precursor, and ended with the Lord's ascension. John began with the eternity of the Word of God, and continued his preaching up to the time of the Lord's resurrection.
Ambrosius super Lucam: Quia igitur Marcus a potentiae coeperat expressione divinae, recte sub leonis imagine figuratur. Ambrose, on Luke: Because Mark began with the manifestation of divine power, he is rightly depicted as a lion.
Remigius super Marcum: Per leonem etiam signatur Marcus: quia sicut leo terribilem vocem in deserto emittit, sic Marcus a voce in deserto incepit, dicens: vox clamantis in deserto. Remigius, on Mark: The lion designates Mark, because, as the lion lets out a terrible cry in the desert, so Mark began with a voice in the desert, saying: The voice of one crying in the desert.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Quamvis et de figura aliter dici possit. Marcus enim qui neque stirpem regiam ut Matthaeus, ob hoc per leonem significatus, neque sacerdotalem ut Lucas signatus per vitulum, vel cognationem vel consecrationem narrare voluit; et tamen in eis versatus ostenditur quae homo Christus operatus est, per hominis figuram in illis quatuor animalibus signatus videtur. Augustine, on the Consistency of the Gospels: Yet another explanation is possible. For Mark, unlike Matthew who gave a royal genealogy, is depicted as a lion. Nor did he describe his priesthood, as Luke did, who is depicted as a bull. Nor did he narrate his relatives or consecration, but was concerned with what Christ did as a man; therefore he seems to deserve the figure of a man, among those four animals.
Theophylactus (in Evang. Marci): Vel Evangelium secundum Marcum aquila innuit: a prophetia enim Ioannis incepit. Prophetia vero acute quae a longe sunt, speculatur ut aquila. Catena in Mc., cap. 1 l. 1 Theophylactus, on Mark: Or the eagle fits the Gospel according to Mark , because it begins with the prophecy of John. But prophecy sees sharply what is far away, like an eagle.

Caput 1Chapter 1 [p. 5]
Lectio 1
1 ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ [υἱοῦ θεοῦ].
Ver. 1: The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Hieronymus: Marcus Evangelista sacerdotium in Israel agens, secundum carnem Levita, ad dominum conversus, Evangelium in Italia scripsit, ostendens in eo quid et generi suo deberet Christus. Nam initium Evangelii in voce propheticae exclamationis instituens ordinem leviticae electionis ostendit, praedicans Ioannem Zachariae filium in voce Angeli emissum, dicens initium Evangelii Iesu Christi filii Dei. Jerome, in Prolog: Mark the Evangelist, who served the priesthood in Israel, according to the flesh a Levite, having been converted to the Lord, wrote his Gospel in Italy, shewing in it how even his family benefited Christ. For commencing his Gospel with the voice of the prophetic cry, he shews the order of the election of Levi, declaring that John the son of Zachariah was sent forth by the voice of an angel, and saying, "The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."
Hieronymus: Evangelion, Graece dicitur, Latine bona Annuntiatio praedicatur, quod proprie ad regnum Dei, et remissionem pertinet peccatorum: est enim Evangelium per quod venit redemptio fidelium, et beatitudo sanctorum. Quatuor autem Evangelia unum sunt, et unum quatuor. In Hebraeo Iehosua, in Graeco Soter, in Latino salvator dicitur. Masciach Hebraice, christos Graece, unctus Latine, idest rex, et sacerdos dicitur. Pseudo-Jerome: The Greek word 'Evangelium' means good tidings, in Latin it is explained, 'bona annunciatio,' or, the good news; these terms properly belong to the kingdom of God and to the remission of sins; for the Gospel is that by which comes the redemption of the faithful and the beatitude of the saints. But the four Gospels are one, and one Gospel in four. In Hebrew, His name is Jesus, in Greek, Soter, in Latin, Salvator; but men say Christus in Greek, Messias in Hebrew, Unctus in Latin, that is, King and Priest.
Beda. Conferendum autem est hoc Evangelii principium principio Matthaei quo ait: liber generationis Iesu Christi filii David, filii Abraham; hic autem dicitur filii Dei: ex utroque enim unus dominus Iesus Christus Dei et hominis filius est intelligendus. Et apte primus Evangelista filium hominis eum, secundus filium Dei nominat, ut a minoribus ad maiora paulatim sensus noster assurgeret, ac per fidem et sacramenta humanitatis assumptae, ad agnitionem divinae aeternitatis ascenderet. Apte etiam qui humanam erat generationem descripturus a filio hominis coepit, David scilicet, sive Abraham; apte etiam is qui librum suum ab initio evangelicae praedicationis inchoabat, filium Dei magis appellare voluit Iesum Christum, quia humanae erat naturae de progenie patriarcharum veritatem carnis suscipere, et divinae fuit potentiae Evangelium mundo praedicare. Bede, in Marc., i, 1: The beginning of this Gospel should be compared with that of Matthew, in which it is said, "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham." But here He is called "the Son of God." Now from both we must understand one Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, and of man. And fitly the first Evangelist names Him "Son of man," the second, "Son of [p. 6] God," that from less things our sense may by degrees mount up to greater, and by faith and the sacraments of the human nature assumed, rise to the acknowledgment of His divine eternity. Fitly also did He, who was about to describe His human generation, begin with a son of man, namely, David or Abraham. Fitly again, he who was beginning his book with the first preaching of the Gospel, chose rather to call Jesus Christ, "the Son of God;" for it belonged to the human nature to take upon Him the reality of our flesh, of the race of the patriarchs, and it was the work of Divine power to preach the Gospel to the world.
Hilarius de Trin: Non autem solo nomine contestatus est Christum filium Dei, sed etiam proprietate. Nos filii Dei sumus; sed non talis hic filius: hic enim verus et proprius est filius, origine, non adoptione; veritate, non nuncupatione; nativitate, non creatione. Hilary, de Trin., iii, 11: He has testified, that Christ was the Son of God, not in name only, but by His own proper nature. We are the sons of God, but He is not a son as we are; for He is the very and proper Son, by origin, not by adoption; in truth, not in name; by birth, not by creation.

Lectio 2
2 καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν τῷ ἠσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ, ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, * ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου: 3 φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, * ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, * εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ.
2. As it is written in the Prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee." [Mal 3:1] 3. "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight." [Isa 40:3]

Beda: Scripturus Evangelium Marcus, congrue primo ponit testimonia prophetarum, ut eo cunctis sine scrupulo dubietatis suscipienda quae scriberet intimaret, quo haec a prophetis antea praedicta esse demonstraret. Simulque uno eodemque Evangelii sui principio et Iudaeos, qui legem ac prophetas susceperant, ad suscipiendam Evangelii gratiam, ac sacramenta, quae ipsorum prophetae praedixerant, instituit; et gentiles, qui per Evangelii praeconia ad dominum venerant, ad auctoritatem quoque legis et prophetarum suscipiendam venerandamque provocat; unde dicit sicut scriptum est in Isaia propheta: ecce ego mitto Angelum meum ante faciem tuam. Bede: Being about to write his Gospel, Mark rightly puts first the testimonies of the Prophets, that he might notify to all, that what he should write was to be received without scruple of doubt, in that he shewed that these things were beforehand foretold by the Prophets. At once, by one and the same beginning of his Gospel, he prepared the Jews, who had received the Law and the Prophets, for receiving the grace of the Gospel, and those sacraments, which their own prophecies had foretold; and he also calls upon the Gentiles, who came to the Lord by publishing of the Gospel, to receive and venerate the authority of the Law and the Prophets; whence he says, "As it is written in the prophet Isaiah, Behold, &c."
Hieronymus de optimo genere interpretandi: Hoc autem non scribitur in Isaia; sed in Malachia novissimo duodecim prophetarum. Jerome: Hierom. ad Pammach, Epist 57: But this is not written in Isaiah, but in Malachi, the last of the twelve prophets.
Chrysostomus in Marc: Potest autem dici, quod falsitas est scriptoris. Vel aliter dicetur, quod duas prophetias in diversis locis dictas a duobus prophetis, in unum congregans posuit. In Isaia enim propheta post Ezechiae describitur historiam: vox clamantis in deserto; in Malachia vero: ecce mitto Angelum meum. Secundus igitur Evangelista duas prophetias posuit ut ab Isaia dictas, et ad unam lectionem hoc referens, tacens vero a quo dicatur ecce mitto Angelum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But it may be said that it is a mistake of the writer. Otherwise it may be said that he has compressed [p. 7] into one, two prophecies delivered in different places by two prophets; for in the prophet Isaiah it is written after the story of Hezekiah, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness;" but in Malachi, "Behold, I send mine angel." The Evangelist therefore, taking parts of two prophecies, has put them down as spoken by Isaiah, and refers them here to one passage, without mentioning, however, by whom it is said, "Behold, I send mine angel."
Augustinus de quaest. novi et Veter. Testam: Sciens enim omnia ad auctorem referenda, dicta haec ad Isaiam revocavit, qui sensum istum prior intimaverat. Denique post verba Malachiae statim subiecit dicens vox clamantis in deserto: ut iungeret verba utriusque prophetae ad unum sensum pertinentia, sub prioris prophetae persona. Pseudo-Aug., Quaest. nov. et vet. Test. lvii: For knowing that all things are to be referred to their author, he has brought these sayings back to Isaiah, who was the first to intimate the sense. Lastly, after the words of Malachi, he immediately subjoins, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness," in order to connect the words of each prophet, belonging as they do to one meaning, under the person of the elder prophet.
Beda: Vel aliter intelligendum est: quia etsi non haec verba inveniuntur in Isaia, sensus tamen eorum invenitur in multis aliis locis; et manifestius in hoc quod subiunxit vox clamantis in deserto. Nam quod dixit Malachias mittendum Angelum ante faciem domini, qui praepararet vias eius, hoc est quod dixit Isaias vocem clamantis in deserto audiendam, quae diceret parate viam domini. In utraque autem sententia similiter paranda via domini praedicatur. Potuit autem fieri ut animo Marci Evangelium conscribentis pro Malachia Isaias occurrerit, ut fieri solet; quod tamen sine ulla dubitatione emendaret, saltem ab aliis admonitus, qui ipso adhuc in carne vivente legere potuerunt; nisi cogitaret, recordationi suae, quae sancto spiritu regebatur, non frustra occurrisse aliud pro alio nomen prophetae. Sic enim insinuatur quaecumque per prophetas spiritus sanctus dixit, et singula esse omnium, et omnia singulorum. Bede: Or otherwise, we must understand, that although these words are not found in Isaiah, still the sense of them is found in many other places, and most clearly in this which he has subjoined, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness." For that which Malachi has called, the angel to be sent before the face of the Lord, to prepare His way, is the same thing as Isaiah has said is to be heard, "the voice of one crying in the wilderness, saying, Prepare ye the way of the Lord." But in each sentence alike, the way of the Lord to be prepared is proclaimed. It may be, too, that Isaiah occurred to the mind of Mark, in writing his Gospel, instead of Malachi, as often happens; which he would, however, without doubt correct, at least when reminded by other persons, who might read his work whilst he was yet in the flesh; unless he though that, since his memory was then ruled by the Holy Spirit, it was not without a purpose that the name of one prophet had occurred to him instead of another. For thus whatsoever things the Holy Spirit spoke by the prophets are implied each to have belonged to all, and all to each.
Hieronymus vox pneumatos agiu, per Malachiam ad patrem sonat de filio, qui est facies patris, unde agnitus est. Jerome: By Malachi, therefore, the voice of the Holy Spirit resounds to the Father concerning the Son, who is the countenance of the Father by which He has been known.
Beda: Angelus autem vocatur Ioannes, non naturae societate, iuxta haeresim Origenis, sed officii dignitate: Angelus enim Graece, Latine nuntius dicitur; quo nomine recte appellari potuit homo ille qui fuit missus a Deo, ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine, et venientem in carne dominum mundo nuntiaret: cum constet omnes qui sacerdotio funguntur ob evangelizandi officium Angelos posse vocari, dicente propheta Malachia: labia sacerdotis custodiunt scientiam; et legem requirunt ex ore eius, quia Angelus est domini exercituum. Bede: But John is called an angel not by community of nature, according to the heresy of Origen [ed. note: Origen taught that all rational beings, angels, devils, and men, were of one nature, differing only in rank and condition, according to their deserts (in Joan, tom. ii, 17) and capable of change: that men had once been angels: that angels took human nature to serve man, and that St. John Baptist was an angel, quoting this text. (in Joan, ii, 25.) v Huet, Orig. II, qu. 5, No. 14, 24, 25], but by the dignity [p. 8] of his office; for angel in Greek is in Latin, nuntius (note: messenger), by which name that man is rightly called, who was sent by God, that he might bear witness of the light, and announce to the world the Lord, coming in the flesh; since it is evident that all who are priests may be their office of preaching the Gospel be called angels, as the prophet Malachi says, "The lips of the priest keep knowledge, and they seek the law at his mouth, because he is the Angel of the Lord of hosts." [Mal 2:7]
Theophylactus: Praecursor igitur Christi Angelus dicitur propter vitam angelicam et reverentiam excelsam. Quod autem dicitur ante faciem tuam, hoc significat quasi diceret, iuxta te est nuntius tuus; unde ostenditur propinquitas praecursoris ad Christum: etenim iuxta reges ambulant qui propinqui sunt magis. Theophylact: The Forerunner of Christ, therefore, is call an angel, on account of his angelic life and lofty reverence. Again, where he says, "Before thy face," it is as if he said, Thy messenger is near thee: whence is shewn the intimate connection of the Forerunner with Christ; for those walk next to kings who are their greatest friends.
Sequitur qui praeparabit viam tuam ante te: per Baptismum enim praeparavit animas Iudaeorum, ut Christum susciperent. There follows, "Who will prepare thy way before thee." For by baptism he prepared the minds of the Jews to receive Christ.
Hieronymus: Vel via domini qua ad homines ingreditur, poenitentia est, per quam Deus ad nos descendit, et nos ad illum ascendimus: hinc autem initium praedicationis Ioannis fuit: poenitentiam agite. Pseudo-Jerome: Or, "the way of the Lord," by which He comes into men, in penitence, by which God comes down to us, and we mount up to Him. And for this reason the beginning of John's preaching was, "Repent ye."
Beda: Sicut autem Ioannes Angelus potuit vocari pro eo quod faciem domini evangelizando praevenit; ita recte appellari et vox potuit, quia verbum Dei sonando praeibat; unde Bede: But as John might be called an angel, because he went before the face of the Lord by his preaching, so he might also be rightly called a voice, because, by his sound, he preceded the Word of the Lord.
Sequitur vox clamantis in deserto. Constat enim quod unigenitus filius verbum patris vocatur; et ex ipsa nostra locutione cognoscimus quia prius vox sonat, ut verbum postmodum possit audiri. Wherefore there follows, "The voice of one crying, &c." For it is an acknowledged thing that the Only-Begotten Son is called the Word of the Father, and even we, from having uttered words ourselves, know that the voice sounds first, in order that the word may afterwards by heard.
Hieronymus: Dicitur autem vox clamantis, quia clamor ad surdos, et longe positos, sive cum indignatione fieri solet; quae Iudaico certum est populo evenisse, dum longe est a peccatoribus salus; et aures suas obturaverunt sicut aspides surdae: et indignationem, et iram, et tribulationem a Christo audire meruerunt. Pseudo-Jerome: But it is called "the voice of one crying," for we are wont to use a cry to deaf persons, and to those afar off, or when we are indignant, all which things we know applied to the Jews; for "salvation is far from the wicked," and they "stopped their ears like deaf adders," and deserved to hear "indignation, and wrath, and tribulation" from Christ.
Chrysostomus. Per hoc autem quod dicitur in deserto, manifeste ostendit prophetia, non in Ierusalem divina fieri dogmata, sed in deserto. Quod implebatur ad litteram, Ioanne Baptista in deserto Iordanis verbi Dei apparitionem salutiferam praedicante. Ostendit etiam sermo propheticus praeter desertum quod a Moyse ostensum fuit, ubi semitas faciebat, aliud esse desertum, in quo praesentem esse salutem Christi praedicabat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But the prophecy, by saying, "In the wilderness," plainly shews that the divine teaching was not in Jerusalem, but in the wilderness, which was fulfilled to [p. 9] the letter by John the Baptist in the wilderness of Jordan, preaching the healthful appearing of the Word of God. The word of prophecy also shews, that besides the wilderness, which was pointed out by Moses, where he made paths, there was another wilderness, in which it proclaimed that the salvation of Christ was present.
Hieronymus. Vel in deserto fit vox, et clamor, quia deserti erant a spiritu Dei, sicut domus vacans et scopata; deserti etiam a propheta, rege atque sacerdote. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else the voice and the cry is in the desert, because they were deserted by the Spirit of God, as a house empty, and swept out; deserted also by prophet, priest, and king.
Beda: Quid autem clamaret aperitur cum subditur parate viam domini, rectas facite semitas eius. Omnis enim qui fidem rectam, et opera bona praedicat, quid aliud quam venienti domino ad corda audientium viam parat, ut haec scilicet corda vis gratiae penetret, et lumen veritatis illustret? Rectas autem semitas facit, dum mundas in animo cogitationes per sermonem praedicationis format. Bede: What he cried is revealed, in that which is subjoined, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight." For whosoever preaches a right faith and good works, what else does he but prepare the way for the Lord's coming to the hearts of His hearers, that the power of grace might penetrate these hearts, and the light of truth shine in them? And the paths he makes straight, when he forms pure thoughts in the soul by the word of preaching.
Hieronymus. Vel aliter. Parate viam domini; hoc est, poenitentiam agite, et praedicate: rectas facite semitas eius, ut via regia incedentes proximos nostros ut nos, et nosmetipsos ut proximos diligamus: qui enim semetipsum diligit, et non diligit proximum, ad dexteram declinat: nam multi bene agunt, sed bene non corrigunt, ut fuit Heli; et qui semetipsum odiens, proximum diligit ad sinistram divertit: multi enim bene corrigunt, sed non bene agunt, ut fuerunt Scribae et Pharisaei. Semitae autem post viam sequuntur, quia mandata moralia post poenitentiam explanantur. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord," that is, act out repentance and preach it; "make his paths straight," that walking in the royal road, we may love our neighbours as ourselves, and ourselves as our neighbours. For he who loves himself, and loves not his neighbour, turns aside to the right; for many act well, and do not correct their neighbour well, as Eli. He, on the other hand, who, hating himself, loves his neighbour, turns aside to the left; for many, for instance, rebuke well, but act not well themselves, as did the Scribes and Pharisees. "Paths" are mentioned after the "way" because moral commands are laid open after penitence.
Theophylactus. Vel via est novum testamentum, semitae vero vetus, quasi attritum: ad viam enim necesse erat praeparari, scilicet ad novum testamentum; veteris autem testamenti semitas rectas fieri oportebat. Theophylact: Or, the "way" is the New Testament, and the "paths" are the Old, because it is a trodden path. For it was necessary to be prepared for the way, that is, for the New Testament; but it was right that the paths of the Old Testament should be straightened.

Lectio 3
4 ἐγένετο ἰωάννης [ὁ] βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ καὶ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. 5 καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν πᾶσα ἡ ἰουδαία χώρα καὶ οἱ ἱεροσολυμῖται πάντες, καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ ἰορδάνῃ ποταμῷ ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν. 6 καὶ ἦν ὁ ἰωάννης ἐνδεδυμένος τρίχας καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐσθίων ἀκρίδας καὶ μέλι ἄγριον. 7 καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων, ἔρχεται ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου ὀπίσω μου, οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς κύψας λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ: 8 ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.
4. John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. 5. And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins. 6. And John was clothed with camel's hair, and [p. 10] with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey; 7. And preached, saying, "There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose. 8. I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost."

Hieronymus: Secundum praemissam Isaiae prophetiam via domini a Ioanne paratur per fidem et Baptismum et poenitentiam; rectae semitae fiunt per austera indicia vestis cilicinae, et zonae pelliceae, et cibi locustini, et mellis silvestris, et humillimae vocis; unde dicitur fuit Ioannes in deserto. Ioannes enim, et Iesus quaerunt quod in deserto amissum est; ubi vicit Diabolus, ibi vincitur; ubi cecidit homo, ibi exurgit. Ioannes autem gratia Dei interpretatur; a gratia autem narratio incipit; Pseudo-Jerome: According to the above-mentioned prophecy of Isaiah, the way of the Lord is prepared by John, through faith, baptism, and penitence; the paths are made straight by the rough marks of the hair-cloth garment, the girdle of skin, the feeding on locusts and wild honey, and the most lowly voice; whence it is said, "John was in the wilderness." For John and Jesus seek what is lost in the wilderness; where the devil conquered, there he is conquered; where man fell, there he rises up.
Sequitur enim baptizans; per Baptismum enim gratia datur, qua peccata gratis dimittuntur. Quod autem consummatur per sponsum, initiatur per paranymphum: unde catechumeni, hoc est instructi, incipiunt per sacerdotem, et chrismantur per episcopum; et ad hoc designandum subditur et praedicans Baptismum poenitentiae in remissionem peccatorum. But the name, John, means the grace of God, and the narrative begins with grace. For it goes on to say, "baptizing." For by baptism grace is given, seeing that by baptism sins are freely remitted. But what is brought to perfection by the bridegroom is introduced by the friend of the bridegroom. Thus catechumens, (which word means persons instructed,) begin by the ministry of the priest, receive the chrism from the bishop [ed. note: "Chrismantur." Chrism in the Roman Church, was applied twice; at Baptism, and more solemnly to the forehead by the Bishop at Confirmation. In the Eastern Church, it was only given once, at Confirmation, and by the Bishop only. In the French Church, it was given once, usually at Baptism, by the Priest, but if for any reason omitted, by the Bishop at Confirmation, see Bingham, Antiq. b., xii, e. 2, 2]. And to shew this, it is subjoined, "And preaching the baptism of repentance, &c."
Beda. Liquet quia Ioannes Baptismum poenitentiae non solum praedicavit, verum etiam quibusdam dedit; sed Baptismum in remissionem peccatorum dare non potuit; remissio etenim peccatorum in solo Baptismo Christi nobis tribuitur. Dicitur ergo praedicans Baptismum poenitentiae in remissionem peccatorum: quoniam Baptismum quod peccata solveret, quia dare non poterat, praedicabat: ut sicut incarnatum verbum patris praecurrebat verbo praedicationis, ita Baptismum poenitentiae quo peccata solvuntur praecurreret suo Baptismate, quo peccata solvi non possunt. Bede: It is evident that John not only preached, but also gave to some the baptism of repentance; but he could not give baptism for the remission of sins [ed. note: vol 1, p. 97, note A]. For the remission of sins is only given to us by the baptism of Christ. It is therefore only said, "Preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;" for he "preached" a baptism which could remit sins, since he could not give it. Wherefore as he was the forerunner of the Incarnate Word of the Father, by the word of his preaching, so by his baptism, which could not remit sins, he preceded that baptism, [p. 11] of penitence, by which sins are remitted.
Theophylactus: Baptisma Ioannis non habebat remissionem peccatorum, sed poenitentiam solam afferebat hominibus: praedicabat ergo Baptisma poenitentiae, hoc est quo duceret Baptismus poenitentiae, nempe in remissionem peccatorum, ut hi qui poenitentiam agentes, Christum reciperent, remissionem reciperent peccatorum. Theophylact: The baptism of John had not remission of sins, but only brought men to penitence. He preached therefore the baptism of repentance, that is, he preached that to which the baptism of penitence led, namely, remission of sins, that they who in penitence received Christ, might receive Him to the remission of their sins.
Hieronymus: Per Ioannem autem sicut per amicum sponsi inducitur sponsa ad Christum, sicut per puerum Rebecca ad Isaac; unde Pseudo-Jerome: Now by John as by the bridegroom's friend, the bride is brought to Christ, as by a servant Rebecca was brought to Isaac [Gen 24:61]; wherefore
Sequitur et egrediebatur ad illum omnis Iudaea regio, et Hierosolymitae universi, et baptizabantur ab illo in Iordane flumine: confessio enim, et pulchritudo in conspectu eius. Scilicet sponsi. Desilit enim sponsa de camelo, cum humiliat se nunc Ecclesia viso viro Isaac, idest Iesu Christo. Iordanis autem descensio aliena interpretatur, ubi peccata abluuntur. Nos enim olim alienati a Deo per superbiam, per Baptismi symbolum humiliati erigimur in alta. there follows, "And there went out to him all, &c. For "confession and beauty are in his presence," [Ps 96:6] that is, the presence of the bridegroom. And the bride leaping down from her camel signifies the Church, who humbles herself on seeing her husband Isaac, that is, Christ. But the interpretation of Jordan, where sins are washed away, in 'an alien descent.' For we heretofore aliens to God by pride, are by the sign of Baptism made lowly, and thus exalted on high [ed. note: see St. Cyril of Jerus., Cat. xx, 4-7].
Beda: Exemplum autem hinc sumitur confitendi peccata, ac meliorem vitam promittendi, eis qui Baptisma desiderant, per hoc quod subditur confitentes peccata sua. Bede: An example of confessing their sins and of promising to lead a new life, is held out to those who desire to be baptized, by those words which follow, "confessing their sins."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quia vero Ioannes poenitentiam praedicabat, poenitentiae signa gerebat in vestitu et cibo; unde Chrys." Because indeed John preached repentance, he wore the marks of repentance in his garment and in his food.
Sequitur et erat Ioannes vestitus pilis camelorum. Wherefore there follow, "And John was clothed in camel's hair."
Beda: Pilis, inquit, vestitus, non lana. Aliud austerae vestis indicium est, aliud luxuriae est mollioris. Zona autem pellicea, qua accinctus fuit, ut Elias, mortificationis indicium est. Porro quod Bede: It says, clothed in a garment of hair, not in woollen clothes; the former is the mark of an austere garb, the latter of effeminate luxury. But the girdle of skins, with which he was girt, like Elias, is a mark of mortification.
Sequitur et locustas et mel silvestre edebat, habitatori solitudinis congruum est, ut non delicias ciborum, sed necessitatem humanae carnis expleret. And this meat, "locusts and wild honey," is suited to a dweller in the wilderness, so that his object in eating was not the deliciousness of meats, but the satisfying of the necessity of human flesh.
Hieronymus: Vestis autem Ioannis et cibus et potus totam austeram vitam praedicantium significat, et futuras gentes ad gratiam Dei, quae est Ioannes, intus et foris esse coniungendas: pilis enim cameli divites gentium significantur, et zona pellicea pauperes mundo mortui, et locustis errantibus sapientes huius mundi; qui stipulas Iudaeis aridas relinquentes, frumenta mystica curribus trahunt, et in calore fidei saltus in altum dant, et melle silvestri fideles inspirati de inculta silva saginantur. Pseudo-Jerome: The dress of John, his food, and employment, signifies the austere life of preachers, and that future nations are to be joined to the grace of God, which is John, both in their minds and in externals. For by camel's hair, is meant the rich among the nations; and by the girdle of skin, the poor, dead to the world; and by the wandering locusts, the wise men of this world; who, leaving the dry stalks to the Jews, draw off with their legs the mystic grain, and in the warmth of their [p. 12] faith leap up towards heaven; and the faithful, being inspired by the wild honey, are full-fed from the untilled wood.
Theophylactus: Vel aliter. Vestis de pilis camelorum doloris erat ostensivum, innuente Ioanne, quod poenitentem dolere oportet. Dolorem enim saccus significat, zona vero pellicea mortificationem Iudaici significat populi; esca autem Ioannis non solum abstinentiam notat, sed etiam est indicium spiritualis escae, qua tunc populus vescebatur, non quid altum intelligens, sed tamen in alta saliens, iterumque se deprimens: talis enim est locusta, in altum saliens, et iterum cadens. Sic igitur et melle quidem vescebatur populus quod erat ex apibus natum, scilicet ex prophetis, non tamen domesticum, sed silvestre: habebant enim Scripturas Hebraei, sicut mel quoddam; sed non bene intelligebant. Theophylact: Or else; The garment of "camel's hair" was significative of grief, for John pointed out, that he who repented should mourn. For sackcloth signifies grief; but the girdle of skins shews the dead state of the Jewish people. The food also of John not only denotes abstinence, but also shews forth the intellectual food, which the people then were eating, without understanding any thing lofty, but continually raising themselves on high, and again sinking to the earth. For such is the nature of locusts, leaping on high and again falling. In the same way the people ate honey, which had come from bees, that is, from the prophets; it was not however domestic, but wild, for the Jews had the Scriptures, which are as honey, but did not rightly understand them.
Gregorius Moralium: Vel ipsa ciborum specie designavit dominum quem praevenit qui, quia infructuosae gentilitatis dulcedinem sumpsit, mel silvestre edit; quia vero Iudaeorum plebem in suo corpore ex parte convertit, in cibo locustas accepit, quae subito saltus dantes, protinus ad terram cadunt. Saltus enim Iudaei dabant, cum praecepta domini se implere promitterent; sed ad terram cadebant, cum per prava opera hoc se audisse denegarent. Habebant ergo saltum per vocem et casum per actionem. Gregory, Moral., xxxi, 25: Or, by the kind itself of his food he pointed out the Lord, of whom he was the forerunner; for in that our Lord took to Himself the sweetness of the barren Gentiles, he ate wild honey. In that He in His own person partly converted the Jews, He received locusts for His food, which suddenly leaping up, at once fall to the ground. For the Jews leaped up when they promised to fulfil the precepts of the Lord; but they fell to the ground when, by their evil works, they affirmed that they had not heard them. They made therefore a leap upwards in words, and fell down by their actions.
Beda: Potest etiam habitus, et victus Ioannis qualitatem internae conversationis eius exprimere: namque austerioribus utebatur indumentis, quia vitam peccantium non blandimentis fovit, sed vigore asperae invectionis increpavit: zonam pelliceam habebat circa lumbos, quia carnem suam crucifixit cum vitiis et concupiscentiis; locustas et mel silvestre edebat, quia dulce quiddam sapiebat turbis praedicatio eius, existimante populo ne ipse esset Christus; sed potius finem sortita est, intelligentibus eius auditoribus quia non ipse Christus, sed praecursor, et propheta esset Christi. In melle etenim dulcedo, in locustis est alacer volatus; unde Bede: The dress and food of John may also express of what kind was his inward walk. For he used a dress more austere than was usual, because he did not encourage the life of sinners by flattery, but chid them by the vigour of his rough rebuke; he had a girdle of skin round his loins, for he was one, "who crucified his flesh with the affections and lusts." [Gal 5:24] He used to eat locusts and wild honey, because his preaching had some sweetness for the multitude, whilst the people debated whether he was the Christ himself or not; but this soon came to an end, when his hearers understood that he was not the Christ, but the forerunner and prophet of Christ. For in honey there is sweetness, in locusts swiftness of flight.
Sequitur et praedicabat dicens: veniet fortior me post me. Whence there follows, "And he preached, saying, there cometh one mightier [p. 13] than I after me."
Glossa: Hoc dicebat ad removendum turbae opinionem, quae eum Christum esse credebat; fortiorem autem Christum esse praenuntiat, qui remissurus erat peccata, quod ipse facere non valebat. Gloss.: He said this to do away with the opinion of the crowd, who thought that he was the Christ; but he announces that Christ is "mightier than he," he was to remit sins, which he himself could not do.
Hieronymus Quis etiam fortior est gratia qua abluuntur peccata, quam Ioannes significat? Ille nimirum qui septies et septuagies dimittit peccata. Gratia quidem prior est, sed semel dimittit peccata per Baptismum; misericordia vero ad miseros ab Adam usque ad Christum per septuaginta septem generationes, et usque ad centum quadraginta quatuor millia pervenit. Pseudo-Jerome: Who again is mightier than the grace, by which sins are washed away, which John signifies? He who seven times and seventy times seven remits sins [Matt 18:22]. Grace indeed comes first, but remits sins once only by baptism, but mercy reaches to the wretched from Adam up to Christ through seventy-seven generations, and up to one hundred and forty-four thousand.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Ne autem aestimaretur hoc secundum comparationem sui ad Christum dicere, subiungit cuius non sum dignus procumbens solvere corrigiam calceamentorum eius. Non est autem idem solvere corrigiam calceamentorum eius, quod hic Marcus dicit, et calceamenta portare, quod dicit Matthaeus. Et quidem narrationis ordinem prosequentes Evangelistae, nec in aliquo fallentes, dicunt utrumque Ioannem dixisse secundum alterum sensum; commentantes vero circa hoc differenter exposuerunt unumquodque: corrigiam enim vocant ligamen calceamentorum. Ad excellentiam igitur potestatis Christi, et divinitatis magnitudinem extollendam hoc dicit, ac si diceret: neque in ministri ordine deputari sufficiens sum. Magnum enim est in his quae sunt corporis Christi quasi procumbendo inferius attendere, et imaginem supernorum inferius videre, et solvere unumquodque inexplicabilium quae sunt circa mysterium incarnationis. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But lest he should be thought to say this by way of comparing himself to Christ, he subjoins, "Of whom I am not worthy, &c." It is not however the same thing to loose the shoe-latchet, which Mark here says, and to carry his shoes, which Matthew says. And indeed the Evangelists following the order of the narrative, and not able to err in any thing, say that John spoke each of these sayings in a different sense. But commentators on this passage have expounded each in a different way. For he means by the latchet, the tie of the shoe. He says this therefore to extol the excellence of the power of Christ, and the greatness of His divinity; as if he said, Not even in the station of his servant am I worthy to be reckoned. For it is a great thing to contemplate, as it were stooping down, those things which belong to the body of Christ, and to see from below the image of things above, and to untie each of those mysteries, about the Incarnation of Christ, which cannot be unravelled.
Hieronymus: Calceamentum enim in extrema parte corporis est: in fine enim ad iustitiam est salvator incarnatus: unde per prophetam dicitur: in Idumaeam extendam calceamentum meum. Pseudo-Jerome: The shoe is in the extremity of the body; for in the end the Incarnate Saviour is coming for justice, whence it is said by the prophet, "Over Edom will I cast out my shoe." [Ps 60:9]
Gregorius in Evang: Calceamenta etiam ex mortuis animalibus fiunt. Incarnatus ergo dominus veniens quasi calceatus apparuit, qui in divinitate sua morticina nostrae corruptionis assumpsit. Vel aliter. Mos apud veteres fuit, ut si quis eam quae sibi competeret accipere uxorem nollet, ille ei calceamentum solveret qui ad hanc sponsus iure propinquitatis veniret. Recte ergo se indignum esse ad solvendam corrigiam calceamenti eius denuntiat; ac si aperte dicat: ego redemptoris vestigia denudare non valeo, quia sponsi nomen mihi immeritus non usurpo. Gregory: Shoes also are made from the skins of dead animals. The Lord, therefore, coming incarnate, appeared as it were with shoes on His feet, for He assumed in His divinity the dead skins of our corruption. Or else; it was a custom among the ancients, that if a man refused to take as his wife the woman whom he ought to take, he who offered himself as her husband by right of kindred took off that man's shoe. Rightly then does he proclaim himself unworthy to loose his shoe-latchet, as if he said openly, I cannot [p. 14] make bare the feet of the Redeemer, for I usurp not the name of the Bridegroom, a thing which is above my deserts.
Theophylactus: Intelligitur vero etiam sic. Omnes qui veniebant, et a Ioanne baptizabantur, per poenitentiam solvebantur a ligamine peccatorum in Christum credendo. Igitur omnium aliorum Ioannes sic solvebat corrigiam, idest vinculum peccatorum: Iesu vero non valuit corrigiam solvere, quia non invenit in eo peccatum. Theophylact: Some persons also understand it thus; all who came to John, and were baptized, through penitence were loosed from the bands of their sins by believing in Christ. John then in this way loosed the shoe-latchet of all the others, that is, the bands of sin. But Christ's shoe-latchet he was not able to unloose, because he found no sin in Him.
Beda: Sic ergo Ioannes dominum non adhuc manifeste dominum aut Dei filium, sed tantum virum se fortiorem praedicat. Non enim rudes adhuc auditores tanti capiebant arcana sacramenti, quod filius Dei aeternus, homine assumpto ex virgine, denuo natus esset in mundum: sed paulatim per agnitionem glorificatae humilitatis introducendi erant ad fidem divinae aeternitatis: quibus tamen latenter Deum hunc esse verum declarans subdit ego baptizo vos in aqua, ille vero baptizabit vos in spiritu sancto. Cui enim dubium est nullum posse alium gratiam spiritus sancti nisi Deum dare? Bede: Thus then John proclaims the Lord not yet as God, or the Son of God, but only as a man mightier than himself. For his ignorant hearers were not yet capable of receiving the hidden things of so great a Sacrament, that the eternal Son of God, having taken upon Him the nature of man, had been lately born into the world of a virgin; but gradually by the acknowledgment of His glorified lowliness, they were to be introduced to the belief of His Divine Eternity. To these words, however, he subjoins, as if covertly declaring that he was the true God, "I baptize you with water, but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost." For who can doubt that none other but God can give the grace of the Holy Ghost.
Hieronymus: Quid enim interest inter aquam et spiritum sanctum qui ferebatur super aquas? Aqua ministerium est hominis, spiritus vero mysterium Dei est. Jerome: For what is the difference between water and the Holy Ghost, who was borne over the face of the waters? Water is the ministry of man; but the Spirit is ministered by God.
Beda: Baptizamur autem a domino in spiritu sancto, non solum cum in die Baptismatis fonte vitae in remissionem peccatorum abluimur, verum etiam quotidie per gratiam eiusdem spiritus ad agenda quae Deo placent accendimur. Bede: Now we are baptized by the Lord in the Holy Ghost, not only when in the day of our baptism, we are washed in the fount of life, to the remission of our sins, but also daily by the grace of the same Spirit we are inflamed, to do those things which please God.

Lectio 4
9 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ ναζαρὲτ τῆς γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐβαπτίσθη εἰς τὸν ἰορδάνην ὑπὸ ἰωάννου. 10 καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν: 11 καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν, σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα.
9. And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan. 10. And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him: 11. And there came a voice from heaven, saying, "Thou art My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

Hieronymus: Marcus Evangelista, sicut cervus ad fontes aquarum desiderans, saltus in planis et arduis dat, et velut apis melliflua flores summatim degustat; unde a Nazareth venientem Iesum enarravit dicens et factum est in diebus illis, venit Iesus a Nazareth Galilaeae, et baptizatus est a Ioanne in Iordane. Pseudo-Jerome: Mark the Evangelist, like a hart, longing [p. 15] after the fountains of water, leaps forward over places, smooth and steep; and, as a bee laden with honey, he sips the tops of the flowers. Wherefore he hath shewn us in his narrative Jesus coming from Nazareth, saying, "And it came to pass in those days, &c."
Chrysostomus: Alterum siquidem Baptisma ordinans, ad Ioannis venit Baptisma; quod respectu sui Baptismi incompletum erat, a Iudaico vero Baptismate alienum, tamquam in amborum medio existens, ut per Baptismi naturam ostendat, quia non in peccati remissionem baptizatur, aut quasi indigens spiritus sancti acceptione: his enim ambobus Baptisma Ioannis carebat. Baptizatus est autem ut notus omnibus fieret, et in eum crederent; et ad implendum omnem iustitiam, quae est observatio mandatorum: mandatum siquidem erat hominibus Baptismum subire prophetae. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Forasmuch as He was ordaining a new baptism, He came to the baptism of John, which, in respect of His own baptism, was incomplete, but different from the Jewish baptism, as being between both. He did this that He might shew, by the nature of His baptism, that He was not baptized for the remission of sins, nor as wanting the reception of the Holy Ghost: for the baptism of John was destitute of both these. But He was baptized that He might be made known to all, that they might believe on Him and "fulfil all righteousness," which is "keeping of the commandments:" for it has been commanded to men that they should submit to the Prophet's baptism.
Beda: Baptizatus est, et ut Baptismate suo Ioannis Baptisma comprobaretur, et ut Iordanis aquam sanctificans, per descensionem columbae, spiritus sancti in lavacro credentium monstraret adventum; unde Bede, in Marc., i, 4: He was baptized, that by being baptized Himself He might shew His approval of John's baptism [ed. note: vol i, pl 109, note h], and that, by sanctifying the waters of Jordan through the descent of the dove, He might shew the coming of the Holy Ghost in the laver of believers.
Sequitur et statim ascendens de aqua, vidit apertos caelos, et spiritum sanctum tamquam columbam descendentem, et manentem in ipso. Aperiuntur autem caeli non reseratione elementorum, sed spiritualibus oculis, quibus Ezechiel in principio voluminis sui eos apertos esse commemorat. Hoc autem, quod apertos caelos post Baptisma vidit, nostri utique gratia factum est, quibus per lavacrum regenerationis ianua panditur regni caelestis. Whence there follows, "And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Holy Spirit like a dove descending, and resting upon him." But the heavens are opened, not by the unclosing of the elements, but to the eyes of the spirit, to which Ezekiel in the beginning of his book relates that they were opened; or that His seeing the heavens opened after baptism was done for our sakes, to whom the door of the kingdom of heaven is opened by the laver of regeneration.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Vel ut de caelis hominibus sanctificatio tribuatur, ac terrena caelestibus coniungantur. Spiritus autem sanctus super eum descendisse dicitur, non tamquam tunc primum ad eum accesserit (non enim ab eo umquam fuerat derelictus), sed ut ostenderet Christum qui a Ioanne praedicabatur, tamquam digito quodam fidei omnibus demonstratum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else, that from heaven sanctification might be given to men, and earthly things be joined to heavenly. But the Holy Spirit is said to have descended upon Him, not as if He then first came to Him, for He never had left Him; but that He might shew forth the Christ, Who was preached by John, and point Him out to all, as it were by the finger of faith.
Beda: Quod etiam in Baptismum descendere visus est spiritus sanctus, signum erat conferendae nobis in Baptismo gratiae spiritualis. Bede: This event also, in which the Holy Ghost was seen to come down upon baptism, was a sign of spiritual grace to be given to us in baptism.
Hieronymus: Haec est unctio Christi secundum carnem, scilicet spiritus sanctus, de qua dicitur: unxit te Deus Deus tuus oleo laetitiae prae consortibus tuis. Pseudo-Jerome: But this is the anointing of Christ according to [p. 16] the flesh, namely, the Holy Ghost, of which anointing it is said, "God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." [Ps 45:7]
Beda: Bene autem in specie columbae descendit spiritus sanctus, quod multum simplex est animal, atque a malitia fellis alienum, ut figurate nobis insinuaret quia simplicia corda quaerit, nec habitare dignatur in mentibus impiis. Bede: Well indeed in the shape of a dove did the Holy Ghost come down, for it is an animal of great simplicity, and far removed from the malice of gall, that in a figure He might shew us that He looks out for simple hearts, and deigns not to dwell in the minds of the wicked.
Hieronymus: In specie etiam columbae spiritus sanctus descendit, quia in cantico de Ecclesia canitur: sponsa mea, amica mea, dilecta mea, columba mea. Sponsa in patriarchis, amica in prophetis, proxima in Ioseph, et mea dilecta in Ioanne Baptista, columba in Christo et apostolis, quibus dicitur: estote prudentes sicut serpentes, et simplices sicut columbae. Pseudo-Jerome: Again, the Holy Ghost came down in the shape of a dove, because in the Canticles it is sung of the Church: "My bride, my love, my beloved, my dove." "Bride" in the Patriarchs, "love" in the Prophets, "near of kin" in Joseph and Mary, "beloved" in John the Baptist, "dove" in Christ and His Apostles: to whom it is said, "Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." [Matt. 10:16]
Beda: Sedit autem columba super caput Iesu, ne quis putaret vocem patris ad Ioannem factam, non ad dominum. Bene autem addidit manentem in ipso: hoc enim est Christo speciale ut implens eum semel spiritus sanctus nunquam recedat. Nam fidelibus eius ad signa virtutum, et miracula facienda aliquando gratia spiritus confertur, aliquando tollitur; quibus tamen ad operationem pietatis et iustitiae, ad amorem Dei et proximi conservandum numquam gratia spiritus abest. Ipsum autem qui baptizandus cum aliis ad Ioannem venit, verum esse filium Dei in spiritu sancto baptizare volentem vox patris docuit; unde Bede: Now the Dove sat on the head of Jesus, lest any one should think that the voice of the Father was addressed to John and not to Christ. And well did he add, "abiding on Him;" for this is peculiar to Christ, that the Holy Ghost once filling Him should never leave Him. For sometimes to His faithful disciples the grace of the Spirit is conferred for signs of virtue, and for the working of miracles, sometimes it is taken away; though for the working of piety and righteousness, for the preservation of love to God and to one's neighbour, the grace of the Spirit is never absent. But the voice of the Father shewed that He Himself, who came to John to be baptized with the other, was the very Son of God, willing to baptize with the Holy Spirit,
Sequitur et vox facta est de caelis: tu es filius meus dilectus, in te complacui. Non autem per hoc ipse filius quod nesciebat docetur; sed nobis quid credere debeamus ostenditur. whence there follows, "And there came a voice from heaven, Thou art my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased." Not that this informed the Son Himself of a thing of which He was ignorant, but it shews to us what we ought to believe.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Unde Matthaeus ait dictum esse: filius meus dilectus, quia ostendere voluit ad id valere quod dictum est: hic est filius meus, ut illis potius qui audiebant indicaretur, quod ipse filius esset Dei. Si autem quaeris quid horum in illa voce sonuerit; quodlibet accipe, dummodo intelligas eos qui non eamdem locutionem retulerunt, eamdem retulisse sententiam. Quod autem Deus in filio sibi placuisse videatur, admonemur ex eo quod dictum est in te complacui. Augustine, de Con. Ev., ii, 14: Wherefore Matthew relates that the voice said, "This is my beloved Son;" for he wished to shew that the words, "This is My Son," were in fact said, that thus the persons who heard it might know that He, and not another, was the Son of God. But if you ask which of these two sounded forth in that voice, take which you will, only remember, that the Evangelists, though not relating the same form of speaking, relate the same meaning. And that God delighted Himself in His Son, we are reminded in these words, "In [p. 17] thee I am well pleased."
Beda: Nos quoque vox eadem docuit per aquam ablutionis, et spiritum sanctificationis Dei posse filios effici; mysterium etiam Trinitatis in Baptismate demonstratur. Filius baptizatur, spiritus descendit in specie columbae, patris vox filio testimonium perhibentis auditur. Bede: The same voice has taught us, that we also, by the water of cleansing, and by the Spirit of sanctification, may be made the sons of God. The mystery of the Trinity also is shewn forth in the baptism; the Son is baptized, the Spirit comes down in the shape of a dove, the voice of the Father bearing witness to the Son is heard.
Hieronymus: Moraliter et nos de volubilitate mundi, odore florum, et munditie tracti, cum adolescentulis post sponsum currimus, et Baptismi sacramento de duobus fontibus dilectionis Dei et proximi, gratia remissionis abluimur, et ascendentes spe caelestia secreta mundi cordis oculis intuemur. Dehinc spiritum sanctum spiritu contrito et humiliato cum simplici corde descendentem ad mansuetos, et cum caritate numquam cadente manentem suscipimus. Et vox domini de caelis ad nos a Deo dilectos dirigitur: beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur, et tunc in nobis complacet pater cum filio, et spiritu sancto, quando efficimur unus spiritus cum Deo. Pseudo-Jerome: Morally also it may be interpreted; we also, drawn aside from the fleeting world by the smell and purity of flowers, run with the young maidens after the bridegroom, and are washed in the sacrament of baptism, from the two fountains of the love of God, and of our neighbour, by the grace of remission, and mounting up by hope gaze upon heavenly mysteries with the eyes of a clean heart. Then we receive in a contrite and lowly spirit, with simplicity of heart, the Holy Spirit, who comes down to the meek, and abides in us, by the never-failing charity. And the voice of the Lord from heaven is directed to us the beloved of God; "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the sons of God;" [Matt. 5:9] and then the Father, with the Son and the Holy Spirit, is well-pleased with us, when we are made one spirit with God.

Lectio 5
12 καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον. 13 καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρας πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ σατανᾶ, καὶ ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ.
12. And immediately the spirit driveth Him into the wilderness. 13. And He was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto Him.

Chrysostomus in Matth: Quia Christus omnia ad doctrinam nostram operabatur, et sustinebat, incepit post Baptismum ab eremi habitatione, et pugnavit contra Diabolum, ut unusquisque baptizatorum tentationes maiores patienter sustineat post Baptismum, nec turbetur tamquam praeter spem hoc contingente, sed omnia sustinens maneat triumphator. Etsi enim Deus permittat tentationes fieri multis aliis modis, ob hoc etiam permittit, ut cognoscas quod homo tentatus in maiori honore constituitur: non enim accedit Diabolus nisi ubi aliquem in maiori honore viderit constitutum; et ideo dicitur et statim expulit eum spiritus in desertum. Propter hoc autem non ostendit eum simpliciter euntem in desertum, sed expulsum, ut hoc intelligas fieri iuxta divinae dispositionis verbum: per quod etiam innuit ne homo seipsum in tentationem ingerat, sed aliunde in tentationem quasi expulsos victores existere. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., xiii: Because all that Christ did and suffered was for our teaching, He began after His baptism to dwell in the wilderness, and fought against the devil, that every baptized person might patiently sustain greater temptations after His baptism, nor be troubled, as if this which happened to Him was contrary to His expectation, but might bear up against all things, and come off conqueror. For although God allows that we should be tempted for many other reasons, yet for this cause also He allows it, that we may know, that man when tempted is placed in a station of greater honour. For the Devil approaches not save where he has [p. 18] beheld one set in a place of greater honour; and therefore it is said, "And immediately the Spirit drove Him into the wilderness." And the reason why He does not simply say that He went into the wilderness, but was driven, is that thou mayest understand that it was done according to the word of Divine Providence. By which also He shews that no man should thrust himself into temptation, but that those who from some other state are as it were driven into temptation, remain conquerors.
Beda: Verum ne cui veniret in dubium a quo eum spiritu expulsum diceret in desertum, consulte Lucas primo posuit quod Iesus plenus spiritu sancto regressus est a Iordane; ac deinde intulit: et agebatur a spiritu in desertum, ne quid contra eum valuisse spiritus putaretur immundus qui plenus spiritu sancto, quo volebat digrediens, quae volebat agebat. Bede, in Marc., 1, 5: And that no one might doubt, by what spirit he said that Christ was driven into the wilderness, Luke has on purpose premised, that "Jesus being full of the Spirit returned from Jordan, " and then has added, "and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness;" lest the evil spirit should be thought to have any power over Him, who, being full of the Holy Spirit, departed whither He was willing to go, and did what He was willing to do.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Expulit autem eum spiritus in desertum: quia enim Diabolum ad tentandum provocare proponebat, non solum fame, sed etiam loco occasionem dedit: tunc enim maxime Diabolus se ingerit, cum videt aliquos solitarios permanentes. Chrys., in Matt., Hom., xiii: But the Spirit drove Him into the wilderness, because He designed to provoke the devil to tempt Him, and thus gave Him an opportunity not only by hunger, but also by the place. For then most of all does the devil thrust himself in, when he sees men remaining solitary.
Beda: Secedit etiam in desertum, ut nos doceat relictis mundi illecebris, et societate pravorum, divinis per omnia servire mandatis. Tentatur solus a Diabolo, ut nobis insinuet, quia omnes qui volunt pie vivere in Christo, persecutiones patiuntur; unde Bede: But He retires into the desert that He may teach us that, leaving the allurements of the world, and the company of the wicked, we should in all things obey the Divine commands. He is left alone and tempted by the devil, that He might teach us, "that all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution;" [2 Tim 3:12]
Sequitur et erat in deserto quadraginta diebus, et quadraginta noctibus, et tentabatur a Satana. Tentatur autem quadraginta diebus, et quadraginta noctibus, ut indicet quia quamdiu hic viventes domino servimus, sive prospera blandiantur, quod ad dies pertinet, seu adversa fiant, quod noctis figurae congruit, toto tempore adversarius adsit, qui iter nostrum tentando impedire non cessat: quadraginta enim dies et noctes totum huius saeculi tempus insinuant: quia quadripartitus est mundus, in quo domino famulamur; decem vero sunt praecepta per quorum observantiam contra hostem certamus; decem autem quater ducta, quadraginta fiunt. But He was tempted forty days and forty nights that He might shew us that as long as we live here and serve God, whether prosperity smile upon us, which is meant by the day, or adversity smite us, which agrees with the figure of night, at all times our adversary is at hand, who ceases not to trouble our way by temptations. Whence it follows, "And He was in the wilderness forty days and forty nights, and was tempted of Satan." For "the forty days and forty nights" imply the whole time of this world, for the globe in which we are serving God is divided into four quarters. Again, there are Ten Commandments, by observing which we fight against our enemy, but four times ten are forty. [p. 19]
Sequitur eratque cum bestiis. There follows, "and He was with the wild beasts."
Chrysostomus: Hoc autem dicit ut ostendat quale erat desertum: invium enim erat hominibus, et bestiis plenum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But He says this to shew of what nature was the wilderness, for it was impassable by man and full of wild beasts.
Sequitur et Angeli ministrabant ei. Post tentationem enim, et victoriam contra Diabolum, operatus est hominum salutem. Et sicut apostolus dicit: Angeli in ministerium mittuntur propter eos qui hereditatem capiunt salutis. Notandumque est, quod vincenti tentationem assistunt Angeli ministrantes. It goes on; "and angels ministered unto Him." For after temptation, and a victory against the devil, He worked the salvation of man. And thus the Apostle says, "Angels are sent to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation." [Heb 1:14] We must also observe, that to those who conquer in temptation angels stand near and minister.
Beda: Considerandum etiam, quod Christus inter bestias commoratur ut homo, sed ministerio utitur angelico ut Deus. Et nos cum in eremo sanctae conversationis bestiales hominum mores impolluta mente toleramus, ministerium Angelorum meremur; a quibus corpore absoluti ad aeternam beatitudinem transferemur. Bede: Consider also that Christ dwells among the wild beasts as man, but, as God, uses the ministry of Angels. Thus, when in the solitude of a holy life we bear with unpolluted mind the bestial manners of men, we merit to have the ministry of Angels, by whom, when freed from the body, we shall be transferred to everlasting happiness.
Hieronymus: Vel tunc bestiae pacatae nobiscum sunt, sicut in arca animalia munda cum immundis, cum caro non concupiscit adversus spiritum; post hoc Angeli ministri mittuntur nobis, ut responsa et solatia cordibus vigilantibus dent. Pseudo-Jerome: Or then the beasts dwell with us in peace, as in the ark clean animals with the unclean, when the flesh lusts not against the spirit. After this, ministering Angels are sent to us, that they may give answers and comforts to hearts that watch.

Lectio 6
14 μετὰ δὲ τὸ παραδοθῆναι τὸν ἰωάννην ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν γαλιλαίαν κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ 15 καὶ λέγων ὅτι πεπλήρωται ὁ καιρὸς καὶ ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ: μετανοεῖτε καὶ πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ.
14. Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the Gospel of the kingdom of God, 15. And saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the Gospel."

Chrysostomus: Marcus Evangelista Matthaeum in ordine
Sequitur; et ideo postquam dixit Angelos ministrare, subiungit postquam autem traditus est Ioannes, venit Iesus in Galilaeam. Post tentationes, et Angelos ministrantes recedit in Galilaeam, instruens nos non resistere violentiis malignorum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The Evangelist Mark follows Matthew in his order, and therefore after having said that Angels minister, he subjoins, "But after that John was put into prison, Jesus came, &c." After the temptation and the ministry of Angels, He goes back into Galilee, teaching us not to resist the violence of evil men.
Theophylactus: Et ut ostendat nobis quod in persecutionibus decet recedere, et non expectare; cum vero inciderimus, decet sustinere. Theophylact: And to shew us that in persecutions we ought to retire, and not to await them; but when we fall into them, we must sustain them.
Chrysostomus: Recessit etiam ut ad doctrinam et sanationes seipsum conservaret priusquam pateretur; hisque omnibus adimpletis, fieret obediens usque ad mortem. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He retired also that He might keep Himself for teaching and for healing, before He suffered, and after fulfilling all these things, might become obedient unto death.
Beda: Ioanne tradito, recte incipit dominus praedicare; unde
Sequitur praedicans Evangelium regni Dei. Desinente enim lege, consequenter oritur Evangelium. Bede: John being put in prison, fitly does the Lord begin to preach: wherefore there follows, "Preaching the Gospel, &c." For when the Law ceases, the Gospel arises in its steps. [p. 20]
Hieronymus: Cessante umbra, adest veritas; Ioannes in carcere, lex in Iudaea, Iesus in Galilaea, Paulus in gentibus praedicans Evangelium regni. Regno enim terreno succedit paupertas, paupertati Christianorum regnum tribuitur sempiternum. Honor autem terrenus spumae aquae, vel fumo, vel somnio comparatur. Pseudo-Jerome: When the shadow ceases, the truth comes on; first, John in prison, the Law in Judaea; then, Jesus in Galilee, Paul among the Gentiles preaching the Gospel of the kingdom. For to an earthly kingdom succeeds poverty, to the poverty of Christians is given an everlasting kingdom; but earthly honour is like the foam of water, or smoke, or sleep.
Beda: Nemo autem putet traditionem Ioannis in carcerem statim post ieiunium quadraginta dierum domini factam; quisquis enim Evangelium Ioannis legerit, inveniet dominum ante traditionem Ioannis multa docuisse, et multa miracula fecisse: habes enim in Evangelio ipsius: hoc fecit initium signorum Iesus; et postea: necdum enim erat missus Ioannes in carcerem. Fertur autem quia cum legisset Ioannes Matthaei, Marci et Lucae volumina, probaverit quidem textum historiae, et vera eos dixisse firmaverit, sed unius tantum anni, in quo et passus est, post carcerem Ioannis, historiam texuisse. Praetermisso itaque anno cuius acta a tribus exposita fuerant, superioris temporis, antequam clauderetur Ioannes in carcere, gesta narravit. Cum ergo dixisset Marcus, quia venit Iesus in Galilaeam, praedicans Evangelium regni, subiungit, dicens quoniam impletum est tempus, et appropinquabit regnum Dei. Bede: Let no one, however, suppose that the putting of John in prison took place immediately after the forty days' temptation and the fast of the Lord; for whosoever reads the Gospel of John will find, that the Lord taught many things before the putting of John in prison, and also did many miracles; for you have in his Gospel, "This beginning of miracles did Jesus;" [John 2:11] and afterwards, "for John was not yet cast into prison." [John 3:24] Now it is said that when John read the books of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, he approved indeed the text of the history, and affirmed that they had spoken truth, but said that they had composed the history of only one year after John was cast into prison, in which year also he suffered. Passing over then the year of which the transactions had been published by the three others, he related the events of the former period, before John was cast into prison. When therefore Mark had said that "Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the Gospel of the kingdom," he subjoins, "saying, Since the time is fulfilled, &c."
Chrysostomus: Siquidem completo tempore, quando scilicet venit plenitudo temporis, misitque Deus filium suum, conveniens fuit humanum genus ultimam consequi Dei dispensationem: et ideo dicit, quod appropinquabit regnum Dei.
Regnum autem Dei idem est secundum substantiam cum regno caelorum, quamvis differt ratione: regnum enim Dei intelligitur quo Deus regnat; hoc vero est in regione viventium, quando facie ad faciem Deum videntes, in bonis promissis existent. Sive amorem quis velit suscipere illam regionem, sive aliquam aliam confirmationem eorum qui imaginem induunt supernorum, quae per caelos intelliguntur. Satis enim apparens est quod regnum Dei neque loco, neque tempore concluditur.
Pseudo-Chrys., vict. Ant. Cat. in Marc.: Since then the time was fulfilled, "when the fulness of times was come, and God sent His son," it was fitting that the race of man should obtain the last dispensation of God. And therefore he says, "for the kingdom of heaven is at hand."
Origen, in Matt., tom. x, 14: But the kingdom of God is essentially the same as the kingdom of heaven, though they differ in idea. [ed. note: see Origen, de Orat. 25, 26 in Matt. t 12.14 (?)] For by the kingdom of God is to be understood that in which God reigns; and this in truth is in the region of the living, where, seeing God face to face, they will abide in the good things now promised to them; whether by this region one chooses to understand Love, or some other confirmation [ed. note: By 'confirmation,' seems to be meant the perfecting of spiritual natures; see Thomas Aq., Summa Theologica, part 1, Q62, Art 1. It answers to (greek word) as used by St. Basil; de Sp. S 16] of those who put on the likeness of things [p. 21] above, which are signified by the heavens. [ed. note: "Coeli" is commonly interpreted of the Angels, by the Fathers.] For it is clear [ed. note: see Chrys., in Matt., Hom. 19 in c. 6,9] enough that the kingdom of God is confined neither by place nor by time.
Theophylactus: Vel completum esse dicit dominus tempus legis; quasi diceret: usque ad tempus praesens operabatur lex; amodo operabitur regnum Dei, quod est secundum Evangelium conversatio, quae convenienter assimilatur regno caelorum. Cum enim vides aliquem carne indutum secundum Evangelium vivere, numquid non dices, quoniam iste habet regnum caelorum? Quod non est esca, et potus; sed iustitia, et pax, et gaudium in spiritu sancto. Theophylact: Or else, the Lord means that the time of the Law is complete; as if He said, Up to this time the Law was at work; from this time the kingdom of God will work, that is, a conversation according to the Gospel, which is with reason likened to the kingdom of heaven. For when you see a man clothed in flesh living according to the Gospel, do you not say that he has the kingdom of heaven, which "is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost?" [Rom 14:17]
Sequitur poenitemini. The next word is, "Repent."
Hieronymus: Poenitentiam enim agit qui vult aeterno bono, scilicet regno Dei, adhaerere. Qui enim desiderat nucleum, frangit nucem. Amaritudinem radicis, dulcedo pomi compensat; periculum maris, spes lucri delectat; dolorem medicinae, spes salutis mitigat. Praeconia autem Christi illi narrare digne possunt qui ad palmam indulgentiae meruerunt pervenire: et ideo postquam dixit poenitemini, subiunxit et credite Evangelio; nam nisi credideritis, non intelligetis.
Poenitemini igitur, et credite; idest, renuntiate operibus mortuis: quid enim prodest credere sine bonis operibus? Non tamen bonorum operum meritum adducit ad fidem; sed fides incipit, ut bona opera consequantur.
Pseudo-Jerome: For he must repent, who would keep close to eternal good, that is, to the kingdom of God. For he who would have the kernel, breaks the shell; the sweetness of the apple makes up for the bitterness of its root; the hope of gain makes the dangers of the sea pleasant; the hope of health takes away from the painfulness of medicine. They are able worthily to proclaim the preaching of Christ who have deserved to attain to the reward of forgiveness; and therefore after He has said, "Repent," He subjoins, "and believe the Gospel." For unless ye have believed, ye shall not understand.

Bede: "Repent," therefore, "and believe;" that is, renounce dead works; for of what use is believing without good works? The merit of good works does not, however, bring to faith, but faith begins, that good works may follow.


Lectio 7
16 καὶ παράγων παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς γαλιλαίας εἶδεν σίμωνα καὶ ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν σίμωνος ἀμφιβάλλοντας ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ: ἦσαν γὰρ ἁλιεῖς. 17 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καὶ ποιήσω ὑμᾶς γενέσθαι ἁλιεῖς ἀνθρώπων. 18 καὶ εὐθὺς ἀφέντες τὰ δίκτυα ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ. 19 καὶ προβὰς ὀλίγον εἶδεν ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ ζεβεδαίου καὶ ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ καταρτίζοντας τὰ δίκτυα, 20 καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς. καὶ ἀφέντες τὸν πατέρα αὐτῶν ζεβεδαῖον ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ μετὰ τῶν μισθωτῶν ἀπῆλθον ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ.
16. Now as He walked by the sea of Galilee, He saw Simon, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishers. 17. And Jesus said unto them, "Come ye after Me, and I will make you to become fishers of men." 18. And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed Him. 19. And when He had gone a little farther thence, He saw James, the son of Zebedee, and John, his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets. 20. And straightway He called them: and they [p. 22] left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after Him.

Glossa: Posita praedicatione Christi ad turbas, agit Evangelista de vocatione discipulorum, quos fecit suae praedicationis ministros; unde
Sequitur et praeteriens secus mare Galilaeae, vidit Simonem, et Andream fratrem eius. Gloss.: The Evangelist, having mentioned the preaching of Christ to the multitude, goes on to the calling of the disciples, whom He made ministers of His preaching, whence it follows, "And passing along the sea of Galilee, &c."
Theophylactus: Sicut Ioannes Evangelista refert, praecursoris erant discipuli Petrus et Andreas. Videntes vero quod Ioannes de Iesu testimonium dederat, adiuncti sunt ei; post haec dolentes, quia Ioannes traditus erat, ad artem propriam sunt reversi; unde Theophylact: As the Evangelist John relates, Peter and Andrew were disciples of the Forerunner, but seeing that John had borne witness to Jesus, they joined themselves to him; afterwards, grieving that John had been cast into prison, they returned to their trade.
Sequitur mittentes retia in mare: erant enim piscatores. Vide autem eos de laboribus propriis enutritos, et non ex iniquitate: tales enim digni erant Christi primi discipuli fieri; unde subditur et dixit eis Iesus: venite post me. Nunc secundo illos vocat: est enim haec secunda vocatio respectu illius quae legitur in Ioanne. Ad quid autem vocentur, ostenditur cum subditur faciam vos fieri piscatores hominum. Wherefore there follows, "casting nets into the sea, for they were fishers." Look then upon them, living on their own labours, not on the fruits of iniquity; for such men were worthy to become the first disciples of Christ; whence it is subjoined, "And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after Me." Now He calls them for the second time; for this is the second calling in respect of that, of which we read in John. But it is shewn to what they were called, when it is added, "I will make you become fishers of men."
Remigius: Quia per rete sanctae praedicationis, pisces, idest homines, de profundo pelagi, idest infidelitatis, ad lucem fidei traxerunt. Admiranda autem est ista piscatio. Pisces enim cum capiuntur, mox moriuntur; homines cum capti sunt, verbo praedicationis potius vivificantur. Remig.: For by the net of holy preaching they drew fish, that is, men, from the depths of the sea, that is, of infidelity, to the light of faith. Wonderful indeed is this fishing! for fishes when they are caught, soon after die; when men are caught by the word of preaching, they rather are made alive.
Beda: Piscatores autem, et illitterati mittuntur ad praedicandum, ut fides credentium in virtute Dei, non in eloquentia atque in doctrina esse putaretur. Bede, in Marc., 1, 6: Now fishers and unlettered men are sent to preach, that the faith of believers might be thought to lie in the power of God, not in eloquence or in learning.
Sequitur et protinus, relictis retibus, secuti sunt eum. It goes on to say, "and immediately they left their nets, and followed Him."
Theophylactus: Non enim oportet intervallum facere; sed statim sequi dominum. Post hos vero piscatur Iacobum et Ioannem: quia et illi pauperes existentes, tamen senectutem nutriebant paternam; unde Theophylact: For we must not allow any time to lapse, but at once follow the Lord. After these again, He catches James and John, because they also, though poor, supported the old age of their father.
Sequitur et progressus inde pusillum, vidit Iacobum Zebedaei. Reliquerunt autem patrem, quia in sequela Christi eos erat impediturus. Sic et tu cum a parentibus impediris, relinque eos, et accede ad Deum. Ostenditur autem quod Zebedaeus non credidit; mater vero apostolorum credidit, quae secuta est Christum mortuo Zebedaeo. Wherefore there follows, "And when He had gone a little farther thence, He saw James, the son of Zebedee, &c." But they left their father, because he would have hindered them in following Christ. Do thou, also, when thou art hindered by thy parents, leave them, and come to God. It is shewn by this that Zebedee was not a believer; but the mother of the Apostles believed, for she followed Christ, when Zebedee was dead. [p. 23]
Beda: Quaeri autem potest quomodo binos vocaverit de naviculis piscatores, primo Petrum et Andream, deinde progressus paululum alios duos filios Zebedaei, cum Lucas dicat Iacobum et Ioannem vocatos fuisse ad adiuvandum Petrum et Andream, et Christum Petro tantum dixisse: noli timere: ex hoc iam homines eris capiens; simul tamen, subductis ad terram navibus, eos fuisse secutos. Unde intelligendum est, hoc primo esse factum quod Lucas insinuat, et postmodum ad capturam piscium eos ex more remeasse, ut postea fieret quod Marcus hic narrat. Tunc enim secuti sunt dominum, non subductis ad terram navibus, tamquam cura redeundi, sed tamquam vocantem, ac iubentem ut sequerentur. Bede: It may be asked, how he could call two fishers from each of the boats, (first, Peter and Andrew, then having gone a little further, the two others, sons of Zebedee,) when Luke says that James and John were called to help Peter and Andrew, and that it was to Peter only that Christ said, "Fear not, from this time thou shalt catch men;" [Luke 5:!0] he also says, that "at the same time, when they had brought their ships to land, they followed Him." We must therefore understand that the transaction which Luke intimates happened first, and afterwards that they, as their custom was, had returned to their fishing. So that what Mark here relates happened afterwards; for in this case they followed the Lord, without drawing their boats ashore, (which they would have done had they meant to return,) and followed Him, as one calling them, and ordering them to follow.
Hieronymus: Mystice autem hac quadriga piscatorum vehimur ad aethera, ut Elias; his quatuor angulis construitur prima Ecclesia; his quatuor litteris Hebraicis, tetragrammaton, nomen domini agnoscitur a nobis, quibus simili exemplo praecipitur ut audiamus vocem domini vocantis, et obliviscamur populum vitiorum, et domum paternae conversationis, quae est stultitia Deo, et rete aranearum, in quo nos velut culices pene lapsos tenebat aer inanis, qui pendet in nihilum, navem pristinae conversationis abominantes. Pellibus enim mortuis tegitur Adam, qui est genitor noster secundum carnem; et nunc, deposito vetere homine cum actibus suis, novum sequentes hominem, pellibus tegimur Salomonis, quibus sponsa gloriatur se esse formosam factam. Simon autem obediens, Andreas virilis, Iacobus supplantans, Ioannes gratia in Latino sonant: quibus quatuor nominibus in agmen domini coniungimur, obedientia ut audiamus, virilitate ut pugnemus, supplantatione ut perseveremus, gratia ut conservemur: quae quatuor virtutes cardinales dicuntur; per prudentiam enim obedimus, per iustitiam viriliter agimus, per temperantiam serpentem calcamus, per fortitudinem gratiam Dei meremur. Pseudo-Jerome: Further, we are mystically carried away to heaven, like Elias, by this chariot, drawn by these fishers, as by four horses. On these four corner-stones the first Church is built; in these, as in the four Hebrew letters, we acknowledge the tetragrammation, the name of the Lord, we who are commanded, after their example, to "hear" the voice of the Lord, and "to forget" the "people" of wickedness, and "the house of our fathers' " [Ps 45:10] conversation, which is folly before God, and the spider's net, in the meshes of which we, like gnats, were all but fallen, and were confined by things vain as the air, which hangs on nothing; loathing also the ship of our former walk. For Adam, our forefather according to the flesh, is clothed with the skins of dead beasts; but now, having put off the old man, with his deeds, following the new man we are clothed with those skins of Solomon, with which the bride rejoices that she has been made beautiful [Song of Songs, 1:4]. Again, Simon, means obedient; Andrew, manly; James, supplanter [ed. note: Cf. vol i, 139, 140, 364]; John, grace; by which four names, we are knit together into God's host [ed. note: Al. 'in imaginem']; by obedience, that we may listen; by manliness, that we do battle; by overthrowing, that we may persevere; by grace, that we may be preserved. Which four virtues are called cardinal; for by prudence, we obey; by justice, we bear ourselves manfully; by temperance, we tread the serpent underfoot; by fortitude, we earn the grace of [p. 24] God.
Theophylactus Scias item primum hic vocari actionem, deinde contemplationem; Petrus enim activae symbolum est, ferventior enim erat aliis, sicut activa est; Ioannes vero contemplationem significat, plus enim de rebus divinis disserit Ioannes. Theophylact: We must know also, that action is first called, then contemplation; for Peter is the type of the active life, for he was more ardent than the others, just as the active life is the more bustling; but John is the type of the contemplative life, for he speaks more fully of divine things.

Lectio 8
21 καὶ εἰσπορεύονται εἰς καφαρναούμ. καὶ εὐθὺς τοῖς σάββασιν εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ἐδίδασκεν. 22 καὶ ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ, ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς.
21. And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day He entered into the synagogue, and taught. 22. And they were astonished as His doctrine: for He taught them as one that had authority, and not as the Scribes.

Hieronymus: Marcus dicta Evangelii in seipso, non in seipsis disponens, ordinem historiae non secutus, mysteriorum ordinem servat; unde sabbatis primam virtutem narrat, dicens et ingrediuntur Capharnaum. Pseudo-Jerome: Mark, arranging the sayings of the Gospel as they were in his own mind, not in themselves, quits the order of the history, and follows the order of the mysteries. Wherefore he relates the first miracle on the sabbath day, saying, "And they go into Capernaum."
Theophylactus: A Nazareth recedens. In die autem sabbati, quando Scribae congregabantur, tunc docens synagogam intravit; unde Theophylact: Quitting Nazareth. Now on the sabbath day, when the Scribes were gathered together, He entered into a synagogue, and taught.
Sequitur et statim sabbatis ingressus in synagogam docebat eos: etenim lex ad hoc sabbatis otio vacare iubebat, ut lectioni studentes convenirent in unum. Docebat autem Christus arguendo, non adulando, sicut Pharisaei; unde sequitur et stupebant super doctrina eius: erat enim docens eos quasi potestatem habens, et non sicut Scribae. Docebat etiam in potestate, transmutans homines ad bonum, et per poenam non credentibus minabatur. Wherefore there follows, "And straightway on the sabbath day, having entered into the synagogue, He taught them." For this end the Law commanded them to give themselves up to rest on the sabbath day, that they might meet together to attend to sacred reading. Again, Christ taught them by rebuke, not by flattery as did the Pharisees; wherefore it says, "And they were astonished at His doctrine; for He taught them as one having power, and not as the Scribes." He taught them also in power, transforming men to good, and He threatened punishment to those who did not believe on Him.
Beda: Scribae etiam docebant populos quae scripta sunt in Moyse et prophetis; Iesus vero quasi Deus et dominus ipsius Moysi pro libertate voluntatis suae, vel ea quae minus videbantur, addebat in lege, vel commutans praedicabat populis, ut in Matthaeo legimus: dictum est antiquis (...) ego autem dico vobis. Bede: The Scribes themselves taught the people what was written in Moses and the Prophets; but Jesus as the God and Lord of Moses, himself, by the freedom of His own will, either added those things which appeared wanting in the Law, or altered things as He preached to the people; as we read in Matthew, "It was said to them of old time, but I say unto you." [Matt. 5:27]

Lectio 9
23 καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, καὶ ἀνέκραξεν 24 λέγων, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ. 25 καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγων, φιμώθητι καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ. 26 καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ φωνῆσαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ. 27 καὶ ἐθαμβήθησαν ἅπαντες, ὥστε συζητεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς λέγοντας, τί ἐστιν τοῦτο; διδαχὴ καινὴ κατ' ἐξουσίαν: καὶ τοῖς πνεύμασι τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ἐπιτάσσει, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. 28 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἡ ἀκοὴ αὐτοῦ εὐθὺς πανταχοῦ εἰς ὅλην τὴν περίχωρον τῆς γαλιλαίας.
23. And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, [p. 25] 24. Saying, "Let us alone; what have we to do with Thee, Thou Jesus of Nazareth? art Thou come to destroy us? I know Thee who Thou art, the Holy One of God." 25. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Hold thy peace, and come out of him." 26. And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him. 27. And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him." 28. And immediately His fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee.

Beda: Quoniam invidia Diaboli mors intravit in orbem terrarum, ideo contra ipsum mortis auctorem primo debuit medicina salutis operari; et ideo dicitur et erat in synagoga eorum homo in spiritu immundo. Bede, in Marc., 1, 7: Since by the envy of the devil death first entered into the world, it was right that the medicine of healing should first work against the author of death; and therefore it is said, "And there was in their synagogue a man, &c."
Chrysostomus: Spiritus quidem Angelus, et aer, et anima nuncupatur, et etiam spiritus sanctus. Ne igitur propter communicantiam nominis, in errorem decidamus, addit immundo: immundus autem dicitur propter impietatem, ac elongationem a Deo, et quia omnibus immundis, et pravis operationibus se immiscet. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The word, Spirit, is applied to an Angel, the air, the soul, and even the Holy Ghost. Lest therefore by the sameness of the name we should fall into error, he adds, "unclean." And he is called unclean on account of his impiousness and far removal from God, and because he employs himself in all unclean and wicked works.
Augustinus de Civ. Dei: Contra superbiam porro Daemonum quantam virtutem habeat Dei humilitas, quae in forma servi apparuit, ipsi Daemones ita sciunt ut eidem domino infirmitate carnis induto haec exprimerent; Augustine, City of God, 21: Moreover, how great is the power which the lowliness of God, appearing in the form of a servant, has over the pride of devils, the devils themselves know so well, that they express it to the same Lord clothed in the weakness of flesh.
Sequitur enim et exclamavit dicens: quid nobis, et tibi, Iesu Nazarene? Venisti ante tempus perdere nos. Clarum est in his verbis quod in eis et scientia erat, et caritas non erat: poenam quippe suam formidabant ab illo, non in illo iustitiam diligebant. For there follows, "And he cried out, saying, What have we to do we Thee, Jesus of Nazareth, &c." For it is evident in these words that there was in them knowledge, but there was not charity; and the reason was, that they feared their punishment from Him, and loved not the righteousness in Him.
Beda: Daemones enim dominum in terris cernentes, se continuo iudicandos credebant. Bede: For the devils, seeing the Lord on the earth, thought that they were immediately to be judged.
Chrysostomus: Vel hoc ita dicit, quasi diceret: auferens immunditiam, divinamque imponens cognitionem hominum animabus, nobis locum in hominibus non das. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else the devil so speaks, as if he said, 'by taking away uncleanness, and giving [p. 26] to the souls of men divine knowledge, Thou allowest us no place in men.'
Theophylactus: Exire enim ab homine perditionem suam existimat Daemon: immisericordes enim existunt Daemones, malum aliquod pati se existimantes cum homines non molestant. Theophylact: For to come out of man the devil considers as his own perdition; for devils are ruthless, thinking that they suffer some evil, so long as they are not troubling men.
Sequitur scio quod sis sanctus Dei. There follows, "I know that Thou art the Holy One of God."
Chrysostomus: Quasi diceret: considero adventum tuum: non enim firmam ac certam adventus Dei habebat notitiam. Sanctum autem dicit eum, non unum de pluribus, quia et sanctus erat unusquisque prophetarum, sed unum eum esse denuntiat: per articulum enim qui in Graeco ponitur unum ostendit; per timorem vero, omnium dominum recognoscit. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: As if he said, Methinks that Thou art come; for he had not a firm and certain knowledge of the coming of God. But he calls Him "holy" not as one of many, for every prophet was also holy, but he proclaims that the was the One holy; by the article in Greek he shews Him to be the One, but by his fear he shews Him to be Lord of all.
Augustinus. De Civ. Dei: Tantum enim eis innotuit quantum voluit; tantum autem voluit quantum oportuit. Sed innotuit non sicut Angelis sanctis, qui eius, secundum id quod est Dei verbum, participata aeternitate perfruuntur; sed sicut eis terrendis innotescendus fuit, ex quorum tyrannica potestate fuerat liberaturus praedestinatos. Innotuit ergo Daemonibus, non per id quod est vita aeterna, sed per quaedam temporalia suae virtutis effecta, quae angelicis sensibus etiam malignorum spirituum potius quam infirmitati hominum possint esse conspicua. Augustine: For He was known to them in that degree in which He wished to be known; and He wished as much as was fitting. He was not known to them as to the holy Angels, who enjoy Him by partaking of His eternity according as He is the Word of God; but as He was to be made known in terror, to those beings from whose tyrannical power He was about to free the predestinate. He was known therefore to the devils, not in that He is eternal Life, [see 1 John 5:20, John 17:3] but by some temporal effects of His Power, which might be more clear to the angelic senses of even bad spirits than to the weakness of men.
Chrysostomus: Non autem volebat veritas testimonia spirituum immundorum; unde Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Further, the Truth did not wish to have the witness of unclean spirits.
Sequitur et comminatus est ei Iesus, dicens: obmutesce, et exi de homine. Unde dogma salutiferum nobis datur, ne credamus Daemonibus quantumcumque denuntient veritatem. Wherefore there follows, "And Jesus threatened him, saying, &c." Whence a healthful precept is given to us; let us not believe devils, howsoever they may proclaim the truth.
Sequitur et discerpens eum spiritus immundus, et exclamans voce magna exivit ab eo. Quia enim homo ille tamquam sapiens loquebatur, ac discrete verba proferebat, ne putaretur quod non ex Daemone, sed ex corde verba componeret, virum discerpi permisit a Daemone, ut ostenderet Daemonem esse qui loquebatur. It goes on, "And the unclean spirit tearing him, &c." For because the man spoke as one in his senses and uttered his words with discretion, lest it should be thought that he put together his words not from the devil but out of his own heart, He permitted the man to be torn by the devil, that He might shew that it was the devil who spoke.
Theophylactus: Ut videntes cernerent a quo malo liberabatur homo, et propter miraculum crederent. Theophylact: That they might know, when they saw it, from how great an evil the man was freed, and on account of the miracle might believe.
Beda: Potest autem videri contrarium, quomodo discerpens, vel, sicut quidam codices habent, convexans eum exiverit, cum nihil ei nocuerit secundum Lucam. Sed et ipse Lucas dicit: et cum proiecisset eum Daemonium in medium, exiit ab eo, nihilque ei nocuit. Unde intelligitur hoc dixisse Marcum convexans eum, sive discerpens, quod Lucas dicit: cum proiecisset eum in medium; et quod secutus ait: nihilque ei nocuit, hoc intelligitur, quod illa iactatio membrorum, atque vexatio non eum debilitavit, sicut solent Daemonia exire etiam quibusdam membris amputatis, aut evulsis. Visa autem virtute miraculi, novitatem dominicae admirantur doctrinae atque ad inquisitionem eorum quae audierant, per ea quae viderant, excitantur; unde Bede: But it may appear to be a discrepancy, that he should have gone out of him, tearing him, or, as some copies have it, vexing him, when, according to Luke, he did not hurt him. But Luke himself says, "When He had cast him into the midst, he came out of him, without hurting him." [Luke 4:35] Wherefore it is inferred that Mark meant by vexing or tearing him, what Luke expresses [p. 27], in the words, "When He had cast him into the midst;" so that what he goes on to say, "And did not hurt him," may be understood to mean that the tossing of his limbs and vexing did not weaken him, as devils are wont to come out even with the cutting off and tearing away of limbs. But seeing the power of the miracle, they wonder at the newness of our Lord's doctrine, and are roused to search into what they had heard by what they had seen.
Sequitur et mirati sunt omnes, ita ut conquirerent: ad hoc enim fiebant signa, ut per hoc Evangelio regni Dei quod praedicabatur, certius crederetur, dum hi qui caelestia terrigenis gaudia promittebant, caelestia in terris ac divina opera monstrabant. Prius autem, teste Evangelista, erat docens eos quasi potestatem habens, et nunc turba attestante, in potestate imperat spiritibus immundis, et obediunt ei. Wherefore there follows, "And they all wondered, &c." For miracles were done that they might more firmly believe the Gospel of the kingdom of God, which was being preached, since those who were promising heavenly joys to men on earth, were shewing forth heavenly things and divine works even on earth. For before (as the Evangelist says) "He was teaching them as one who had power," and now, as the crowd witnesses, "with power He commands the evil spirits, and they obey Him."
Sequitur et processit rumor eius statim in omnem regionem Galilaeae. It goes on, "And immediately His fame spread abroad, &c."
Glossa: Ea enim quae homines multum mirantur prompte divulgant: quia ex abundantia cordis os loquitur. Gloss.: For those things which men wonder at they soon divulge, for "out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." [Matt. 12:34]
Hieronymus: Mystice autem Capharnaum villa consolationis interpretatur, sabbatum autem requies. Homo in spiritu immundo requie et consolatione sanatur, ut locus et tempus congruant saluti. Homo in spiritu immundo genus humanum est, in quo immunditia regnavit ab Adam usque ad Moysen: nam sine lege peccaverunt, et sine lege perierunt. Qui sciens sanctum Dei, obmutescere iubetur, dum scientes quidem Deum, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt, sed servierunt potius creaturae quam creatori. Spiritus discerpens hominem exiit ab eo. Appropinquante salute, appropinquavit tentatio: Pharao dimissurus Israel persequitur Israel, Diabolus contemptus surgit in scandala. Pseudo-Jerome: Moreover, Capernaum is mystically interpreted the town of consolation, and the sabbath as rest. The man with an evil spirit is healed by rest and consolation, that the place and time may agree with his healing. This man with an unclean spirit is the human race, in which uncleanness reigned from Adam to Moses; [Rom 5:14] for "they sinned without law," and "perished without law." [Rom 2:12] and he, knowing the Holy One of God, is ordered to hold his peace, for they "knowing God did not glorify him as God," [Rom 1:21] but "rather served the creature than the Creator." [Rom 1:25] The spirit tearing the man came out of him. When salvation is near, temptation is at hand also. Pharaoh, when about to let [ed. note: Al. 'dismissus ab Israel'] Israel go, pursues Israel; the devil, when despised, rises up to create scandals.

Lectio 10
29 καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἐξελθόντες ἦλθον εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν σίμωνος καὶ ἀνδρέου μετὰ Ἰακώβου καὶ ἰωάννου. 30 ἡ δὲ πενθερὰ σίμωνος κατέκειτο πυρέσσουσα, καὶ εὐθὺς λέγουσιν αὐτῷ περὶ αὐτῆς. 31 καὶ προσελθὼν ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν κρατήσας τῆς χειρός: καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός, καὶ διηκόνει αὐτοῖς.
29. And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 30. But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her. [p. 28] 31. And He came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them.

Beda: Primo debuit lingua serpentina, ne ultra virus spargeret, concludi; deinde femina, quae primo seducta est, a carnalis concupiscentiae febre sanari; unde dicitur et protinus egredientes de synagoga, venerunt in domum Simonis et Andreae cum Iacobo et Ioanne. Bede, in Marc., 1, 7: First, it was right that the serpent's tongue should be shut up, that it might not spread any more venom; then that the woman, who was first seduced, should be healed from the fever of carnal concupiscence. Wherefore it is said, "And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, &c."
Theophylactus: Recessit enim, ut consuetudo erat in sabbato, circa vesperam ad edendum in discipulorum domum. Quae autem ministrare debebat, febribus tenebatur; unde Theophylact: He retired then as the custom was on the sabbath-day about evening to eat in His disciples' house. But she who ought to have ministered was prevented by a fever.
Sequitur recumbebat autem socrus Simonis febricitans. Wherefore it goes on, "But Simon's wife's mother was lying sick of a fever."
Chrysostomus: Discipuli autem tamquam exinde utilitatem aliquam recepturi non expectantes vespere, socrum Petri sanari precabantur; unde Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc., 1, 32: But the disciples, knowing that they were to receive a benefit by that means, without waiting for the evening prayed that Peter's mother should be healed.
Sequitur qui statim dicunt ei de illa. Wherefore there follows, "who immediately tell Him of her."
Beda: In Evangelio autem Lucae scriptum est quod rogaverunt illum pro ea. Modo enim salvator rogatus, modo ultro curat aegrotos, ostendens se, contra vitiorum quoque passiones, et precibus semper annuere fidelium, et ea nonnumquam quae ipsi minime intelligunt, vel intelligenda dare, vel pie petentibus, etiam non intellecta, dimittere, iuxta id quod Psalmista postulat: delicta quis intelligit? Ab occultis meis munda me, domine. Unde et hic rogatus sanat; Bede: But in the Gospel of Luke it is written that "they besought Him for her." [Luke 4:38] For the Saviour sometimes after being asked, sometimes of His own accord, heals the sick, shewing that He always assents to the prayers of the faithful, when they pray also against bad passions, and sometimes gives them to understand things which they do not understand at all, or else, when they pray unto Him dutifully, forgives their want of understanding; as the Psalmist begs of God, "Cleanse me, O Lord, from my secret faults." [Ps 19:12]
Sequitur enim et accedens elevavit eam, apprehensa manu eius. Wherefore He heals her at their request; for there follows, "And He came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up."
Theophylactus: Per hoc significatur, quod si aliquis infirmatur, a Deo curabitur, si sanctis ministraverit ob Christi amorem. Theophylact: By this it is signified, that God will heal a sick man, if he ministers to the Saints, through love to Christ.
Beda super Lucam: Quod autem sabbatis maxime medicinae, doctrinaeque suae dona frequentat, docet se non sub lege, esse sed supra legem, nec Iudaicum eligere sabbatum; dilectamque domino esse requiem, si saluti studentes animarum ab opere servili, idest a cunctis contineamus illicitis. Bede, in Marc., 1, 6: But in that He gives most profusely His gifts of healing and doctrine on the sabbath day, He teaches, that He is not under the Law, but above the Law, and does not choose the Jewish sabbath, but the true sabbath, and our rest is pleasing to the Lord, if, in order to attend to the health of our souls, we abstain from slavish work, that is, from all unlawful things.
Sequitur et continuo dimisit eam febris; et ministrabat eis.

Sanitas quae domini confertur imperio, simul tota redit, tanto robore comitante, ut eis continuo qui se adiuvant, ministrare sufficiat. Si autem virum a Daemonio liberatum, moraliter animum ab immunda cogitatione purgatum significare dixerimus; convenienter femina a febribus ad imperium domini curata carnem ostendit a concupiscentiae suae fervore, per continentiae praecepta frenatam.

It goes on, "And immediately the fever left her, &c."

Bede, in Marc., 1, 8: The health which is conferred at the command of the Lord, returns at once entire, accompanied with such strength that she is able to [p. 29] minister to those of whose help she had before stood in need. Again, if we suppose that the man delivered from the devil means, in the moral way of interpretation, the soul purged from unclean thoughts, fitly does the woman cured of a fever by the command of God mean the flesh, restrained from the heat of it concupiscence by the precepts of continence.

Hieronymus: Febris enim intemperantiam significat, de qua nos filii synagogae per manum disciplinae, desiderii elevatione sanamur, et huius qui sanat nos ministramus voluntati. Pseudo-Jerome: For the fever means intemperance, from which, we the sons of the synagogue [ed. note: See St. Augustine on Ps 72, no. 4, 5, "Ecclesia Socrus Synagogue." The Church is called the daughter of the Synagogue in the spurious 'Altercatio Eccles. et Synagog.' (Aug. Opp t. viii, p. 19.) They word 'synagogue' is applied to the Church by Justin M. Dial, see Tryph, p. 160 (Ben.) Clem. Alex. Str. vi, 633.], by the hand of discipline, and by the lifting up of our desires, are healed, and minister to the will of Him who heals us.
Theophylactus: Febricitat autem qui irascitur, ut ex ira manus effrenatus extendat; sed si ratio retineat manum eius, surgit, et sic ratio ministrat. Theophylact: But he has a fever who is angry, and in the unruliness of his anger stretches forth his hands to do hurt; but if reason restrains his hands, he will arise, and so serve reason.

Lectio 11
32 ὀψίας δὲ γενομένης, ὅτε ἔδυ ὁ ἥλιος, ἔφερον πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας καὶ τοὺς δαιμονιζομένους: 33 καὶ ἦν ὅλη ἡ πόλις ἐπισυνηγμένη πρὸς τὴν θύραν. 34 καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας ποικίλαις νόσοις, καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλεν, καὶ οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτόν.
32. And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto Him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils. 33. And all the city was gathered together at the door. 34. And He healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew Him.

Theophylactus: Quia turbae considerabant neminem licere die sabbati curare, huius gratia solis expectabant occasum, ut curandos ad Iesum adducant; unde dicitur vespere autem facto, cum occidisset sol. Theophylact: Because the multitude thought that it was not lawful to heal on the sabbath day, they waited for the evening, to bring those who were to be healed to Jesus. Wherefore it is said, "And at even, when the sun had set."
Sequitur et curavit multos qui vexabantur variis languoribus. There follows, "and He healed many that were vexed with divers diseases."
Chrysostomus: Per hoc autem quod dicit multos, omnes oportet intelligere, iuxta Scripturae consuetudinem. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Now in that he says "many", all are to be understood according to the Scripture mode of expression.
Theophylactus: Vel multos dicit; erant enim quidam infideles, qui minime curati sunt propter incredulitatem eorum. Multos ergo ex oblatis sanavit, illos scilicet qui fidem habebant. Theophylact: Or he says, "many", because there were some faithless persons, who could not at all be cured on account of their unfaithfulness. Therefore He healed many of those who were brought, that is, all who had faith.
Sequitur et Daemonia multa eiciebat, et non sinebat ea loqui, quoniam sciebant eum. It goes on, "and cast out many devils."
Augustinus de quaest. novi et Vet. Testam: Sciebant enim Daemonia Christum esse, qui per legem fuerat repromissus: omnia enim signa videbant in eo quae dixerant prophetae; mysterium autem divinitatis eius ignorabant, sicut et principes eorum. Si enim cognovissent, numquam dominum maiestatis crucifixissent. Pseudo-Augustine, Quaest. e Vet. et Nov. Test. 16: For the devils knew that He was the Christ, who had been promised by the Law: for they saw in Him all [p. 30] the signs which had been foretold by the Prophets; but they were ignorant of His divinity, as also were "their princes, for if they had known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory." [1 Cor 2:8]
Beda: Quem enim dierum quadraginta ieiunio fatigatum Diabolus hominem cognoverat, nec tentando valuit an Dei filius esset, experiri; iam nunc per signorum potentiam vel intellexit, vel potius suspicatus est esse filium Dei. Non igitur ideo Iudaeis eum crucifigere persuasit, quia Dei filium non esse putavit, sed quia se morte illius non praevidit esse damnandum. Bede: For, Him whom the devil had known as a man, wearied by His forty days' fast, without being able by tempting Him to prove whether He was the Son of God, he now by the power of His miracles understood or rather suspected to be the Son of God. The reason therefore why he persuaded the Jews to crucify Him, was not because he did not think that He was the Son of God, but because he did not foresee that he himself was to be condemned by Christ's death.
Theophylactus: Ideo autem non sinebat loqui Daemonia, docens nos non credere eis, etiam si vera dicunt: si enim invenerint aliquos sibi credentes, veritatibus mendacia miscent. Theophylact: Furthermore, the reason that He forbade the devils to speak, was to teach us not to believe them, even if they say true. For if once they find persons to believe them, they mingle truth with falsehood.
Chrysostomus: Non est autem contrarium ei quod hic dicitur hoc quod Lucas dicit quod exibant Daemonia a multis clamantia, et dicentia: quia tu es Christus filius Dei; subiunxit enim et increpans non sinebat ea loqui. Marcus enim multa sub brevitate pertransiens, circa finem praedictorum verborum loquitur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: And Luke does not contradict this, when he says, that "devils came out of many, crying out and saying, Thou art Christ the Son of God:" [Luke 4:41] for he subjoins, "And He rebuking them, suffered them not to speak;" for Mark, who passes over many things for the sake of brevity, speaks about what happened subsequently to the abovementioned words.
Beda: Mystice autem solis occubitus passionem mortemque significat illius qui dixit: quamdiu in mundo sum, lux mundi sum; et sole occidente plures quam ante daemoniaci et aegroti sanantur, quia temporaliter in carne vivens paucos Iudaeorum docuit, omnibus per orbem gentibus fidei, salutisque dona transmisit. Bede: Again, in a mystical sense, the setting of the sun signifies the passion of Him, who said, "As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world." [John 9:5] And when the sun was going down, more demoniacs and sick persons were healed than before: because He who living in the flesh for a time taught a few Jews, has transmitted the gifts of faith and health to all the Gentiles throughout the world.
Hieronymus: Ianua autem regni moraliter poenitentia est cum fide, quae operatur salutem languoribus variis: varia etenim sunt vitia quibus languescit civitas mundi. Pseudo-Jerome: But the door of the kingdom, morally, is repentance and faith, which works health for various diseases; for divers are the vices with which the city of this world is sick.

Lectio 12
35 καὶ πρωῒ ἔννυχα λίαν ἀναστὰς ἐξῆλθεν καὶ ἀπῆλθεν εἰς ἔρημον τόπον κἀκεῖ προσηύχετο. 36 καὶ κατεδίωξεν αὐτὸν σίμων καὶ οἱ μετ' αὐτοῦ, 37 καὶ εὗρον αὐτὸν καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ ὅτι πάντες ζητοῦσίν σε. 38 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, ἄγωμεν ἀλλαχοῦ εἰς τὰς ἐχομένας κωμοπόλεις, ἵνα καὶ ἐκεῖ κηρύξω: εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ ἐξῆλθον. 39 καὶ ἦλθεν κηρύσσων εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς αὐτῶν εἰς ὅλην τὴν γαλιλαίαν καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλων.
35. And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, He went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed. 36. And Simon and they that were with Him followed after Him. 37. And when they had found Him, they said unto Him, "All men seek for Thee." [p. 31] 38. And He said unto them, "Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth." 39. And He preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils.

Theophylactus: Postquam dominus infirmos curavit, seorsum recedit; unde dicitur et diluculo valde surgens, egressus abiit in desertum locum: in quo docuit nos non facere aliquid ad apparentiam, sed, et si boni aliquid operamur, non propalare. Theophylact: After that the Lord had cured the sick, He retired apart. Wherefore it is said, "And rising very early in the morning, He went out and departed into a desert place." By which He taught us not to do any thing for the sake of appearance, but if we do any good, not to publish it openly.
Sequitur ibique orabat. It goes on, "and there prayed."
Chrysostomus: Non quia oratione indigeret: ipse enim erat qui hominum orationes suscipiebat: sed haec quidem dispensative agens, forma bonae operationis nobis est factus. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Not that He required prayer; for it was He who Himself received the prayers of men; but He did this by way of an economy, and became to us the model of good work.
Theophylactus: Ostendit enim nobis quod Deo debet attribui, si aliquid boni facimus, et ei debemus dicere: quoniam omne datum optimum desuper est descendens a te. Theophylact: For He shews to us that we ought to attribute to God whatever we do well, and to say to Him, "Every good gift cometh down from above," [James 1:17] from Thee.
Sequitur et prosecutus est illum Simon, et qui cum illo erant. It continues: "And Simon followed Him, and they that were with Him."
Chrysostomus: Lucas autem dicit turbas accessisse ad Christum, et dixisse quod Marcus hic dicit dixisse apostolos, subdens et cum venissent ad eum dixerunt ei: quia omnes quaerunt te. Non autem invicem contradicunt: suscepit enim Christus et post apostolos turbam coniungi Christi pedibus anhelantem. Gaudens autem eos suscipiebat, sed volebat eos dimittere, ut et reliqui doctrinae eius participes essent, tamquam non multo tempore in mundo moraturus; et ideo Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Luke however says that crowds came to Christ, and spoke what Mark here relates that the Apostles said, adding, "And when they came to Him, they said to Him, All seek thee." [Luke 4:42] But they do not contradict each other; for Christ received after the Apostles the multitude, breathlessly anxious to embrace His feet. He received them willingly, but chose to dismiss them, that the rest also might be partakers of His doctrine, as He was not to remain long in the world.
Sequitur et ait: eamus in proximos vicos et civitates, ut et ibi praedicem. And therefore there follows: "And He said, Let us go into the neighbouring villages and towns, that there also I may preach."
Theophylactus: Transit enim ad illos magis indigentes, quia doctrinam concludere non convenit in uno loco, sed ubique radios eius extendere. Theophylact: For He passes on to them as being more in need, since it was not right to shut up doctrine in one place, but to throw out his rays every where.
Sequitur ad hoc enim veni. It goes on: "For therefore am I come."
Chrysostomus: In quo manifestat exinanitionis, idest incarnationis mysterium et divinitatis suae dominium, cum scilicet asserit sponte in mundum venisse. Lucas vero dicit: ad hoc missus sum, denuntians dispensationem, et Dei patris bonam voluntatem de filii incarnatione. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: In which word, He manifests the mystery of His "emptying himself," [see Phil. 2:7-8] that is, of His incarnation, and the sovereignty of His divine nature, in that He here asserts, that He came willingly into the world. Luke however says, "To this end was I sent," proclaiming the Dispensation, and the good pleasure of God the Father concerning the incarnation [p. 32] of the Son.
Sequitur et erat praedicans in synagogis eorum in omni Galilaea. There follows: "And He continued preaching in their synagogues, in all Galilee."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: In hac autem praedicatione quam dicit eum habuisse in omni Galilaea, intelligitur etiam sermo domini habitus in monte, cuius commemorationem facit Matthaeus; quem Marcus omnino non commemoravit, nec aliquid simile ei dixit, nisi quasdam sententias non contextim, sed sparsim repetivit, quas dominus aliis locis dixit. Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 19: But by this preaching, which, he says, "He continued in all Galilee," is also meant the sermon of the Lord delivered on the mount, which Matthew mentions, and Mark has entirely passed over, without giving any thing like it, save that he has repeated some sentences not in continuous order, but in scattered places, spoken by the Lord at other times.
Theophylactus: Doctrinae autem operationem immiscuit: praedicans enim postmodum fugavit Daemonia: Theophylact: He also mingled action with teaching, for whilst employed in preaching, He afterwards put to flight devils.
Sequitur enim et Daemonia eiciens: nisi enim ostenderet Christus miracula, eius sermoni non crederetur; sic et tu post doctrinam, operare ut non sit in te vacuus tuus sermo. For there follows: "And casting out devils." For unless Christ shewed forth miracles, He teaching would not be believed; so do thou also, after teaching, work, that thy word be not fruitless in thyself.
Beda: Mystice autem si occasu solis mors exprimitur salvatoris, quare non diluculo redeunte resurrectio eius indicetur? Cuius manifestata luce abiit in desertum gentium, ibique in suis fidelibus orabat, quia corda eorum per gratiam sancti spiritus ad virtutem orationis excitabat. Bede: Again, mystically if by the setting of the sun, the death of the Saviour is intended, why should not His resurrection be intended by the returning dawn? For by its clear light, He went far into the wilderness of the Gentiles, and there continued praying in the person of His faithful disciples, for He aroused their hearts by the grace of the Holy Spirit to the virtue of prayer.

Lectio 13
40 καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς αὐτὸν λεπρὸς παρακαλῶν αὐτὸν [καὶ γονυπετῶν] καὶ λέγων αὐτῷ ὅτι ἐὰν θέλῃς δύνασαί με καθαρίσαι. 41 καὶ σπλαγχνισθεὶς ἐκτείνας τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἥψατο καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, θέλω, καθαρίσθητι: 42 καὶ εὐθὺς ἀπῆλθεν ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ἡ λέπρα, καὶ ἐκαθαρίσθη. 43 καὶ ἐμβριμησάμενος αὐτῷ εὐθὺς ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν, 44 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, ὅρα μηδενὶ μηδὲν εἴπῃς, ἀλλὰ ὕπαγε σεαυτὸν δεῖξον τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου ἃ προσέταξεν μωϋσῆς, εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς. 45 ὁ δὲ ἐξελθὼν ἤρξατο κηρύσσειν πολλὰ καὶ διαφημίζειν τὸν λόγον, ὥστε μηκέτι αὐτὸν δύνασθαι φανερῶς εἰς πόλιν εἰσελθεῖν, ἀλλ' ἔξω ἐπ' ἐρήμοις τόποις ἦν: καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντοθεν.
40. And there came a leper to Him, beseeching Him, and kneeling down to Him, and saying unto Him, "If Thou wilt, Thou canst make me clean." 41. And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth His hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, "I will; be thou clean." 42. And as soon as He had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed. 43. And He straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away; 44. And saith unto him, "See thou say nothing to any man: but go thy way, shew thyself to the Priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them." [p. 33] 45. But he went out and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to Him from every quarter.

Beda: Postquam lingua serpentina Daemonum occlusa est, et femina, quae primo seducta est, a febre curata, tertio vir, qui male suadentis dicta coniugis audivit, ab erroris suis lepra mundatur, ut ipse esset ordo restaurationis in domino, qui erat ordo casus in protoplastis; unde Bede, in Marc., i, 7: After that the serpent-tongue of the devils was shut up, and the woman, who was first seduced, cured of a fever, in the third place, the man, who listened to the evil counsels of the woman, is cleansed from his leprosy, that the order of restoration in the Lord might be the same as was the order of the fall in our first parents.
Sequitur et venit ad eum leprosus deprecans eum. Whence it goes on: "And there came a leper to him, beseeching Him."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: De hoc leproso mundato talia Marcus connectit ut ipse intelligatur quem Matthaeus commemorat tunc esse mundatum quando dominus post sermonem de monte descendit.

Et quia dominus ait: non veni solvere legem, sed adimplere, ille qui excludebatur a lege, purgari se domini potestate praesumens, non ex lege, sed supra legem esse gratiam indicavit quae leprosi maculam posset abluere. Verum sicut in domino potestatis auctoritas, ita in illo fidei constantia declaratur;

Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 19: Mark puts together circumstances, from which one may infer that he is the same as that one whom Matthew relates to have been cleansed, when the Lord came down from the mount, after the sermon. [Matt 8:2]

Bede, in Marc., i, 9: And because the Lord said that He came "not to destroy the Law but to fulfill," [Matt. 5:17] he who was excluded by the Law, inferring that he was cleansed by the power of the Lord, shewed that grace, which could wash away the stain of the leper, was not from the Law, but over the Law. And truly, as in the Lord authoritative power, so in him the constancy of faith is shewn.

Sequitur enim et genuflexo dixit: domine, si vis, potes me mundare. In faciem procidit, quod humilitatis est et pudoris, ut unusquisque de vitae suae maculis erubescat; sed confessionem verecundia non repressit: ostendit vulnus, et remedium postulavit; et ipsa confessio religionis et fidei plena est: in voluntate enim domini tribuit potestatem. For there follows: "Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst make me clean." He falls on his face, which is at once a gesture of lowliness and of shame, to shew that every man should blush for the stains of his life. But his shame did not stifle confession; he shewed his wound, and begged for medicine, and the confession is full of devotion and of faith, for he refers the power to the will of the Lord.
Theophylactus: Non enim dixit: si Deum deprecatus fueris, sed si vis, quasi ipsum credens Deum. Theophylact: For he said not, If thou wilt, pray unto God, but, "If Thou wilt," as thinking Him very God.
Beda: De voluntate autem domini non quasi pietatis incredulus dubitavit, sed quasi colluvionis suae conscius non praesumpsit. Bede: Moreover, he doubted of the will of the Lord, not as disbelieving His compassion, but, as conscious of his own filth, he did not presume.
Sequitur Iesus autem misertus eius, extendit manum suam, et tangens eum ait illi: volo: mundare. Non, ut plerique Latinorum putant, iniungendum est, et legendum: volo mundare; sed separatim, ut primum dicat volo, deinde imperet: mundare. It goes on; "But Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth His hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will, be thou clean." It is not, as many of the Latins think, to be taken to mean and read, I wish to cleanse thee, but that Christ should say separately, "I will," and then command [p. 34], "be thou clean."
Chrysostomus super Matth: Propter hoc autem leprosum tangit, et non solo verbo contulit sanitatem, quia in lege a Moyse dictum est: qui leprosum tetigerit, immundus erit usque ad vesperum. Ut enim ostendat quod secundum naturam est haec immunditia, et quod lex non erat propter eum posita, sed propter homines puros, et quod ipse est proprie dominus legis, et quia non sicut servus infert, sed sicut dominus, sanitatem, leprosum tetigit congruenter, non tamen existente necessario tactu ad curationis operationem. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 25: Further, the reason why He touches the leper, and did not confer health upon him by word alone, was, that it is said by Moses in the Law, that he who touches a leper shall be unclean till the evening; that is, that he might shew that this uncleanness is a natural one, that the Law was not laid down for Him, but on account of mere men. Furthermore, He shews that He Himself is the Lord of the Law; and the reason why He touched the leper, though the touch was not necessary to the working of the cure, was to shew that He gives health, not as a servant, but as the Lord.
Beda: Ideo etiam tetigit ut probaret quia contaminari non poterat qui alios liberabat. Simulque illud mirabile quod eo sanavit genere quo fuerat obsecratus. Si vis, inquit leprosus, potes me mundare. Volo, inquit; ecce habes voluntatem; mundare, iam habes pietatis effectum. Bede: Another reason why He touched him, was to proved that He could not be defiled, who free others from pollution. At the same time it is remarkable, that He healed in the way in which He had been begged to heal. "If Thou wilt," says the leper, "Thou canst make me clean." "I will," He answered, behold, thou hast My will, "be clean;" now thou hast at once the effect of My compassion.
Chrysostomus: Per hoc autem non solum opinionem leprosi non destruxit, sed magis confirmavit: verbo enim morbum fugat et quod leprosus verbo dixerat, hoc opere adimplevit; unde Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 25: Moreover, by this, not only did He not take away the opinion of Him entertained by the leper, but He confirmed it; for He puts to flight the disease by a word, and what the leper had said in word, He filled up in deed.
Sequitur et cum hoc dixisset, statim discessit ab eo lepra, et mundatus est. Wherefore there follows, "And when He had spoken, immediately, &c."
Beda: Nihil enim medium inter opus Dei atque praeceptum, quia in praecepto est opus: dixit enim, et facta sunt. Bede: For there is no interval between the work of God and the command, because the work is in the command, for "He commanded, and they were created." [Ps 148:5]
Sequitur et comminatus est illi, statimque eiecit eum, et dixit ei: vide nemini dixeris. There follows: "And He straitly charged him, and forthwith, &c." See thou tell no man."
Chrysostomus: Quasi diceret: tempus nondum est mea opera praedicari; tua non indigeo praedicatione. Per hoc autem docet nos ex nostris operibus honorem apud homines pro retributione non quaerere. Chrys., Hom 25: As if He said, It is not yet time that My works should be preached, I require not thy preaching. By which He teaches us not to seek worldly honour as a reward for our works.
Sequitur sed vade, ostende te principi sacerdotum. Propter hoc autem hunc ad sacerdotem mittit salvator, ad probationem medelae, et ne extra templum fieret, sed in oratione cum populo computetur. Mittit etiam, quae sunt legis adimplens, ut Iudaeorum linguam maliloquam obturaret. Opus quidem ipse complevit, probationem operis illis dimittens. It goes on: "But go thy way, shew thyself to the chief of the priests." Our Saviour sent him to the priest for the trial of his cure, and that he might not be cast out of the temple, but still be numbered with the people in prayer. He sends him also, that he might fulfil all the parts of the Law, in order to stop the evil-speaking tongue of the Jews. He Himself indeed completed the work, leaving them to try it.
Beda: Ut scilicet intelligeret sacerdos eum non legis ordine, sed gratia Dei supra legem esse curatum. Bede: This He did in order that the priest might understand that the leper was not healed by the Law, but by the grace of God above [p. 35] the Law.
Sequitur et offer pro emundatione tua quod praecepit Moyses, in testimonium illis. There follows: "And offer for thy cleansing what Moses, &c."
Theophylactus: Praecepit quidem munus offerre quod habebant in consuetudine qui mundabantur offerre, tamquam in huiusmodi testimonium quod non erat contra legem, sed magis legem confirmabat, intantum quod ipse legis operaretur praecepta. Theophylact: He ordered him to offer the gift which they who were healed were accustomed to offer, as if for a testimony, that He was not against the Law, but rather confirmed the Law, inasmuch as He Himself worked out the precepts of the Law.
Beda: Si quem vero movet quomodo dominus Iudaicum videtur approbare sacrificium, cum id non recipiat Ecclesia, meminerit, quod nondum obtulerat in passione holocaustum suum. Non autem oportebat auferri significantia sacrificia priusquam illud quod significabatur, confirmatum esset contestatione apostolorum praedicantium, et fide credentium populorum. Bede: If any one wonders, how the Lord seems to approve of the Jewish sacrifice, which the Church rejects, let him remember that He had not yet offered His own holocaust in His passion. And it was not right that significative sacrifices should be taken away before that which they signified was confirmed by the witness of the Apostles in their preaching, and by the faith of the believing people.
Theophylactus: Leprosus autem, quamvis dominus prohibuerit, beneficium patefecit; unde Theophylact: But the leper, although the Lord forbade him disclosed the benefit,
Sequitur at ille egressus coepit praedicare, et diffamare sermonem. Oportet enim beneficiatum gratum esse, et gratias reddere, etiam si benefaciens non indigeat. wherefore it goes on: "But he having gone out, began to publish and to blaze abroad the tale;" for the person benefitted ought to be grateful, and to return thanks, even though his benefactor requires it not.
Gregorius Moralium: Merito autem quaeritur quidnam sit quod dominus quae gessit, abscondi iussit, et nec ad horam potuerunt abscondi? Sed notandum. Miraculum faciens taceri iussit, et tamen taceri non potuit, ut videlicet electi eius exempla doctrinae illius sequentes, in magnis quae faciunt latere quidem in voluntate habeant, sed ut prosint aliis, prodantur inviti. Non ergo voluit quicquam fieri, et minime potuit; sed quid velle eius membra debeant, quidve de eis etiam nolentibus fiat, doctrinae magisterio exemplum dedit. Bede, see Greg., Moral., 19, 22: Now it may well be asked, why our Lord ordered His action to be concealed, and yet it could not be kept hid for an hour? But it is to be observed, that the reason why, in doing a miracle, He ordered it to be kept secret, and yet for all that it was noised abroad, was, that His elect, following the example of His teaching, should wish indeed that in the great things which they do, they should remain concealed, but should nevertheless unwillingly be brought to light for the good of others. Not then that He wished any thing to be done, which He was not able to bring about, but, by the authority of His teaching, He gave an example of what His members ought to wish for, and of what should happen to them even against their will.
Beda: Unius autem perfecta salvatio multas ad dominum cogit turbas; unde subditur ita ut iam non posset manifeste introire in civitatem, sed foris in desertis locis esset. Bede: Further, this perfect cure of one man brought large multitudes to the Lord. Wherefore it is added, "So that He could not any more openly enter into the city, but could only be without in desert places."
Chrysostomus: Leprosus enim ubique praedicabat mirabilem curationem, ita ut omnes currerent ad visum, et fidem curantis: ut propter hoc dominus in civitatibus evangelizare non posset, sed in eremis conversaretur; unde Chrys.: For the leper every where proclaimed his wonderful cure, so that all ran to see and to believe on the Healer; thus the Lord could not preach the Gospel, but walked in desert places.
Sequitur et conveniebant ad eum undique. Wherefore there follows, "And they came together to Him from all places."
Hieronymus: Mystice lepra nostra peccatum primi hominis est, quae a capite coepit quando regna mundi desideravit: radix enim omnium malorum est cupiditas; unde Giezi avaritiam secutus lepra suffunditur. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, our leprosy is the sin of the first man, which began from the head, when he [p. 36] desired the kingdom of the world. For covetousness is the root of all evil; wherefore Gehazi, engaged in an avaritious pursuit, is covered with leprosy.
Beda: Extenta vero manu salvatoris, hoc est incarnato Dei verbo, humanamque contingente naturam, ab erroris prisci varietate mundatur. Bede: But when the hand of the Saviour, that is, the Incarnate Word of God, is stretched out, and touches human nature, it is cleansed from the various parts of the old error.
Hieronymus: Quae quidem lepra vero sacerdoti secundum ordinem Melchisedech ostensa, oblatione mundatur, eo dicente nobis: date eleemosynam, et omnia munda sunt vobis. Quod autem non poterat Iesus manifeste in civitatem introire, etc., significatur quod non omnibus manifestatus est Iesus, qui latis, atque plataneis serviunt laudibus, et propriis voluntatibus; sed his qui foras cum Petro exeunt, et in desertis locis sunt, quae elegit dominus ad orandum et reficiendum populum, qui scilicet deserunt delectationes mundi, et omnia quae possident, ut dicant: portio mea dominus. Gloria vero domini manifestatur his qui conveniunt undique, idest per plana, et ardua, quos nihil potest separare a caritate Christi. Pseudo-Jerome: This leprosy is cleansed on offering an oblation to the true Priest after the order of Melchisedec; for He tells us, "Give alms of such things as ye have, and, behold, all things are clean unto you." [Luke 11:41] But in that Jesus could not openly enter into the city, it is meant to be conveyed that Jesus is not manifested to those who are enslaved to the love of praise in the broad highway, and to their own wills, but to those who with Peter go into the desert, which the Lord chose for prayer, and for refreshing His people; that is, those who quit the pleasures of the world, and all that they possess, that they may say, "The Lord is my portion." But the glory of the Lord is manifested to those, who meet together on all sides, that is, through smooth ways and steep, whom nothing can "separate from the love of Christ." [Rom 8:35]
Beda: Post factum etiam in civitate miraculum secedit dominus in desertum, ut ostendat se magis quietam, et a saeculi curis remotam diligere vitam, atque ob huius appetitum se sanandis curam adhibere corporibus. Bede, in Marc., i, 10: Even after working a miracle in that city, the Lord retires into the desert, to shew that He loves best a quiet life, and one far removed from the cares of the world, and that it is on account of this desire, He applied Himself to the healing of the body.

Caput 2Gospel of Mark, Chapter 2[p. 37]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ εἰσελθὼν πάλιν εἰς καφαρναοὺμ δι' ἡμερῶν ἠκούσθη ὅτι ἐν οἴκῳ ἐστίν. 2 καὶ συνήχθησαν πολλοὶ ὥστε μηκέτι χωρεῖν μηδὲ τὰ πρὸς τὴν θύραν, καὶ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον. 3 καὶ ἔρχονται φέροντες πρὸς αὐτὸν παραλυτικὸν αἰρόμενον ὑπὸ τεσσάρων. 4 καὶ μὴ δυνάμενοι προσενέγκαι αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν ὄχλον ἀπεστέγασαν τὴν στέγην ὅπου ἦν, καὶ ἐξορύξαντες χαλῶσι τὸν κράβαττον ὅπου ὁ παραλυτικὸς κατέκειτο. 5 καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ, τέκνον, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. 6 ἦσαν δέ τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐκεῖ καθήμενοι καὶ διαλογιζόμενοι ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν, 7 τί οὗτος οὕτως λαλεῖ; βλασφημεῖ: τίς δύναται ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός; 8 καὶ εὐθὺς ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ ὅτι οὕτως διαλογίζονται ἐν ἑαυτοῖς λέγει αὐτοῖς, τί ταῦτα διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν; 9 τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν τῷ παραλυτικῷ, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι, ἢ εἰπεῖν, ἔγειρε καὶ ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ περιπάτει; 10 ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς —λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ, 11 σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειρε ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου. 12 καὶ ἠγέρθη καὶ εὐθὺς ἄρας τὸν κράβαττον ἐξῆλθεν ἔμπροσθεν πάντων, ὥστε ἐξίστασθαι πάντας καὶ δοξάζειν τὸν θεὸν λέγοντας ὅτι οὕτως οὐδέποτε εἴδομεν.
1. And again He entered into Capernaum after some days; and it was noised that He was in the house. 2. And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and He preached the word unto them. 3. And they came unto Him, bringing one sick of the palsy, who was carried by four. 4. And when they could not come nigh unto Him for the press, they uncovered the roof where He was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. 5. When Jesus saw their faith, He said unto the sick of the palsy, "Son, thy sins be forgiven thee." 6. But there were certain of the Scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, 7. Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only? 8. And immediately when Jesus perceived in His spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, He said unto them, "Why reason ye these things in your hearts? 9. Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk? 10. But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (He saith to the sick of the palsy,) [p. 38] 11. I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way into thine house." 12. And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all; insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, "We never saw it on this fashion."

Beda: Quia nec carnales superna pietas deserit, quin etiam his gratiam suae visitationis, per quam et ipsi spiritales effici valeant, indulget; post desertum dominus redit in civitatem; unde dicitur et iterum intravit Capharnaum post dies octo. Bede, in Marc., 1, 10: Because the compassion of God deserts not even carnal persons, He accords to them the grace of His presence, by which even they may be made spiritual. After the desert, the Lord returns into the city.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Matthaeus autem hoc miraculum quod sequitur, ita scribit tamquam in civitate domini factum sit, Marcus autem hoc in Capharnaum; quod difficilius solveretur, si Matthaeus etiam Nazareth nominaret. Nunc vero cum potuerit ipsa Galilaea dici civitas Christi, quia in Galilaea erat Nazareth; quis dubitaverit in civitate sua hoc fecisse dominum, cum hoc fecerit in Capharnaum civitate Galilaeae, praesertim quia et ipsa Capharnaum ita excellebat in Galilaea, ut tamquam metropolis haberetur? Vel Matthaeus praetermisit quae gesta sunt postquam venit in civitatem suam, donec veniret Capharnaum, et sic adiungit de sanato paralytico, subiungens: et ecce offerebant ei paralyticum, postquam dixerat, quod venit in civitatem suam. Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 25: But Matthew writes this miracle as if it were done in the city of the Lord, whilst Mark places it in Capernaum, which would be more difficult of solution, if Matthew had also named Nazareth. But seeing that Galilee itself might be called the city of the Lord, who can doubt but that the Lord did these things in His own city, since He did them in Capernaum, a city of Galilee; particularly as Capernaum was of such importance in Galilee as to be called its metropolis? Or else, Matthew passed by the things which were done after He came into His own city, until He came to Capernaum, and so adds on the story of the paralytic healed, subjoining, "And, behold, they presented to Him a man sick of the palsy," after he had said that He came into His own city. Wherefore it is said, "And again He entered into Capernaum, &c."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Vel Capharnaum civitatem eius dixit Matthaeus, eo quod saepius illuc ibat, ac multa ibidem miracula perpetrabat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else, Matthew called Capernaum His city because He went there frequently, and there did many miracles.
Sequitur et auditum est quod in domo esset; et convenerunt multi, ita ut non caperet eos domus neque ad ianuam. Laborem enim accedendi desiderium audiendi superabat. Post hoc paralyticum introducunt, de quo et Matthaeus et Lucas dicunt; unde It goes on: "And it was noised that He was in the house, &c." For the desire of hearing Him was stronger that the toil of approaching Him. After this, they introduce the paralytic, of whom Matthew and Luke speak;
Sequitur et venerunt ferentes ad eum paralyticum, qui a quatuor portabatur. Invenientesque multitudine ianuam obturatam, per eam non potuerunt aliquatenus introire; sperantes autem portatores eum qui portabatur curationis gratiam posse promereri, lectum cum onere sublevantes, nudato tecto intromiserunt cum lecto paralyticum ante faciem salvatoris: et hoc est quod subditur et cum non possent offerre eum, et cetera. wherefore there follows: "And they came unto Him bearing one sick of the palsy, who was carried by four." Finding the door blocked up by the crowd, they could not by any means enter that way. Those who carried him, however, hoping that he could merit the grace of being healed, raising the bed with their burden, and uncovering the roof, lay him with his bed before the face of the Saviour. And this is that which is added: "And when they could not [p. 39] lay him before Him, &c."
Sequitur cum vidisset autem Iesus fidem illorum, ait paralytico: fili, dimittuntur tibi peccata tua. Non quidem dixit fidem paralytici, sed portantium: contingit enim aliquando quod aliquis fide alterius convalescit. There follows: "But when Jesus saw their faith, He said to the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee." He did not mean the faith of the sick man, but of his bearers; for it sometimes happens that a man is healed by the faith of another.
Beda: Intuendum sane quanti propria cuiuscumque fides apud Deum valeat, ubi tanti valuit aliena ut totus homo repente interius exteriusque salvatus exurgeret, et aliorum merito aliis relaxarentur errata. Bede: It may indeed be seen how much each person's own faith weighs with God, when that of another had such influence that the whole man at once rose up, healed body and soul, and by one man's merit, another should have his sins forgiven him.
Theophylactus: Ipsius etiam paralytici fidem vidit: etenim ille portari non sineret, nisi curationis fidem haberet. Theophylact: He saw the faith of the sick man himself, since he would not have allowed himself to be carried, unless he'd had faith to be healed.
Beda: Curaturus autem hominem a paralysi dominus primo peccatorum vincula dissolvit, ut ostenderet eum ob nexus culparum, artuum dissolutione fuisse damnatum, nec nisi his relaxatis membrorum posse recuperatione sanari. Mira autem humilitas: despectum et debilem, totisque membrorum dissolutum compagibus filium vocat, quem sacerdotes non dignarentur attingere: aut certe ideo filium, quia dimittuntur ei peccata sua. Bede: Moreover, the Lord being about to cure the man of the palsy, first loosed the chains of his sins, in order to shew that he was condemned to the loosening of his joints, because of the bonds of his sins, and could not be healed to the recovery of his limbs, unless these were first loosened. But Christ's wonderful humility calls this man, despised, weak, with all the joints of his limbs unstrung, a son, when the priests did not deign to touch him. Or at least, He therefore calls him a son because his sins are forgiven him.
Sequitur erant autem illic quidam de Scribis sedentes et cogitantes in cordibus suis: quid hic loquitur? Blasphemat. It goes on: "But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, Why doth this man speak blasphemies?"
Cyrillus: Arguunt autem eum blasphemiae, mortis praecipitantes sententiam: erat enim in lege mandatum, quod quicumque blasphemaret in Deum, morte puniretur. Hoc autem ei imponebant, quia sibi attribuebat divinam potestatem remittendi peccata; unde subditur quis potest dimittere peccata nisi solus Deus? Solus enim iudex omnium potestatem habet dimittendi peccata. Cyril [ed. note: Nicolai observes on this passage, Nihil tale occurrit in Cyrillo, tametsi blasphemiae ideo a Judaeis improperatae Christo meminit in Johannem, Lib. ii, e.3.]: Now they accuse Him of blasphemy, anticipating the sentence of His death: for there was a command in the Law, that whosoever blasphemed should be put to death. And this charge they laid upon Him, because He claimed for Himself the divine power of remitting sins. Wherefore it is added, "Who can forgive sin, save God only?" For the Judge of all alone has power to forgive sin.
Beda: Qui per eos quoque dimittit quibus dimittendi tribuit potestatem: et ideo Christus vere Deus esse probatur, quia dimittere peccata quasi Deus potest. Errant itaque Iudaei, qui cum Christum et Deum esse, et peccatum dimittere posse credant, Iesum tamen Christum esse non credunt. Sed multo dementius errant Ariani, qui cum Iesum et Christum esse, et peccata posse dimittere, Evangelii verbis devicti negare non audeant: nihilominus Deum negare non timent. At ipse perfidos salvare desiderans et occultorum cognitione, et virtute operum Deum se esse manifestat; nam Bede: Who remits sin by those also to whom He has assigned the power of remitting, and therefore Christ is proved to be very God, for He is able to remit sins as God. The Jews then are in error, who although they hold the Christ both to be God, and to be able to remit sins, do not however believe that Jesus is the Christ. But the Arians err much more madly, who [p. 40] although overwhelmed with the words of the Evangelist, so that they cannot deny that Jesus is the Christ, and can remit sin, nevertheless fear not to deny that He is God. But He Himself, desiring to shame the traitors both by His knowledge of things hidden and by the virtue of His works, manifests Himself to be God.
Sequitur quo statim cognito Iesus spiritu suo, quia sic cogitarent intra se, dicit illis: quid ista cogitatis in cordibus vestris? In quo ostendit se Deum, qui potest cordis occulta cognoscere, et quodammodo tacens loquitur: eadem maiestate et potentia qua cogitationes vestras intueor, possum et hominibus delicta dimittere. For there follows: "And immediately when Jesus perceived in His spirit that they so reasoned, He said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts?" In which He shews Himself to be God, since He can know the hidden things of the heart; and in a manner though silent He speaks thus, With the same power and majesty, by which I look upon your thoughts, I can forgive the sins of men.
Theophylactus: Sed quamvis fuerint eorum cogitationes revelatae, tamen permanent insensibiles, non in hoc consentientes quod peccata valeat dimittere qui novit eorum corda; unde dominus certificat de curatione animae per curationem corporis, demonstrans per visibile invisibile, per id quod est facile difficilius: quamvis ipsi non ita crederent. Pharisaei enim difficilius credebant sanare corpus tamquam manifestum, animam vero curare facilius, quia invisibilis est medela; ita ut talia cogitarent: ecce corpus curare desinit, et invisibilem curat animam: magis autem si valuisset, corpus iam curasset et non ad invisibile refugisset. Salvator igitur, ostendens quod utraque potest, ait quid est facilius? Quasi dicat: ego quidem per corporis medelam, quae secundum veritatem facilior est, difficilior autem vobis videtur, ostendam vobis animae sanitatem, quae difficilior est. Theophylact: But though their thoughts were laid bare, still they remain insensible, refusing to believe that He who knew their hearts could forgive sins, wherefore the Lord proves to them the cure of the soul by that of the body, shewing the invisible by the visible, that which is more difficult by that which is easier, although they did not look upon it as such. For the Pharisees thought it more difficult to heal the body, as being more open to view; but the soul more easy to cure, because the cure is invisible; so that they reasoned thus, Lo, He does not now cure the body, but heals the unseen soul; if He'd had more power, He would at once have cured the body, and not have fled for refuge to the unseen world. The Saviour, therefore, shewing that He can do both, says, "Which is easier?" as if He said, I indeed by the healing of the body, which is in reality more easy, but appears to you more difficult, will prove to you the health of the soul, which is really more difficult.
Chrysostomus: Et quia dicere, quam facere facilius est, adhuc manifesta erat contradictio, quia opus nondum erat manifestum: unde subdit ut autem sciatis quia potestatem habet filius hominis, etc.; quasi dicat: quoniam de verbo diffiditis, operationem inducam, quod erat invisibile confirmantem. Signanter autem dicit in terra dimittendi peccata, ut ostenderet quod humanae naturae potestatem divinitatis univit indivisibili unione; quia etsi factus est homo, tamen Dei verbum permansit; et si per dispensationem in terris cum hominibus conversaretur, non tamen prohibebatur miracula perpetrare, ac remissionem tribuere peccatorum: non enim humanitas diminuit aliquid de proprietatibus divinitatis, nec divinitas impedivit Dei verbum incommutabiliter, et veraciter in terris secundum carnem fieri filium hominis. Psuedo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: And because it is easier to say than to do, there was still manifestly something to say in opposition, for the work was not yet manifested. Wherefore He subjoins, "But that ye may know, &c." as if He said, Since ye doubt My word, I will bring on a work which will confirm what was unseen. But He says in a marked manner, "On earth to forgive sins," that He might shew that He has joined the power of the divinity to the human nature by an inseparable union, because although He was made man, yet He remained the Word of God; and although by an economy He conversed on the earth with men, nevertheless He was not prevented from working [p. 41] miracles and from giving remission of sins. For His human nature did not in any thing take away from these things which essentially belonged to His Divinity, nor the Divinity hinder the Word of God from becoming on earth, according to the flesh, the Son of Man without change and in truth.
Theophylactus: Dicit autem tolle grabatum tuum, ad maiorem miraculi certitudinem; ostendens quod non est secundum phantasiam, simulque ut ostenderet quod non solum curavit, sed et fortitudinem dedit: sic animas non solum a peccato convertit, sed eis virtutem tribuit ad operandum mandata. Theophylact: Again, He says, "Take up thy bed," to prove the greater certainty of the miracle, shewing that it is not a mere illusion; and at the same time to shew that He not only healed, but gave strength; thus He not only turns away souls from sin, but gives them the power of working out the commandments.
Beda: Fit igitur carnale signum, ut probetur spirituale; quamquam eiusdem virtutis sit et corporis et animae vitia dimittere; unde Bede: A carnal sign therefore is given, that the spiritual sign may be proved, although it belongs to the same power to do away with the distempers of both soul and body.
Sequitur et statim ille surrexit, et sublato grabato abiit coram omnibus. Whence it follows: "And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all."
Chrysostomus: Prius autem id quod quaerere venerat, scilicet animam, remittendo peccata, curavit, ut cum non credentes dubitaverint, tunc opus adducat in medium, ut verbum opere confirmetur, et per manifestum occultum, animae scilicet sanitas per medelam corporis ostendatur. Chrys.: Further, He first healed by the remission of sins that which He had come to seek, that is, a soul, so that when they faithlessly doubted, then He might bring forward a work before them, and in this way His word might be confirmed by the work, and a hidden sign be proved by an open one, that is, the health of the soul by the healing of the body.
Beda: Datur etiam nobis intelligentia, propter peccata plerasque evenire corporum debilitates; et idcirco forsitan prius dimittuntur peccata, ut, causis debilitatis ablatis, sanitas restituatur. Quinque enim de causis affliguntur homines molestiis carnis: aut propter merita augenda, ut Iob, et martyres; aut propter humilitatem conservandam, ut Paulus ab Angelo Satanae; aut ob peccata intelligenda, et corrigenda, ut Maria soror Moysi, et hic paralyticus; aut ad gloriam Dei, sicut caecus natus, et Lazarus; aut ad initium damnationis, sicut Herodes. Miranda est autem divinae potentiae virtus, ubi nulla temporis interveniente morula, iussu salvatoris salus festina comitatur; unde Bede: We are also informed, that many sicknesses of body arise from sins, and therefore perhaps sins are first remitted, that the causes of sickness being taken away, health may be restored. For men are afflicted by fleshly troubles for five causes, in order to increase their merits, as Job and the Martyrs; or to preserve their lowliness, as Paul by the messenger of Satan; or that they may perceive and correct their sins, as Miriam, the sister of Moses, and this paralytic; or for the glory of God, as the man born blind and Lazarus; or as the beginnings of the pains of damnation, as Herod and Antiochus. But wonderful is the virtue of the Divine power, where without the least interval of time, by the command of the Saviour, a speedy health accompanies His words.
Sequitur ita ut admirarentur. Relinquentes maius, scilicet remissionem peccatorum, admirantur tantummodo quod apparet, corporis scilicet sanitatem. Wherefore there follows: "Insomuch that they were all amazed." Leaving the greater thing, that is, the remission of sins, they only wonder at that which is apparent, that is, the health of the body.
Theophylactus: Non est autem hic paralyticus qui a Ioanne curatus narratur: ille enim hominem non habebat, hic vero quatuor; ille in probatica piscina curatur, hic vero in domo. Est autem unus qui a Matthaeo et Marco curatus narratur. Mystice autem est et nunc Christus in Capharnaum, in domo scilicet consolationis, idest in Ecclesia, quae est domus paralytici. Theophylact: This is not however the paralytic, whose cure [p. 42] is related by John, [John 5] for he had no man with him, this one had four; he is cured in the pool of the sheep market, but this one in a house. It is the same man, however, whose cure is related by Matthew [Matt. 9] and Mark. But mystically, Christ is still in Capernaum, in the house of consolation.
Beda: Praedicante autem domino in domo, non capiuntur neque ad ianuam, quia praedicante in Iudaea Christo gentiles ad audiendum nondum intrare valuerunt, ad quos tamen, etsi foris positos, doctrinae suae verba per praedicatores direxit. Bede: Moreover, whilst the Lord is preaching in the house, there is not room for them, not even at the door, because whilst Christ is preaching in Judaea, the Gentiles are not yet able to enter to hear Him, to whom, however, though placed without, he directed the words of His doctrine by His preachers.
Hieronymus: Paralysis autem typus est torporis quo piger iacet in mollitie carnis, habens desiderium salutis. Pseudo-Jerome: Again, the palsy is a type of the torpor, in which man lies slothful in the softness of the flesh, though desiring health.
Theophylactus: Si ergo ego dissolutis potentiis animae quasi paralyticus invirtuosus abeam ad bonum, et attollar a quatuor Evangelistis, ad Christum adducar, audiamque tunc fili, et relinquentur mihi peccata: filius enim Dei fit aliquis propter mandatorum operationem. Theophlyact: If therefore I, having the powers of my mind unstrung, remain, whenever I attempt any thing good without strength, as a palsied man, and if I be raised on high by the four Evangelists, and be brought to Christ, and there hear myself called son, then also are my sins quitted by me; for a man is called the son of God because he works the commandments.
Beda: Seu quia quatuor sunt virtutes quibus ad promerendam sospitatem homo fiducia mentis erigitur, quas nonnulli prudentiam, fortitudinem, temperantiam et iustitiam nuncupant. Desiderant autem paralyticum Christo offerre; sed turba interposita ab omni parte intercluduntur: quia saepe anima post infirmi corporis desidiam, supernae gratiae remedio cupiens innovari, priscae consuetudinis obstaculo retardatur; saepe inter ipsas orationis secretae dulcedines, et quasi suave cum domino colloquium, turba cogitationum interveniens aciem mentis, ne Christus videatur, impedit. Non itaque est in infimis ubi turbae tumultuantur remanendum; sed tectum domus, idest sacrae Scripturae sublimitas est appetenda, lexque domini meditanda. Bede: Or else, because there are four virtues, by which a man is through an assured heart exalted so that he merits safety; which virtues some call prudence, fortitude, temperance and justice. Again, they desire to bring the palsied man to Christ, but they are impeded on every side by the crowd which is between them, because often the soul desires to be renewed by the medicine of Divine grace, but through the sluggishness of the grovelling body is held back by the hindrance of old custom. Oftentimes amidst the very sweetness of secret prayer, and, as it may be called, the pleasant converse with God, a crowd of thoughts, cutting off the clear vision of the mind, shuts out Christ from its sight. Let us not then remain in the lowest ground, where the crowds are bustling, but aim at the roof of the house, that is, the sublimity of the Holy Scripture, and meditate on the law of the Lord.
Theophylactus: Sed quomodo ferar ad Christum, nisi tectum aperiatur? Tectum enim est intellectus, qui superponitur omnibus his quae in nobis sunt. Hic multum habet terrae quantum ad lateres fictiles, terrenas dico res: sed si haec sublevetur virtus, intellectus in nobis exoneratur. Post hoc submittatur, id est humilietur: non enim decet extolli de hoc quod intellectus est exoneratus, sed magis humiliari. Theophylact: But how should I be borne to Christ, if the roof be not opened. For the roof is the intellect, which is set above all those things which are within us; here it has much earth about it in the tiles which are made of clay, I mean, earthly things: but if these be taken away, the virtue of the intellect within [p. 43] us is freed from its load. After this let it be let down, that is, humbled. For it does not teach us to be puffed up, because our intellect has its load cleared away, but to be humbled still more.
Beda: Vel patefacto tecto aeger submittitur, quia reseratis Scripturarum mysteriis ad notitiam Christi pervenitur, hoc est, ad eius humilitatem fidei pietate descenditur. Quod autem cum grabato deponitur infirmus, significat ab homine adhuc in ista carne constituto Christum debere cognosci. De grabato autem surgere est animam se a carnalibus desideriis, ubi aegra iacebat, abstrahere. Grabatum tollere est ipsam quoque carnem per continentiae frena correptam spe caelestium praemiorum a deliciis segregare terrenis. Sublato autem grabato domum ire, ad Paradisum redire est. Vel sanus qui languerat, domum reportat grabatum, cum anima, remissione accepta peccatorum, cum ipso suo corpore ad internam sui custodiam se refert. Bede: Or else, the sick man is let down after the roof is opened, because, when the Scriptures are laid open to us we arrive at the knowledge of Christ, that is, we descend to His lowliness, by the dutifulness of faith. But by the sick man being let down with his bed, it is meant that Christ should be known by man, whilst yet in the flesh. But by rising from the bed is meant the soul's rousing itself from carnal desires, in which it was lying in sickness. To take up the bed is to bridle the flesh itself by the bands of continence, and to separate it from earthly pleasures, through the hope of heavenly rewards. But to take up the bed and to go home is to return to paradise. Or else the man, now healed, who had been sick carries back home his bed, when the soul, after receiving remission of sins, returns, even though encompassed with the body, to its internal watch over itself.
Theophylactus: Oportet etiam grabatum, idest corpus tollere ad operationem boni: tunc enim ad contemplationem pertingere valebimus, ita ut quae in nobis sunt cogitationes dicant: quoniam nunquam sic vidimus, idest nunquam sic intelleximus, sicut nunc a paralysi curati: qui enim a peccatis mundatus est, mundius videt. Theophylact: It is necessary to take up also one's bed, that is the body, to the working of good. For then shall we be able to arrive at contemplation, so that our thoughts should say within us, never have we seen in this way before, that is never understood as we have done since we have been cured of the palsy; for he who is cleansed from sin, sees more purely.

Lectio 2
13 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πάλιν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν: καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἤρχετο πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς. 14 καὶ παράγων εἶδεν λευὶν τὸν τοῦ ἁλφαίου καθήμενον ἐπὶ τὸ τελώνιον, καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, ἀκολούθει μοι. καὶ ἀναστὰς ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ. 15 καὶ γίνεται κατακεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ πολλοὶ τελῶναι καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ συνανέκειντο τῷ Ἰησοῦ καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ: ἦσαν γὰρ πολλοὶ καὶ ἠκολούθουν αὐτῷ. 16 καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς τῶν φαρισαίων ἰδόντες ὅτι ἐσθίει μετὰ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ τελωνῶν ἔλεγον τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, ὅτι μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν ἐσθίει; 17 καὶ ἀκούσας ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς [ὅτι] οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν οἱ ἰσχύοντες ἰατροῦ ἀλλ' οἱ κακῶς ἔχοντες: οὐκ ἦλθον καλέσαι δικαίους ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλούς.
13. And He went forth again by the sea side; and all the multitude resorted unto Him, and He taught them. 14. And as He passed by, He saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the receipt of custom, and said unto him, "Follow Me." And he arose and followed Him. 15. And it came to pass, that as Jesus sat at meat in his house, many Publicans and sinners sat also together with Jesus and His disciples; for there were many, and they followed Him. 16. And when the Scribes and Pharisees saw Him [p. 44] eat with Publicans and sinners, they said unto his disciples, "How is it that He eateth and drinketh with Publicans and sinners?" 17. When Jesus heard it, He said unto them, "They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."

Beda: Postquam dominus in Capharnaum docuit, egressus est ad mare, ut non solum civilem vitam hominum instrueret, verum etiam habitatoribus maris Evangelium regni praedicaret, eosque fluctivagos rerum labentium motus contemnere, ac fidei firmitate superare doceret; unde dicitur et egressus est Iesus ad mare, omnisque turba veniebat ad eum, et docebat eos. Bede: After that the Lord taught at Capernaum, He went to the sea, that He might not only set in order the life of men in towns, but also might preach the Gospel of the kingdom to those who dwelt near the sea, and might teach them to despise the restless motions of those things which pass away like the waves of the sea, and to overcome them by the firmness of faith. Wherefore it is said, "And He went forth again to the sea, and all the multitude, &c."
Theophylactus: Vel post miraculum ad mare egreditur, quasi solitarius volens esse; sed turba concurrit iterum: ut addiscas quod quantum fugis gloriam, tantum ipsa te per Theophylact: Or else, after the miracle, He goes to the sea, as if wishing to be alone, but the crowd runs to Him again, that thou mightest learn, that the more thou fliest from glory, the more she herself pursues thee; but if thou followest her, she will fly from thee. The Lord passing on from thence called Matthew.
Sequitur. Et si quidem tu ipsam persequeris, ipsa te fugiet. Inde autem transiens dominus vocavit Matthaeum; unde Wherefore there follows, "And as He passed by, He saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting, &c."
Sequitur et cum praeteriret, vidit levi Alphaei sedentem ad telonium.
Chrysostomus: Idem autem est publicanus a tribus Evangelistis nominatus, scilicet Matthaeus a Matthaeo, levi autem simpliciter a Luca, levi autem Alphaei a Marco: filius enim erat Alphaei. Binomios autem secundum Scripturam et alios est videre; sicut socer Moysi quandoque Ietro, quandoque Raguel vocatur. Chrys.: Now this is the same publican who is named by all the Evangelists; Matthew by Matthew; simply Levi by Luke; and Levi, the son of Alphaeus, by Mark; for he was the son of Alphaeus. And you may find persons with two names in other parts of Scripture; as Moses' father in law is sometimes called Jethro, sometimes Raguel.
Beda: Sic et idem est levi qui et Matthaeus; sed Lucas, Marcusque propter verecundiam, et honorem Evangelistae, nomen ponere nolunt vulgatum; ipse autem Matthaeus iuxta illud quod scriptum est: iustus accusator est sui, Matthaeum se, et publicanum nominat, ut ostendat legentibus, nullum debere conversum de salute diffidere, cum ipse de publicano in apostolum sit repente mutatus. Ad teloneum autem, idest ad curam, dispensationemque vectigalium sedentem dicit: telos, enim Graece, Latine vectigal nominatur. Bede, in Marc., 11: So also the same person is called Levi and Matthew; but Luke and Mark, on account of their reverence and the honour of the Evangelist, are unwilling to put the common name, while Matthew is a just accuser of himself, and calls himself Matthew and publican. He wishes to shew to his hearers that no one who is converted should despair of his salvation, since he himself was suddenly changed from a publican into an Apostle. but he says that he was sitting at the 'teloneum,' that is, the place where the customs are looked after [p. 45] and administered. For 'telos' in Greek is the same as 'vectigal,' customs, in Latin.
Theophylactus: Sedebat enim in telonio ut consuetudinis est, aut aliquos impetens, aut verba vendens, aut aliquid huiusmodi faciens, quibus in suis mansionibus telonearii utuntur: qui de hoc statu sic sublevatus est ut relinquens omnia, Christum sequeretur; unde Theophylact: For he sat at the receipt of custom, either, as is often done, exacting from some, or making up accounts, or doing some actions of that sort, which publicans are wont to do in their abodes, yea this man, who was raised on high from this state of life that he might leave all things and follow Christ.
Sequitur et ait illi: sequere me. Et surgens secutus est eum. Wherefore it goes on, "And He saith to him, Follow Me, &c."
Beda: Sequi autem imitari est: ideoque ut pauperem Christum non tam gressu, quam affectu imitari posset, reliquit propria qui rapere solebat aliena. Non solum autem lucra reliquit vectigalium, sed et periculum contempsit quod evenire poterat a principibus saeculi: quia vectigalium rationes imperfectas atque incompositas reliquit. Ipse enim dominus, qui hunc exterius humana allocutione ut sequeretur vocavit, intus divina inspiratione, ut mox vocantem sequeretur, accendit. Bede: Now to follow is to imitate, and therefore in order to imitate the poverty of Christ, in the feeling of his soul even more than in outward condition, he who used to rob his neighbour's wealth, now leaves his own. And not only did he quit the gain of the customs, but he also despised the peril, which might come from the princes of this world, because he left the accounts of the customs imperfect and unsettled. For the Lord Himself, Who externally, by human language, called Him to follow, inflamed him inwardly by divine inspiration to follow Him the moment that He called him.
Hieronymus: Sic ergo levi, qui appositus interpretatur, a telonio negotiorum saecularium solum sequitur verbum quod dicit: qui non renuntiaverit omnibus quae possidet, non potest meus esse discipulus. Pseudo-Jerome: Thus then Levi, which means Appointed, followed from the custom-house of human affairs, the Word, Who says, "He who doth not quit all that he has, cannot be My disciple."
Theophylactus: Qui autem prius alios impetebat sic factus est benevolus ut ad comestionem plurimos convocaret: unde sequitur et factum est cum accumberet, scilicet Iesus, in domo illius, multi publicani, et peccatores simul discumbebant cum Iesu et discipulis eius. Theophylact: But he who used to plot against others becomes so benevolent, that he invites many persons to eat with him. Wherefore it goes on: "And it came to pass, that as Jesus sat at meat in his house."
Beda: Publicani autem appellantur hi qui vectigalia publica exigunt, sive qui conductores sunt vectigalium fisci, vel rerum publicarum, nec non et hi qui saeculi huius lucra per negotia sectantur, eodem vocabulo censentur. Viderant itaque publicanum a peccatis ad meliora conversum, locum invenisse poenitentiae, et ob id etiam non desperant salutem. Neque vero in pristinis vitiis permanentes publicani veniunt ad Iesum, ut Pharisaei et Scribae; sed poenitentiam agentes, ut sequens Evangelistae sermo designat, dicens erant enim multi qui sequebantur eum. Ibat enim dominus ad convivia peccatorum, ut occasionem haberet docendi, et spirituales invitatoribus suis praeberet cibos: quod mysteriorum figuris congruit; qui enim domicilio Christum recipit interno, maximis delectationibus exuberantium pascitur voluptatum. Itaque dominus libenter ingreditur, et in eius qui crediderit recumbit affectu; et hoc est bonorum operum spirituale convivium, quo dives populus eget, et pauper epulatur. Bede, in Marc. i, 12: The persons here called publicans are those who exact the public customs, or men who farm the customs of the exchequer or of republics; moreover, those also, who follow after the gain of this world by business, are called by the same name. They who had seen that the publican, converted from his sins to better things, had found a place of pardon, even for this reason themselves also do not despair of salvation. And they come to Jesus, not remaining in their former sins, as the Pharisees and Scribes complain, but in penitence, as the following words of the Evangelist shew, saying, "For there were many who followed Him." For the Lord went to the feasts of sinners, that He might have an opportunity of teaching them, and might set before His entertainers spiritual meats, which also is carried on in mystical figures. For he who receives Christ into his inward habitation [p. 46] is fed with the highest delights of overflowing pleasures. Therefore the Lord enters willingly, and takes up His abode in the affection of him who hath believed on Him; and this is the spiritual banquet of good works, which the rich cannot have, and on which the poor feast.
Theophylactus: Pharisaei autem hoc arguunt, quasi puros se facientes; unde sequitur et Pharisaei videntes quia manducaret cum publicanis et peccatoribus, dixerunt discipulis eius: quare cum publicanis et peccatoribus manducat et bibit magister vester? Theophylact: But the Pharisees blame this, making themselves pure. Whence there follows: "And when the Scribes and Pharisees saw Him eat, &c."
Beda: Si per Matthaei electionem et vocationem publicanorum, fides exprimitur gentium, quae prius mundi lucris inhiabant: profecto supercilium Scribarum et Pharisaeorum, Iudaeorum invidiam insinuat, qui de gentium salute torquentur. Bede: If by the election of Matthew and calling of the publicans, the faith of the Gentiles is expressed, who formerly were intent on the gains of this world; certainly the haughtiness of the Scribes and Pharisees intimates the envy of the Jewish people, who are vexed at the salvation of the Gentiles.
Sequitur hoc audito Iesus ait illis: non necesse habent sani medico, sed qui male habent. Sugillat Scribas et Pharisaeos, qui iustos se putantes, peccatorum consortia declinabant. Seipsum medicum dicit, qui miro medicandi genere vulneratus est propter iniquitates nostras, et eius livore sanati sumus; sanos autem et iustos appellat eos, qui suam iustitiam nolentes statuere, iustitiae Dei sunt subiecti; porro male habentes, et peccatores vocat eos qui suae fragilitatis conscientia devicti, nec per legem se iustificari posse videntes, Christi gratiae poenitendo colla submittunt; unde subditur non enim veni vocare iustos, sed peccatores;

non quidem ut maneant peccatores, sed ut ad poenitentiam convertantur.

It goes on: "When Jesus heard it, He saith unto them, They that are whole need not the physician, but they that are sick." He aims at the Scribes and Pharisees, who, thinking themselves righteous, refused to keep company with sinners. He calls Himself the physician, Who, by a strange mode of healing, was wounded on account of our iniquities, and by His wound we are healed. And He calls those whole and righteous, who, wishing to establish their own righteousness, are not subject to the righteousness of God. Moreover He calls those rich and sinners, who, overcome by the consciousness of their own frailty, and seeing that they cannot be justified by the Law, submit their necks to the grace of Christ by repentance. Wherefore it is added, "For I came not to call the righteous, but sinners, &c."

Theophylact: Not indeed that they should continue sinners, but be converted to that repentance.


Lectio 3
18 καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ ἰωάννου καὶ οἱ φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες. καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ ἰωάννου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ σοὶ μαθηταὶ οὐ νηστεύουσιν; 19 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ' αὐτῶν ἐστιν νηστεύειν; ὅσον χρόνον ἔχουσιν τὸν νυμφίον μετ' αὐτῶν οὐ δύνανται νηστεύειν: 20 ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ' αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ. 21 οὐδεὶς ἐπίβλημα ῥάκους ἀγνάφου ἐπιράπτει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν: εἰ δὲ μή, αἴρει τὸ πλήρωμα ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τὸ καινὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ, καὶ χεῖρον σχίσμα γίνεται. 22 καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς: εἰ δὲ μή, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἀπόλλυται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοί, ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς.
18. And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast: and they come and say unto Him, "Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?" 19. And Jesus said unto them, "Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 20. But the days will come, when the bridegroom [p. 47] shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days. 21. No man also seweth a piece of new cloth on an old garment: else the new piece that filled it up taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse. 22. And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put into new bottles."

Glossa: Sicut superius apud discipulos magister arguebatur de consortio peccatorum in conviviis; ita nunc e converso apud magistrum discipuli incusantur de ieiuniorum omissione, ut sic inter eos materia dissidii oriretur; unde dicitur et erant discipuli Ioannis et Pharisaeorum ieiunantes. Gloss.: As above, the Master was accused to the disciples for keeping company with sinners in their feasts, so now, on the other hand, the disciples are complained of to the Master for their omission of fasts, that so matter for dissension might arise amongst them. Wherefore it is said, "And the disciples of John and the Pharisees used to fast."
Theophylactus: Ioannis enim discipuli in imperfecto positi, in consuetudinibus Iudaicis permanebant. Theophylact: For the disciples of John being in an imperfect state, continued in Jewish customs.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Potest autem putari, ideo addidisse Pharisaeos, quod simul cum discipulis Ioannis hoc quod sequitur domino dixerint; cum Matthaeus hoc discipulos Ioannis tantum dixisse perhibeat; sed verba quae sequuntur magis indicant alios hoc dixisse de aliis; Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 27: But it may be thought that He added Pharisees, because they joined with the disciples of John in saying this to the Lord, whilst Matthew relates that the disciples of John alone said it: but the words which follow father shew that those who said it spoke not of themselves, but of others.
Sequitur enim et veniunt, et dicunt illi: quare discipuli Ioannis et Pharisaeorum ieiunant, tui autem discipuli non ieiunant? Haec enim verba indicant, convivas qui aderant venisse ad Iesum, et hoc idem discipulis dixisse, ita ut quod ait veniunt, non de ipsis dixerit, de quibus interposuerat et erant discipuli Ioannis et Pharisaeorum ieiunantes. Sed cum isti essent ieiunantes, veniunt illi quos hoc movet. Unde ergo Matthaeus dicit: et accesserunt ad eum discipuli Ioannis dicentes, nisi quia et apostoli aderant, et omnes certatim, ut quisque poterat, haec obiecerunt? For it goes on, "And they came and say unto Him, Why do the disciples, &c." For these words shew, that the guests who were there came to Jesus, and had said this same thing to the disciples, so that in the words which he uses, "they came," he speaks not of those same persons, of whom he had said, "And the disciples of John and the Pharisees were fasting." But as they were fasting, those persons who remembered it, come to Him. Matthew then says this, "And there came to Him the disciples of John, saying," because the Apostles also were there, and all eagerly, as each could, objected these things.
Chrysostomus: Discipuli ergo Ioannis, et Pharisaeorum contra Christum zelotype se habentes, ipsum interrogant, utrum solus cum discipulis suis absque abstinentia et labore pugnas superet passionum. Chrys.: The disciples of John, therefore, and of the Pharisees, being jealous of Christ, ask Him, whether He alone of all men with His disciples could, without abstinence and toil, conquer in the fight of the passions.
Beda: Sed Ioannes vinum et siceram non bibit; dominus cum peccatoribus manducat et bibit: quia illi abstinentia meritum auget cui potentia nulla inerat naturae; dominus autem, cui naturaliter suppetebat delicta donare, cur eos declinaret quos abstinentibus poterat reddere puriores? Sed ieiunavit et Christus, ne praeceptum declinares; manducavit cum peccatoribus, ut gratiam cerneres, agnosceres potestatem. Bede: But John [p. 48] did not drink wine and strong drink, because he who has no power by nature, obtains more merit by abstinence. But why should the Lord, to whom it naturally belonged to forgive sins, shun those whom he could make more pure, than those who fast? But Christ also fasted, lest He should break the precept, "He ate with sinners," that thou mightest see His grace, and acknowledge His power.
Sequitur et ait illis Iesus: numquid possunt filii nuptiarum, quamdiu est cum illis sponsus, ieiunare? It goes on; "And Jesus said unto them, Can the children, &c."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Marcus hic filios nuptiarum appellat, Matthaeus autem filios sponsi: filios enim nuptiarum non tantum sponsi, sed etiam sponsae intelligimus. Augustine: Mark here calls them children of the nuptials, whom Matthew calls children of the bridegroom; for we understand the children of the nuptials to be not only those of the bridegroom, but also of the bride.
Chrysostomus: Sponsum ergo seipsum vocat, tamquam Ecclesiam desponsaturus. Est enim desponsatio datio arrhae, scilicet gratiae spiritus sancti, per quam credidit orbis terrae. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He then calls Himself a bridegroom, as if about to be betrothed to the Church. For the betrothal is giving an earnest, namely, that the grace of the Holy Ghost, by which the world believed.
Theophylactus: Sponsum etiam seipsum vocat, non solum tamquam virginales animas desponsantem, sed quia tempus primi adventus eius non est doloris neque tristitiae his qui credunt in eum, neque labores continens, sed requiem: est enim absque operatione legali dans requiem per Baptismum, per quem facile sine labore salutem consequimur. Filii autem nuptiarum, sive sponsi, sunt apostoli: quia ipsi Dei gratia digni sunt facti omni bono caelesti, ac omni delectatione participes. Theophylact: He also calls Himself a bridegroom, not only as betrothing to Himself virgin minds, but because the time of His first coming is not a time of sorrow, nor of sadness to believers, neither does it bring with it toil, but rest. For it is without any works of the law, giving rest by baptism, by which we easily obtain salvation without toil. But the sons of the nuptials or of the Bridegroom are the Apostles; because they, by the grace of God, are made worthy of every heavenly blessing, by the grace of God, and partakers of every joy.
Chrysostomus: Conversationem autem suam omnis angustiae dicit esse alienam, cum subdit quanto tempore habent secum sponsum, non possunt ieiunare. Ille tristatur qui praesens bonum non habet; qui vero in praesenti accipit, gaudet, et non tristatur. Ut autem elationem illorum destrueret, et ostenderet quod non ad lasciviam proprios discipulos conservabat, subiungit venient autem dies cum auferetur ab eis sponsus, et tunc ieiunabunt in illis diebus; quasi dicat: tempus erit in quo suam virilitatem demonstrent: quando enim subtrahetur ab eis sponsus, ieiunabunt, eius affectantes adventum, ut spiritus illi coniungant per corporales angustias emundatos. Ostendit etiam quod nulla necessitas est ut sui ieiunent, sicut illi qui sponsum humanae naturae, qui ubique praesidet verbis Dei, et qui tribuit semen vitae, secum habebant praesentem. Filii etiam sponsi, quia infantes sunt, non possunt per totum conformari patri et sponso, qui eorum infantiam considerans dignatur eos non tunc ieiunare; recedente autem sponso, propter desiderium ieiunabunt; sed cum perfecti fuerint, et sponso coniungentur in nuptiis, regalem semper comedent coenam. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But intercourse with Him, He says, is far removed from all sorrow, when He adds, "As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast." He is said, from whom some good is far removed; but he who has it present with him rejoices, and is not sad. But that He might destroy their elation of heart, and shew that He intended not His own disciples to be licentious, He adds, "But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken, &c." as if He said, The time will come, when they will shew their firmness; for when the Bridegroom shall be taken from them, they will fast as longing for His coming, and in order to unite to Him their spirits, cleansed by bodily suffering. He shews also that there is no necessity for His disciples to fast, as having present with them the Bridegroom of human nature, Who every where executes the words of God, and Who gives the seed [p. 49] of life. The sons of the Bridegroom also cannot, because they are infants, be entirely conformed to their Father, the Bridegroom, Who, considering their infancy, deigns to allow them not to fast: but when the Bridegroom is gone, they will fast, through desire of Him; when they have been made perfect, they will be united to the Bridegroom in marriage, and will always feast at the king's banquet.
Theophylactus: Intelligendum est autem et sic: quoniam omnis homo qui bene operatur est sponsi filius, et sponsum secum habet, scilicet Christum, et non ieiunat, idest opera poenitentiae non ostendit, quia non peccat; quando vero aufertur sponsus, homine in peccatum labente, tunc ieiunat, et poenitet, ut curet delictum. Theophylact: We must also understand that every man whose works are good is the son of the Bridegroom; he has the Bridegroom with him, even Christ, and fasts not, that is, does no works of repentance, because he does not sin: but when the Bridegroom is taken away by the man's falling into sin, then he fasts and is penitent, that he may cure his sin.
Beda: Mystico autem sensu potest sic exponi quod discipuli Ioannis et Pharisaei ieiunant: quia omnis qui de operibus legis sine fide gloriatur, et qui traditiones sequitur hominum, et praeconium Christi aure corporis, non fide cordis percipit, spiritualibus abstinens bonis, ieiuno corde tabescit; qui vero Christi membris fideli incorporatur amore, non potest ieiunare, quia carne ipsius epulatur et sanguine. Bede: But in a mystical sense, it may thus be expressed; that the disciples of John and the Pharisees fast, because every man who boasts of the works of the law without faith, who follows the traditions of men, and receives the preaching of Christ with his bodily ear, and not by the faith of the heart, keeps aloof from spiritual goods, and wastes away with a fasting soul. But he who is incorporated into the members of Christ by a faithful love cannot fast, because he feasts upon His Body and Blood.
Sequitur nemo assumentum panni rudis, idest novi, assuit vestimento veteri. It goes on, "No one seweth a piece of" rough, that is, "new, cloth on an old garment: else the new piece that filleth it up taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse."
Chrysostomus: Quasi dicat: quia hi novi praedicatores testamenti existunt, legibus eos servire veteribus possibile non est; vos autem congrue veteres sequentes consuetudines, Mosaica ieiunia observatis; isti vero novas, ac mirabiles observationes tradituri hominibus, veteres observare non est necesse, sed esse mentibus virtuosos: aliquo vero tempore ieiunium cum ceteris virtutibus observabunt. Sed hoc ieiunium differt a ieiunio legis; quia illud erat ex necessitate, hoc ex voluntate, propter fervorem spiritus, cuius nondum sunt capaces; unde sequitur et nemo mittit vinum novum in utres veteres. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: As if He said, because these are preachers of the New Testament, it is not possible that they should serve old laws; but ye who follow old customs, fitly observe the fasts of Moses. But for these, who are about to hand down to men new and wonderful observances, it is not necessary to observe the old traditions, but to be virtuous in mind; some time or other however they will observe fasting with other virtues. But this fasting is different from the fasting of the law, for that was one of restraint, this of goodwill; on account of the fervour of the Spirit, Whom they cannot yet receive. Wherefore it goes on, "And no one putteth new wine into old bottles: else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put in new bottles."
Beda: Discipulos enim veteribus comparat utribus, quos vino novo, idest spiritualibus praeceptis, facilius disrumpi, quam posse continere dicit. Erunt autem utres novi cum post ascensum domini desiderio consolationis eius innovabuntur; et tunc novum vinum novis utribus adveniet; hoc est, spiritus sancti fervor spiritualium corda replebit. Doctori etiam cavendum est, ne animae in vetustate malitiae perduranti, novorum mysteriorum secreta committat. Bede: For He compares His disciples to old bottles, who would burst at spiritual precepts, rather than be held in [p. 50] restraint by them. But they will be new bottles, when after the ascension of the Lord, they are renewed by desiring His consolation, and then new wine will come to the new bottles, that is, the fervour of the Holy Ghost will fill the hearts of spiritual men. A teacher must also take heed not to commit the hidden things of the new mysteries to a soul, hardened in old wickedness.
Theophylactus: Vel aliter. Discipuli veteribus vestimentis assimilati sunt propter eorum mentis infirmitatem, quibus non erat congruum imponere statutum grave ieiunii. Theophylact: Or else the disciples are likened to old garments on account of the infirmity of their minds, on which it was not fitting to impose the heavy command of fasting.
Beda: Neque conveniens erat novum pannum assuere, quod est aliqua particula doctrinae, quae ad novae vitae temperantiam pertinet, quae generale docet ieiunium ab omni laetitia temporalium delectationum: quia si hoc fiat, et doctrina scinditur, et non convenit vetustati. Vestimento autem novo bona opera, quae foris aguntur, insinuantur; vino autem novo fervor fidei, spei et caritatis, quo intus reformamur, exprimitur. Bede: Neither was it fitting to sew on a new piece; that is, a portion of doctrine which teaches a general fast from all the joy of temporal delights; for if this be done, the teaching is rent, and agrees not with the old part. But by a new garment is intended good works, which are done externally, and by the new wine, is expressed the fervour of faith, hope, and charity, by which we are reformed in our minds.

Lectio 4
23 καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν παραπορεύεσθαι διὰ τῶν σπορίμων, καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν τίλλοντες τοὺς στάχυας. 24 καὶ οἱ φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ, ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν; 25 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν δαυίδ, ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν καὶ ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετ' αὐτοῦ; 26 πῶς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπὶ ἀβιαθὰρ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγεν, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἱερεῖς, καὶ ἔδωκεν καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν; 27 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον: 28 ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου.
23. And it came to pass, that He went through the corn fields on the sabbath day; and His disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn. 24. And the Pharisees said unto Him, "Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful?" 25. And He said unto them, "Have ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was an hungred, he, and they that were with him? 26. How he went into the house of God, in the days of Abiathar the High Priest, and did eat the shewbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him?" 27. And He said unto them, "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath: 28. Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath."

Chrysostomus: Liberati a figura, et veritati uniti Christi discipuli, figurale sabbati festum non servant; unde dicitur et factum est iterum, cum dominus sabbatis ambularet per sata, et discipuli eius coeperunt progredi et vellere spicas. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The disciples of Christ, freed from the figure, and united to the truth, do not keep the figurative feast of the sabbath. Wherefore it is said, "And it came to pass, [p. 51] that He went through the corn fields on the sabbath day; and His disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn."
Beda: Legimus et in sequentibus, quod erant qui veniebant, et redibant multi, et nec manducandi quidem spatium habebant: et ideo quasi homines esuriebant. Bede, in Marc., 1, 13: We read also in the following part, that they who came and went away were many, and that they had not time enough to take their food, wherefore, according to man's nature, they were hungry.
Chrysostomus: Esurientes autem escam simplicem comedebant, non ad voluptatem, sed propter naturae necessitatem. Pharisaei autem figurae et umbrae servientes, discipulos accusabant tamquam iniuste agentes: unde sequitur Pharisaei autem dicebant ei: ecce quid faciunt discipuli tui sabbatis quod non licet. Chrys., see Hom. in Matt., 39: But being hungry, they ate simple food, not for pleasure, but on account of the necessity of nature. The Pharisees however, serving the figure and the shadow, accused the disciples of doing wrong. Wherefore there follows, "But the Pharisees said unto Him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful."
Augustinus de Oper. Monach: Populo siquidem Israel per legem praeceptum est ut in agris suis furem nullus teneret, nisi qui secum aliquid vellet auferre: nam qui nihil aliud attigisset, quam id quod comedisset, liberum impunitumque abire sineret; unde etiam spicas vellentibus discipulis domini, de sabbato potius quam de furto Iudaei calumniati sunt. Augustine, de Op. Monach., 23: For it was a precept in Israel, delivered by a written law, that no one should detain a thief found in his fields, unless he tried to take something away with him. For the man who had touched nothing else but what he had eaten they were commanded to allow to go away free and unpunished. Wherefore the Jews accused our Lord's disciples, who were plucking the ears of corn, of breaking the sabbath, rather than of theft.
Chrysostomus: Dominus autem David in medium introducit, cui aliquando contigit non secundum legem comedere, cum sacerdotalem tetigit cibum, ut illius exemplo accusationem discipulorum solvat; Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But our Lord brings forward David, to whom it once happened to eat though it was forbidden by the law, when he touched the Priest's food, that by his example, He might do away with their accusation of the disciples.
Sequitur enim et ait illis: numquam legistis quid fecerit David? For there follows, "Have ye never read, &c."
Theophylactus: Fugiens enim David a facie Saul ad principem sacerdotum devenit, et panes propositionis comedit, et gladium abstulit Goliae; quae domino erant oblata. Quaerunt vero aliqui qualiter nunc Evangelista Abiathar principem sacerdotum nominavit, cum liber regum hunc nominet Abimelech. Theophylact: For David, when flying from the face of Saul [1 Sam 21] went to the Chief Priest, and ate the shew-bread, and took away the sword of Goliath, which things had been offered to the Lord. But a question has been raised how the Evangelist called Abiathar at this time High Priest, when the Book of Kings calls him Abimelech.
Beda: Hoc autem nihil habet dissonantiae: ambo enim fuerunt illic, cum veniens David panes petiit, et accepit: Abimelech videlicet princeps sacerdotum, et Abiathar filius eius. Occiso autem Abimelech a Saule, fugit Abiathar ad David, et comes factus totius exilii eius, postea, eo regnante, summi sacerdotii et ipse gradum accepit, multoque maioris excellentiae filius quam pater effectus est; ideo dignus fuit cuius memoriam dominus, etiam vivente patre, quasi summi sacerdotis faceret. Bede: There is, however, no discrepancy, for both were there, when David came to ask for bread, and received it: that is to say, Abimelech, the High Priest, and Abiathar his son; but Abimelech having been slain by Saul, Abiathar fled to David, and became the companion of all his exile afterwards. When he came to the throne, he himself also received the rank of High Priest, and the son became of much greater excellence than the father, and therefore was worthy to be mentioned as the High Priest, [p. 52] even during his father's life-time.
Sequitur et dicebat eis: sabbatum propter hominem factum est, et non homo propter sabbatum. Maior enim est cura sanitati, et vitae hominis quam custodia sabbati adhibenda. Sic enim mandatum est sabbatum custodiri, ut tamen si necessitas esset, reus non esset qui sabbatum violasset; ideo sabbato circumcidi non est prohibitum, quia necesse erat fieri; et Machabaei necessitate instante sabbato pugnabant: unde discipulis esurientibus quod licitum non erat in lege, necessitate famis factum est licitum; sicut hodie si quis aeger ieiunium corruperit, nulla ratione reus tenetur. It goes on: "And He said to them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath." For greater is the care to be taken of the health and life of a man, than the keeping of the sabbath. Therefore the sabbath was ordered to be observed in such a way, that, if there were a neccesity, he should not be guilty, who broke the sabbath-day; therefore it was not forbidden to circumcise on the sabbath, because that was a necessary work. And the Maccabees, when necessity pressed on them, fought on the sabbath-day. Wherefore, His disciples being hungry, what was not allowed in the law became lawful through their necessity of hunger; as now, if a sick man break a fast, he is not held guilty in any way.
Sequitur itaque dominus est filius hominis etiam sabbati; quasi dicat: David rex sacerdotali cibo pastus excusabilis est; quanto magis filius hominis, verus rex et sacerdos, et dominus sabbati, evulsarum sabbato spicarum noxa non tenetur? It goes on: "Therefore the Son of man is Lord, &c." As if He said, David the king is to be excused for feeding on the food of the Priests, how much more the Son of man, the true King and Priest, and Lord of the sabbath, is free from fault, for pulling ears of corn on the sabbath-day.
Chrysostomus: Dominum quidem sabbati, et filium hominis seipsum proprie vocat: quoniam quidem Dei existens filius, filius hominis propter homines dignatus est dici. Legis autem latori, et domino lex non dominatur; plus enim licet regi quam legibus statuatur. Infirmis quidem datur lex, non perfectis, et operantibus supra legem. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He calls himself properly, Lord of the sabbath, and Son of man, since being the Son of God, He deigned to be called Son of man, for the sake of men. Now the law has no authority over the Lawgiver and Lord, for more is allowed the king, than is appointed by the law. The law is given to the weak indeed, but not to the perfect and to those who work above what the law enjoins.
Beda: Mystice autem discipuli per sata transeunt, cum doctores sancti quos in fide instituerunt cura piae sollicitudinis inspiciunt; quos esurire nihil melius quam salutem intelligimus hominum. Vellere autem spicas est homines a terrena intentione eruere, fricare autem manibus est exemplis virtutum a carnis concupiscentia, quasi a quibusdam folliculis, puritatem mentis exuere: grana manducare est emundatum quemque a sordibus vitiorum per ora praedicantium, Ecclesiae membris incorporari. Et bene hoc discipuli progredientes ante faciem domini fecisse memorantur: quia doctoris necesse est sermo praecedat, et sic cor auditoris subsequens gratia supernae visitationis illustret. Bene sabbatis: quia et ipsi doctores in praedicando pro spe futurae quietis laborant, et auditores suos monent pro aeterna requie insudare laboribus. Bede: But in a mystical sense the disciples pass through the corn fields, when the holy doctors look with the care of a pious solicitude upon those whom they have initiated in the faith, and who, it is implied, are hungering for the best of all things, the salvation of men. But to pluck the ears of corn means to snatch men away from the eager desire of earthly things. And to rub with the hands is by example of virtue to put from the purity of their minds the concupiscence of the flesh, as men do husks. To eat the grains is when a man, cleansed from the filth of vice by the mouths of preachers, is incorporated amongst the members of the Church. Again, fitly are the disciples related to have done this, walking before the face of the Lord, for it is necessary that the discourse of the doctor should come first, although the grace of visitation from on high, following it, must enlighten the heart of the hearer. As well, on the sabbath-day, for the doctors themselves in [p. 53] preaching labour for the hope of future rest, and teach their hearers to toil over their tasks for the sake of eternal repose.
Theophylactus: Vel quia cum habent in passionibus requiem, tunc aliis ad virtutem ductores fiunt, evellentes terrena. Theophylact: Or else, because when they have rest from their passions, then are they made doctors to lead others to virtue, plucking away from them earthly things.
Beda: Item per sata ambulant cum domino qui eloquia sacra meditari delectantur, esuriunt cum in eis panem vitae invenire desiderant; et hoc in sabbatis, cum sopita mente a turbulentis cogitationibus vacare gaudent; vellunt spicas, et contritas purgant, donec ad escam perveniant, cum testimonia Scripturarum, ad quae legentes perveniunt, meditando assumunt, et tamdiu discutiunt donec in eis medullam dilectionis inveniant. Verum haec mentium refectio stultis displicet, sed a domino approbatur. Bede: Again, they walk through the corn fields with the Lord, who rejoice in meditating upon His sacred words. They hunger, when they desire to find in them the bread of life; and they hunger on sabbath days, as soon as their minds are in a soothing rest, and they rejoice in freedom from troubled thoughts; they pluck the ears of corn, and by rubbing, cleanse them, till they come to what is fit to eat, when by meditation they take to themselves the witness of the Scriptures, to which they arrive by reading, and discuss them continually, until they find in them the marrow of love; this refreshment of the mind is truly unpleasing to fools, but is approved by the Lord.

Caput 3Gospel of Mark, Chapter 3[p. 54]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν. καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα: 2 καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν εἰ τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύσει αὐτόν, ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ. 3 καὶ λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ τὴν ξηρὰν χεῖρα ἔχοντι, ἔγειρε εἰς τὸ μέσον. 4 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν ἀγαθὸν ποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι, ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι; οἱ δὲ ἐσιώπων. 5 καὶ περιβλεψάμενος αὐτοὺς μετ' ὀργῆς, συλλυπούμενος ἐπὶ τῇ πωρώσει τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρα. καὶ ἐξέτεινεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ.
1. And He entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand. 2. And they watched Him, whether He would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse Him. 3. And He saith unto the man which had the withered hand, "Stand forth." 4. And He saith unto them, "Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill?" But they held their peace. 5. And when He had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, He saith unto the man, "Stretch forth thine hand." And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.

Theophylactus: Postquam dominus Iudaeos, qui discipulos accusaverant, quod spicas sabbato evellebant, exemplo David confudit, nunc amplius ipsos ad veritatem reducens, miraculum in sabbato operatur, ostendens quod si operari sabbato miracula in salutem hominum pium est, non est malum in sabbato necessaria corporis operari. Dicit ergo et introivit iterum in synagogam, et erat ibi homo habens manum aridam. Et observabant eum si sabbatis curaret, ut accusarent eum. Theophylact: After confounding the Jews, who had blamed His disciples, for pulling the ears of corn on the sabbath day, by the example of David, the Lord now further bringing them to the truth, works a miracle on the sabbath; shewing that, if it is a pious deed to work miracles on the sabbath for the health of men, it is not wrong to do on the sabbath thing necessary for the body. He says therefore, "And He entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand. And they watched Him, whether He would heal him on the sabbath-day; that they might accuse Him."
Beda: Quia enim destructionem sabbati, quam in discipulis arguebant, probabili magister excusaverat exemplo, nunc ipsum observando calumniari volunt, ut si sabbato curet, transgressionis, si non curet, crudelitatis, aut imbecillitatis arguant. Bede, in Marc., 1, 14: For, since He had defended the breaking of the sabbath, which they objected to His disciples, by an approved example, now they wish, by watching Him, to [p. 55] calumniate Himself, that they might accuse Him of a transgression, if He cured on the sabbath, of cruelty or of folly, if He refused.
Sequitur et ait homini habenti manum aridam: surge in medium. It goes on: "And He saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand in the midst."
Chrysostomus: Statuit quidem illum in medio, ut terrerentur aspectu, ac viso eo compatiantur, et malitiam deponant. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc., see Chrys, Hom. in Matt., 40: He placed him in the midst, that they might be frightened at the sight, and on seeing Him compassionate him, and lay aside their malice.
Beda: Et praeveniens calumniam Iudaeorum, quam ei paraverant, arguit eos, quia legis praecepta prava tentatione violabant; unde sequitur et dicit eis: licet sabbato bene facere, an male? Hoc autem quaerit quia aestimabant in sabbato etiam a bonis operibus feriandum, cum lex a malis abstinere iubeat, dicens: omne opus servile non facietis in eo, id est peccatum: quia qui facit peccatum, servus est peccati. Idem autem est quod praemiserat bene facere, an male, et quod postea subdit animam salvam facere an perdere? Hoc est, hominem curare, an non: non quod Deus summe bonus, auctor perditionis nobis esse possit: sed quod eius non salvare Scripturae consuetudine perdere dicitur. Si quem vero movet quare dominus, cum corpus esset curaturus, de animae salvatione interrogaverit, intelligat vel animam more Scripturarum pro homine positam, sicut dicitur: hae sunt animae quae exierunt de femore Iacob; vel quod illa miracula propter animae salutem faciebat; vel quod ipsa manus sanatio salutem animae significabat. Bede: And anticipating the calumny of the Jews, which they had prepared for Him, He accused them of violating the precepts of the law, by a wrong interpretation. Wherefore there follows: "And He saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath-day, or to do evil?" And this He asks, because they thought that on the sabbath they were to rest even from good works, whilst the law commands to abstain from bad, saying, "Ye shall do no servile work therein;" [Lev 23:7] that is, sin: for "Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin." [John 8:34] What He first says, "to do good on the sabbath-day or to do evil," is the same as what He afterwards adds, "to save a life or to lose it;" that is, to cure a man or not. Not that God, Who is in the highest degree good, can be the author of perdition to us, but that His not saving is in the language of Scripture to destroy. but if it be asked, wherefore the Lord, being about to cure the body, asked about the saving of the soul, let him understand either that in the common way of Scripture the soul is put for the man; as it is said, "All the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob;" [Ex 1:5] or because He did those miracles for the saving of a soul, or because the healing itself of the hand signified the saving of the soul.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Sed potest movere quomodo Matthaeus dixerit, quod ipsi interrogaverint dominum, si licet sabbato curare; cum Marcus illos potius interrogatos a domino perhibeat licet sabbato bene facere an male? Itaque intelligendum est, quod illi prius interrogaverunt dominum, si licet sabbato curare, deinde quod intelligens cogitationes eorum aditum accusandi quaerentium, constituerit in medio illum quem fuerat sanaturus, et interrogaverit quae Marcus et Lucas eum interrogasse commemorant; ac tunc illis tacentibus proposuisse similitudinem de ove, et conclusisse, quod liceat sabbatis bene facere. Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 35: But some one may wonder how Matthew could have said, that they themselves asked the Lord, if it was lawful to heal on the sabbath-day; when Mark rather relates that they were asked by our Lord, "Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath-day, or to do evil?" Therefore we must understand that they first asked the Lord, if it was lawful to heal on the sabbath-day, then that understanding their thoughts, and that they were seeking an opportunity to accuse Him, He placed in the middle him whom He was about to cure, and put those questions, which Mark and Luke relate. We must then suppose, that when they were silent, He propounded the parable of the sheep, and concluded, that it was lawful to do good on the sabbath-day.
Sequitur at illi tacebant. It goes on: "But they were silent." [p. 56]
Chrysostomus: Sciebant enim quod eum omnino curaret. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: For they knew that He would certainly cure him.
Sequitur et circumspiciens eos cum ira. Quod eos cum ira circumspicit, ac tristatur super caecitate cordis eorum, humanitati convenit, quam pro nobis suscipere dignatus est. Verbo autem miraculum coniungit: unde sola voce homo curatur; unde sequitur et extendit, et restituta est manus illi; per haec omnia pro discipulis respondens, simulque ostendens suam vitam existere supra legem. It goes on: "And looking round about upon them with anger." His looking round upon them in anger, and being saddened at the blindness of their hearts, is fitting for His humanity, which He deigned to take upon Himself for us. He connects the working of the miracle with a word, which proves that the man is cured by His voice alone. It follow therefore, "And he stretched it out, and his hand was restored." Answering by all these things for His disciples, and at the same time shewing that His life is above the law.
Beda: Mystice autem homo qui manum habebat aridam, humanum genus indicat infecunditate boni operis arefactum, sed domini miseratione curatum: cuius dextera, quae in primo parente, dum vetitae arboris poma decerperet, aruerat, per redemptoris gratiam, dum insontes manus in cruce arboris tenderet, bonorum operum succis est restituta saluti. Et bene in synagoga manus erat arida: quia ubi scientiae donum maius est, ibi gravius est inexcusabilis noxae periculum. Bede: But mystically, the man with a withered hand shews the human race, dried up as to its fruitfulness in good works, but now cured by the mercy of the Lord; the hand of man, which in our first parent had been dried up when he plucked the fruit of the forbidden tree, through the grace of the Redeemer, Who stretched His guiltless hands on the tree of the cross, has been restored to health by the juices of good works. Well too was it in the synagogue that the hand was withered; for where the gift of knowledge is greater, there also the danger of inexcusable guilt is greater.
Hieronymus: Vel significat avaros, qui valentes dare, volunt accipere, praedari, et non largiri; quibus dicitur ut extendant manus suas; id est: qui furabatur iam non furetur, magis autem laboret operans manu sua quod bonum est, ut habeat unde communicet indigentibus. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else it means the avaricious, who, being able to give had rather receive, and love robbery rather than making gifts. And they are commanded to stretch forth their hands, that is, "let him that stole steal no more, but rather let him labour, working with his hand the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth." [Eph 4:28]
Theophylactus: Vel aridam dexteram habet manum quisquis non operatur quae sunt dexterae partis: ex quo enim manus nostra constituitur in operibus prohibitis, ex tunc arescit in operatione boni. Iterum vero restaurabitur quando in virtute stabit; unde Christus dicit surge, scilicet a peccatis, et sta in medio; et neque ad diminutum, neque ad superabundantiam se extendit. Theophylact: Or, he had his right hand withered, who does not the works which belong to the right side; for from the time that our hand is employed in forbidden deeds, from that time it is withered to the working of good. But it will be restored whenever it stands firm in virtue; wherefore Christ saith, "Arise," that is, from sin, "and stand in the midst;" that thus it may stretch itself forth neither too little nor too much.

Lectio 2
6 καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν ἡρῳδιανῶν συμβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατ' αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 7 καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ἀνεχώρησεν πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν: καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος ἀπὸ τῆς γαλιλαίας [ἠκολούθησεν]: καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἰουδαίας 8 καὶ ἀπὸ ἱεροσολύμων καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἰδουμαίας καὶ πέραν τοῦ ἰορδάνου καὶ περὶ τύρον καὶ σιδῶνα, πλῆθος πολύ, ἀκούοντες ὅσα ἐποίει ἦλθον πρὸς αὐτόν. 9 καὶ εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα πλοιάριον προσκαρτερῇ αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν ὄχλον ἵνα μὴ θλίβωσιν αὐτόν: 10 πολλοὺς γὰρ ἐθεράπευσεν, ὥστε ἐπιπίπτειν αὐτῷ ἵνα αὐτοῦ ἅψωνται ὅσοι εἶχον μάστιγας. 11 καὶ τὰ πνεύματα τὰ ἀκάθαρτα, ὅταν αὐτὸν ἐθεώρουν, προσέπιπτον αὐτῷ καὶ ἔκραζον λέγοντες ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. 12 καὶ πολλὰ ἐπετίμα αὐτοῖς ἵνα μὴ αὐτὸν φανερὸν ποιήσωσιν.
6. And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against Him, how they might destroy Him. 7. But Jesus withdrew Himself with His disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed Him, and from Judaea, [p. 57] 8. And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things He did, came unto Him. 9. And He spake to His disciples, that a small ship should wait on Him, because of the multitude, lest they should throng Him. 10. For He had healed many; insomuch that they pressed upon Him for to touch Him, as many as had plagues. 11. And unclean spirits, when they saw Him, fell down before Him, and cried, saying, "Thou art the Son of God." 12. And He straitly charged them that they should not make Him known.

Beda: Pharisaei reputantes in crimen quod ad verbum domini salvam qui languebat extendit dexteram, de voce salvatoris fecerunt consilium; unde dicitur exeuntes autem Pharisaei, statim cum Herodianis consilium faciebant adversus eum, quomodo eum perderent: quasi non ipsorum quisque maiora sabbatis ageret, cibos portando, porrigendo calicem, et caetera quae victui sunt necessaria exequendo. Neque enim ille qui dixit, et facta sunt, sabbato laborasse poterat convinci. Bede, in Marc., 1, 15: The Pharisees, thinking it a crime that at the word of the Lord the hand which was diseased was restored to a sound state, agreed to make a pretext of the words spoken by our Saviour. Wherefore it is said, "And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against Him, how they might destroy Him." As if every one amongst them did not greater things on the sabbath day, carrying food, reaching forth a cup, and whatever else is necessary for meals. Neither could He, Who said and it was done, be convicted of toiling on the sabbath day.
Theophylactus: Herodiani autem dicuntur milites Herodis regis. Haeresis namque quaedam nova surrexerat, quae Herodem Christum esse dicebat. Prophetia enim Iacob innuebat, quod quando deficerent principes de Iuda, tunc Christus veniret; et quia Herodis tempore nullus supererat Iudaicorum principum, sed ipse solus regnabat alienigena existens; quidam ipsum esse Christum putaverunt, et haeresim constituerunt. Isti ergo cum Pharisaeis Christum interficere conabantur. Theophylact: But the soldiers of Herod the king are called Herodians, because a certain new heresy had sprung up, which asserted that Herod was the Christ. For the prophecy of Jacob intimated that when the princes of Judah failed then Christ should come; because therefore in the time of Herod none of the Jewish princes remained, and he, an alien, was the sole ruler, some thought that he was the Christ, and set on foot this heresy. These, therefore, were with the Pharisees trying to kill Christ.
Beda: Vel Herodianos Herodis tetrarchae ministros dicit, qui propter inimicitias quas eorum dominus adversus Ioannem habebat, etiam salvatorem, quem Ioannes praedicabat, insidiis persequebantur, et odiis. Bede: Or else he calls Herodians the servants of Herod the Tetrarch, who on account of the hatred which their lord had for John, pursued with treachery and hate the Saviour also, Whom John preached. [p. 58]
Sequitur Iesus autem cum discipulis suis secessit ad mare; quasi homo fugiens persequentium insidias: quia neque adhuc venerat hora passionis eius, neque extra Ierusalem fuit locus passionis; ubi et exemplum dedit suis, si in una civitate persecutionem paterentur, in alteram fugiendi. It goes on, "But Jesus withdrew Himself with His disciples to the sea;" He fled from their treachery, because the hour of His passion had not yet come, and no place away from Jerusalem was proper for His Passion. By which also He gave an example to His disciples, when they suffer persecution in one city, to flee to another.
Theophylactus: Simul etiam secedit, ut plurimis benefaciat ab ingratis recedens; etenim multi secuti sunt eum, et sanavit eos; Theophylact: At the same time again, He goes away, that by quitting the ungrateful He might do good to more, "for many followed Him, and He healed them."
Sequitur enim et multa turba a Galilaea et Iudaea secuta est eum. Tyrii et Sidonii, alienigenae existentes, utilitatem a Christo accipiunt; propinqui vero eius, Iudaei scilicet, ipsum persequebantur; et sic nulla est propinquitatis utilitas, nisi similitudo bonitatis existat. For there follows, "And a great multitude from Galilee, &c." Syrians and Sidonians, being foreigners, receive benefit from Christ; but His kindred the Jews persecute Him: thus there is no profit in relationship, if there be not a similarity in goodness.
Beda: Illi enim videntes opera virtutum eius, et verba doctrinae audientes, eum persequebantur; isti autem opinione tantum ducti virtutum eius, congesto agmine permaximo veniunt ad audiendum eum, opemque salutis flagitandam; unde sequitur et dixit discipulis suis ut in navicula sibi deservirent. Bede: For the strangers followed Him, because they saw the works of His powers, and in order to hear the words of His teaching. But the Jews, induced solely by their opinion of His powers, in a vast multitude come to hear Him, and to beg for His aiding health. Wherefore there follows, "And He spake to His disciples, that they should wait, &c."
Theophylactus: Vide autem occultatam gloriam eius: etenim ne laederet eum turba, petit naviculam, ut intrans in eam conservetur illaesus. Theophylact: Consider then how He hid His glory, for He begs for a little ship, lest the crowd should hurt Him, so that entering into it, He might remain unharmed.
Sequitur quotquot autem habebant plagas. Et spiritus immundi, cum illum videbant, procidebant ei. Plagas autem dicit infirmitates; ipse namque Deus nos vulnerat, ut filios pater. It follows, "As many as had scourges, &c." But he means by scourges, diseases, for God scourges us, as a father does His children.
Beda: Procidebant ergo utrique domino, et qui habebant plagas infirmitatum corporalium, et qui a spiritibus vexabantur immundis; sed infirmi simplici intentione obtinendae salutis, daemoniaci autem vel potius in eis habitantes Daemones, vi divini timoris coacti, non solum ad procidendum ei, verum etiam ad confitendum eius maiestatem compulsi; unde Bede: Both therefore fell down before the Lord, those who had the plagues of bodily diseases, and those who were vexed by unclean spirits. The sick did this simply with the intention of obtaining health, but the demoniacs, or rather the devils within them, because under the mastery of a fear of God they were compelled not only to fall down before Him but also to praise His majesty.
Sequitur et clamabant dicentes: tu es filius Dei. Ubi miranda est Arianorum caecitas, qui post resurrectionis gloriam filium Dei negant, quem Daemones adhuc mortali carne indutum filium Dei profitentur. Wherefore it goes on, "And they cried out, saying, Thou art the Son of God." And here we must wonder at the blindness of the Arians, who, after the glory of His resurrection, deny the Son of God, Whom the devils confess to be the Son of God, though still clothed with human flesh.
Sequitur et vehementer comminabatur eis, ne manifestarent eum. Peccatori enim dixit Deus: quare tu enarras iustitias meas? Prohibetur ergo dominum praedicare peccator, ne quis dum praedicantem audit, sequatur errantem: improbus enim magister est Diabolus, qui falsa veris saepe permiscet, ut specie veritatis testimonium fraudis obtegat. Ceterum non solum Daemones, sed et a Christo sanati, et apostoli ante passionem praecipiuntur reticere de illo; ne, divina maiestate praedicata, passionis dispensatio differretur. Iuxta allegoriam vero in hoc quod dominus egressus de synagoga secessit ad mare, gentium salvationem praefiguravit, ad quas venire per fidem, relicta ob perfidiam Iudaea, dignatus est. Recte enim diversis errorum anfractibus iactatae nationes instabilitati pelagi comparantur. Multa autem turba a diversis provinciis secuta est eum; quia praedicantibus apostolis, multas nationes ad se venientes benigne suscepit. Navicula vero domino in mari deserviens Ecclesia est de gentibus congregata. Propter turbam autem, ne se comprimat, naviculam ascendit; quia turbidas carnalium mentes fugiens, ad eos qui gloriam saeculi spernunt, venire, et mansionem facere gaudet. Distat autem inter comprimere dominum et tangere: comprimunt enim cum carnalibus cogitationibus aut factis pacem turbant, in qua veritas manet; tangit vero qui per fidem et dilectionem eum suscepit corde: unde qui eum tetigerunt, salvati esse perhibentur. There follows, "And He straitly charged them, that they should not make Him known." For God said to the sinner, "Why does thou preach my laws?" [Ps 50:16] A sinner is forbidden to preach the Lord, lest any one listening to his preaching should follow him in his error, for the devil is an evil master, who always mingles false things [p. 59] with true, that the semblance of truth may cover the witness of fraud. But not only devils, but persons healed by Christ, and even Apostles, are ordered to be silent concerning Him before the Passion, lest by the preaching of the majesty of His Divinity, the economy of His Passion should be retarded. But allegorically, in the Lord's coming out of the synagogue, and then retiring to the sea, He prefigured the salvation of the Gentiles, to whom He deigned to come through their faith, having quitted the Jews on account of their perfidy. For the nations, driven about in divers by-paths of error, are fitly compared to the unstable sea. [ed. note: see Cyprian, Ep. 63, also Augustine, City of God, Book 20, 16] Again, a great crowd from various provinces followed Him, because He has received with kindness many nations, who came to Him through the preaching of the Apostles. But the ship waiting upon the Lord in the sea is the Church, collected from amongst the nations; and He goes into it lest the crowd should throng Him, because flying from the troubled minds of carnal persons, He delights to come to those who despise the glory of this world, and to dwell within them. Further, there is a difference between thronging the Lord, and touching Him; for they throng Him, when by carnal thoughts and deeds they trouble peace, in which truth dwells; but he touches Him, who by faith and love has received Him into his heart; wherefore those who touched Him are said to have been saved.
Theophylactus: Moraliter autem Herodiani, idest carnales, Christum interficere volunt: Herodes enim pelliceus interpretatur. Qui vero de patria sua egrediuntur, idest a carnali habitudine, hi sequuntur Christum, et eorum plagae curantur, idest peccata, quae conscientiam vulnerant. Iesus autem in nobis est ratio quae praecipit ut navicula nostra, idest corpus ei deserviat, ne rationem turbationes opprimant rerum. Theophylact: Morally again, the Herodians, that is, persons who love the lusts of the flesh, wish to slay Christ. For the meaning of Herod is, 'of skin' [ed. note: pelliceus, see Hier. de Nom. Hebr.]. But those who quit their country, that is, a carnal mode of living, follow Christ, and their plagues are healed, that is, the sins which wound their conscience. But Jesus in us is our reason, which commands that our vessel, that is, our body, should serve Him, lest the troubles of worldly affairs should press upon our reason.

Lectio 3
13 καὶ ἀναβαίνει εἰς τὸ ὄρος καὶ προσκαλεῖται οὓς ἤθελεν αὐτός, καὶ ἀπῆλθον πρὸς αὐτόν. 14 καὶ ἐποίησεν δώδεκα, [οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν,] ἵνα ὦσιν μετ' αὐτοῦ καὶ ἵνα ἀποστέλλῃ αὐτοὺς κηρύσσειν 15 καὶ ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιμόνια: 16 [καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς δώδεκα,] καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ σίμωνι πέτρον, 17 καὶ ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ ζεβεδαίου καὶ ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Ἰακώβου, καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτοῖς ὀνόμα[τα] βοανηργές, ὅ ἐστιν υἱοὶ βροντῆς: 18 καὶ ἀνδρέαν καὶ φίλιππον καὶ βαρθολομαῖον καὶ μαθθαῖον καὶ θωμᾶν καὶ ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ ἁλφαίου καὶ θαδδαῖον καὶ σίμωνα τὸν καναναῖον 19 καὶ Ἰούδαν ἰσκαριώθ, ὃς καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτόν.
13. And He goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto Him whom He would: and they came unto Him. 14. And He ordained twelve, that they should be with Him, and that He might send them forth to preach, [p. 60] 15. And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils: 16. And Simon He surnamed Peter; 17. And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and He surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder: 18. And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite, 19. And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed Him.

Beda: Postquam nefandos spiritus se praedicare prohibuit, elegit sanctos, qui et immundos spiritus eicerent et Evangelium praedicarent; unde dicitur et ascendens in montem vocavit ad se quos voluit ipse. Bede, in Marc., 1, 16: After having forbidden the evil spirits to preach Him, He chose holy men, to cast out the unclean spirits, and to preach the Gospel. Wherefore it is said, "And He went up into a mountain, &c."
Theophylactus: Lucas autem dicit, quod ascendit ad orandum: post miraculorum enim ostensionem orat, docens nos quod oportet gratias agere cum consequimur aliquid boni, et hoc divinae virtuti appropriare. Theophylact: Luke, however, says that He went up to pray, for after the shewing forth of miracles He prays, teaching us that we should give thanks, when we obtain any thing good, and refer it to Divine grace.
Chrysostomus: Praelatos etiam Ecclesiae instruit in orationibus pernoctare antequam ordinationem faciant, ut eorum officium non frustretur. Cum ergo, secundum Lucam, dies factus esset, vocavit quos voluit: erant enim plures qui eum sequebantur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He also instructs the Prelates of the Church to pass the night in prayer before they ordain, that their office be not impeded. When therefore, according to Luke, it was day, He called whom He would; for there were many who followed Him.
Beda: Non enim illorum electionis ac studii, sed divinae erat dignationis et gratiae ut in apostolatum vocarentur. Mons etiam ille in quo apostolos dominus elegit, altitudinem designat iustitiae in qua erant instituendi, et quam erant hominibus praedicaturi. Bede: For it was not a matter of their choice and zeal, but of Divine condescension and grace, that they should be called to the Apostleship. The mount also in which the Lord chose His Apostles, shews the lofty righteousness in which they were to be instructed, and which they were about to preach to men.
Hieronymus: Vel Christus spiritualiter mons est, ex quo aquae vivae fluunt, lac in parvulorum salutem praeparatur, pinguedo spiritualis agnoscitur, et quicquid summe bonum creditur, in montis istius est gratia constitutum. In montem ergo vocantur excelsi meritis et verbis, ut locus congruat meritis altis. Pseudo-Jerome: Or spiritually, Christ is the mount, from which living waters flow, and milk is procured for the health of infants; whence the spiritual feast of fat things is made known, and whatsoever is believed to be most highly good is established by the grace of that Mountain. Those therefore who are highly exalted in merits and in words are called up into a mountain, that the place may correspond to the loftiness of their merits.
Sequitur et venerunt ad eum; et fecit ut essent duodecim cum illo, et ut mitteret eos praedicare. Speciem enim Iacob dilexit dominus, ut sint ipsi super thronos duodecim, iudicantes duodecim tribus Israel, qui etiam trini et quaterni circa tabernaculum domini excubant, et sancta domini verba humeris operum portant. It goes on: "And they came unto Him, &c." For the Lord loved the beauty of Jacob, [Ps 46] that they might "sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel," [Matt 19:28] who also [p. 61] in bands of threes and fours watch around the tabernacle of the Lord, and carry the holy words of the Lord, bearing them forward on their actions, as men do burdens on their shoulders.
Beda: In hoc enim sacramento quondam filii Israel circa tabernaculum castrametabantur, ut ex omni parte per quadrum ternae tribus manerent. Ter autem quatuor duodecim faciunt, et ter quaterni ad praedicandum sunt missi apostoli; ut per universas quadrati orbis plagas baptizarent gentes in nomine patris, et filii, et spiritus sancti. Bede: For as a sacrament of this the children of Israel once used to encamp about the Tabernacle, so that on each of the four sides of the square three tribes were stationed. Now three times four are twelve, and in three bands of four the Apostles were sent to preach, that through the four quarters of the whole world they might baptize the nations in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.
Sequitur et dedit illis potestatem curandi infirmitates et eiciendi Daemonia; ut scilicet promissorum caelestium magnitudini attestaretur magnitudo factorum, et nova facerent qui nova praedicarent. It goes on: "And He gave them power, &c." that is, in order that the greatness of their deeds might bear witness to the greatness of their heavenly promises, and that they, who preached unheard-of things, might do unheard-of actions.
Theophylactus: Numerat autem apostolorum nomina, ut propter falsos apostolos evitandos sint noti et veri; et ideo sequitur et imposuit Simoni nomen Petrus. Theophylact: Further, He gives the names of the Apostles, that the true Apostles might be known, so that men might avoid the false. And therefore it continues: "And Simon He surnamed Cephas."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Nullus autem putet nunc accepisse Simonem nomen ut Petrus vocaretur, ne sit contrarium Ioanni, qui longe ante dictum esse illi commemorat: tu vocaberis Cephas, quod interpretatur Petrus. Marcus autem recapitulando hoc commemoravit: cum enim vellet nomina duodecim apostolorum enumerare, et necesse haberet Petrum dicere, breviter insinuare voluit, quod non hoc antea vocaretur, sed hoc ei dominus nomen imposuerit. Augustine, de Con. Evan. ii, 17: But let no one suppose that Simon now received his name and was called Peter, for thus he would make Mark contrary to John, who relates that it had been long before said unto him, "Thou shalt be called Cephas." [John 1:42] But Mark gives this account by way of recapitulation; for as he wished to give the names of the twelve Apostles, and was obliged to call him, Peter, his object was to intimate briefly, that he was not called this originally, but that the Lord gave him that name.
Beda: Ideo autem dominus voluit eum prius aliter vocari, ut ex ipsa commutatione nominis sacramentum commendaretur. Idem est ergo Graece, sive Latine Petrus quod Syriace Cephas; et in utraque lingua nomen a petra derivatum est, nec dubium quin illa de qua Paulus ait: petra autem erat Christus: nam sicut lux vera erat Christus, et donavit apostolis ut lux mundi vocentur, sic et Simoni, qui credebat in petram, Christus petrae largitus est nomen. Bede: And the reason that the Lord willed that he should at first be called otherwise, was that from the change itself of the name, a mystery might be conveyed to us. Peter then in Latin or in Greek means the same thing as Cephas in Hebrew, and in each language the name is drawn from, a stone. Nor can it be doubted that is the rock of which Paul spoke, "And this rock was Christ." [1 Cor 10:4] For as Christ was the true light, and allowed also that the Apostles should be called the light of the world, [Matt 5:14] so also to Simon, who believed on the rock Christ, He gave the name of Rock.
Hieronymus: De obedientia autem, quam Simon significat, ascenditur ad agnitionem, quam significat Petrus. Pseudo-Jerome: Thus from obedience, which Simon signifies, the ascent is made to knowledge, which is meant by Peter.
Sequitur et Iacobum Zebedaei et Ioannem fratrem Iacobi. It goes on: "And James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother."
Beda: Subauditur a superioribus, vocavit ad se ascendens in montem. Bede: We must connect this with what went before, "He goeth up into a mountain, and calleth." [p. 62]
Hieronymus: Iacobum, scilicet qui supplantata habet tota desideria carnis, et Ioannem, qui gratia accepit quod alii per laborem tenent. Pseudo-Jerome, Gen. 27:36 see Catena Aurea, Matt. 10:2: Namely, James who has supplanted all the desires of the flesh, and John, who received by grace what others held by labour.
Sequitur et imposuit eis nomina Boanerges. There follows: "And He surnamed them, Boanerges."
Chrysostomus: Filios quidem Zebedaei sic nominat propter hoc quod magna et clara divinitatis edicta debebant orbi terrae diffundere. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He calls the sons of Zebedee by this name, because they were to spread over the world the mighty and illustrious decrees of the Godhead.
Hieronymus: Vel per hoc trium superiorum sublime ostenditur meritum, qui in monte merentur audire tonitruum patris per nubem de filio tonantis: hic est filius meus dilectus; et ut ipsi per nubem carnis, et ignem verbi, quasi fulgura in pluviam, in terris spargerent: quoniam dominus fulgura in pluviam fecit, ut extinguat misericordia quod iudicium urit. Pseudo-Jerome; Or by this the lofty merit of the three mentioned above is shewn, who merited to hear in the mountain the thunders of the Father, when he proclaimed in thunder through a could concerning the Son, "This is My beloved Son;" that they also through the cloud of the flesh and fire of the word, might as it were scatter the thunderbolts in rain on the earth, since the Lord turned the thunderbolts into rain, so that mercy extinguishes what judgment sets on fire.
Sequitur et Andream, qui viriliter vim facit perditioni, ut et responsum mortis in se semper habeat, et anima eius sit semper in manibus suis. It goes on: "And Andrew," who manfully does violence to perdition, so that he had ever ready within him his own death, to give as an answer, [1 Pet 3:15] and his soul was ever in his hands. [Ps 119:109]
Beda: Andreas enim Graecum nomen est, et interpretatur virilis, ab andros, quod est vir: quia viriliter domino adhaesit. Bede: For Andrew is a Greek name, which means 'manly,' from (greek word), that is, man, for he manfully adhered to the Lord.
Sequitur et Philippum. There follows, "And Philip."
Hieronymus: Qui est os lampadis, qui illuminare potest ore quod corde concepit, cui dedit dominus apertionem oris illuminantis. Scimus hunc modum locutionis proprium esse divinarum Scripturarum, quod Hebraea nomina ad aliquod mysterium significationis sunt posita. Pseudo-Jerome: Or, 'the mouth of a lamp,' that is, one who can throw light by his mouth upon what he has conceived in his heart, to whom the Lord gave the opening of a mouth, which diffused light. We know that this mode of speaking belongs to holy Scripture; for Hebrew names are put down in order to intimate a mystery.
Sequitur et Bartholomaeum, qui est filius suspendentis aquas, illius scilicet qui dixit: et mandabo nubibus meis ne pluant super eam imbrem. Nomen vero filii Dei per pacem et dilectionem acquiritur inimici: beati enim pacifici, quoniam filii Dei sunt; et: diligite inimicos vestros, ut filii Dei sitis. There follows: "And Bartholomew," which means, the son of him who suspends the waters; of him, that is, who said, "I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it." [Isa 5:6] But the name of son of God is obtained by peace and loving one's enemy; for, Blessed are the peacemakers, for they are the sons of God. [Matt 5:9] And, Love your enemies, that ye may be the sons of God. [see Matt 5:44-45]
Sequitur et Matthaeum, qui est donatus, cui donatur a domino ut non solum remissionem peccatorum adipiscatur, sed numero ascribatur apostolorum. Et Thomam, qui est abyssus: multa enim profunda scientes Dei numine proferunt. There follows: "And Matthew," that is, 'given,' to whom it is given by the Lord, not only to obtain remission of sins, but to be enrolled in the number of the Apostles. "And Thomas," which means, 'abyss,' for men who have knowledge by the power of God, put forward many deep things.
Sequitur et Iacobum Alphaei, idest docti, vel millesimi, cuius a latere cadent mille. Hic alter Iacobus est, cui colluctatio non est adversus carnem et sanguinem, sed adversus spirituales nequitias. It goes on: "And James the son of Alphaeus," that is, of 'the learned,' or 'the thousandth,' beside whom a thousand will fall. [Ps 91:7] This other James is he, whose wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against spiritual wickedness. [Eph 6:12]
Sequitur et Thaddaeum: is est corculus, idest cordis cultor, qui conservat cor suum omni custodia. There follows, "And Thaddaeus," that [p. 63] is, 'corculum,' which means, 'he who guards the heart' [ed. note: 'cordis cultor'], one who keeps his heart in all watchfulness.
Beda: Thaddaeus autem ipse est quem Lucas in Evangelio et in actibus apostolorum Iudam Iacobi nominat: erat enim frater Iacobi fratris domini, ut ipse in epistola sua scripsit. Bede: But Thaddaeus is the same person, as Luke calls in the Gospel and in the Acts, Jude of James, for he was the brother of James, the brother of the Lord, as he himself has written in his Epistle.
Sequitur et Simonem Chananaeum, et Iudam Iscariotem, qui et tradidit illum. Haec cum additamento posuit, ad distinctionem Simonis Petri et Iudae Iacobi. Simon autem Chananaeus dicitur ab Chana vico Galilaeae; Iudas autem Scarioth a vico in quo ortus est, aut ex tribu Isachar dicitur. There follows, "And Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Him." He has added this by way of distinction from Simon Peter, and Jude the brother of James. Simon is called the Canaanite from Cana, a village in Galilee, and Judas, Scariotes, from the village from which he had his origin, or he is so called from the tribe of Issachar.
Theophylactus: Sed cur inter apostolos computatur? Ut discamus quod Deus non repellit aliquem propter futuram malitiam, sed propter praesentem virtutem dignum facit haberi. Theophylact: Whom he reckons amongst the Apostles, that we may learn that God does not repel any man for wickedness, which is future, but counts him worthy on account of his present virtue.
Hieronymus: Simon autem ponens tristitiam interpretatur: beati namque qui lugent nunc, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur. Chananaeus autem, idest Zelotes dicitur, quem zelus domus Dei comedit. Iudas autem Scarioth est qui non delet peccatum suum per poenitentiam: Iudas enim confitens, vel gloriosus interpretatur; Scarioth autem memoria mortis. Sunt autem confessores multi in Ecclesia superbi et gloriosi, ut Simon magus et Arius et ceteri haeretici; quorum memoria mortalis ideo in Ecclesia celebratur, ut evitentur. Pseudo-Jerome: But Simon in interpreted, 'laying aside sorrow;' for "blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." [Matt 5:4] And he is called Canaanite, that is, Zealot, because the zeal of the Lord ate him up. But Judas Iscariot is one who does not do away his sins by repentance. For Judas means, 'boaster,' or vain-glorious. And Iscariot, 'the memory of death.' But many are the proud and vain-glorious confessors in the Church, as Simon Magus, and Arius, and other heretics, whose deathlike memory is celebrated in the Church, that it may be avoided.

Lectio 4
20 καὶ ἔρχεται εἰς οἶκον: καὶ συνέρχεται πάλιν [ὁ] ὄχλος, ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαι αὐτοὺς μηδὲ ἄρτον φαγεῖν. 21 καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ παρ' αὐτοῦ ἐξῆλθον κρατῆσαι αὐτόν, ἔλεγον γὰρ ὅτι ἐξέστη. 22 καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς οἱ ἀπὸ ἱεροσολύμων καταβάντες ἔλεγον ὅτι βεελζεβοὺλ ἔχει, καὶ ὅτι ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια.
20. And they went into a house. And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 21. And when His friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on Him: for they said, "He is beside himself." 22. And the Scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, "He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth He out devils."

Beda: Electos in monte apostolos dominus ad domum reducit, quasi eos admonens ut post acceptum apostolatus gradum ad conscientiam suam redeant; unde dicitur et veniunt in domum, et convenit iterum turba, ita ut non possent neque panem manducare. Bede: the Lord leads the Apostles, when they were elected, into a house, as if admonishing them, that after [p. 64] having received the Apostleship, they should retire to look on their own consciences. Wherefore it is said, "And they came into a house, and the multitude came together again, so that they could not eat bread."
Chrysostomus: Ingratae quidem erant principum multitudines, quos impedit a cognitione elatio; grata vero populi multitudo venit ad Iesum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Ungrateful indeed were the multitudes of princes, whom their pride hinders from knowledge, but the grateful multitude of the people came to Jesus.
Beda: Quam beata vero frequentia turbae confluentis, cui tantum fuit curae ad obtinendam salutem, ut auctori salutis cum his qui secum erant nec vescendi quidem hora libera maneret; sed quem turba frequentat externa, hunc propinquorum aestimatio parvipendit; Bede: And blessed indeed the concourse of the crowd, flocking together, whose anxiety to obtain salvation was so great, that they left not the Author of salvation even an hour free to take food. But Him, whom a crowd of strangers loves to follow, His relations hold in little esteem.
Sequitur enim et cum audissent sui, exierunt tenere eum. Quia enim altitudinem sapientiae quam audiebant, capere non poterant, quasi in alieno eum sensu locutum esse credebant; unde sequitur dicebant enim, quoniam in furorem versus est. For it goes on, "And when His friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold upon Him." For since they could not take in the depth of wisdom, which they heard, they thought that He was speaking in a senseless way. Wherefore it continues, "for they said, He is beside Himself."
Theophylactus: Idest, Daemonium habet, et furit: et ideo eum tenere volebant, ut incarcerarent tamquam daemoniacum. Et quidem sui hoc volebant, idest propinqui, forte compatriotae eius, vel fratres eius. Stulta autem fuit insania, quod tantorum miraculorum divinae sapientiae factorem in furiam verti concipiunt. Theophylact: That is, He has a devil and is mad, and therefore they wished to lay hold upon Him, that they might shut Him up as one who had a devil. And even His friends wished to do this, that is, His relations, perchance His countrymen, or His brethren. But it was a silly insanity in them, to conceive that the Worker of such great miracles of Divine Wisdom had become mad.
Beda: Multum autem distat inter eos qui verbum Dei pro mentis tarditate non intelligunt, quales fuerunt de quibus dictum est, et eos qui hoc quod intelligunt, de industria blasphemant, de quibus subditur et Scribae qui ab Hierosolymis descenderant dicebant quoniam Beelzebub habet. Quae enim negare nequiverant, sinistra interpretatione pervertere laborant; quasi non deitatis opera essent, sed immundissimi spiritus, idest Beelzebub, qui Deus erat Accaron. Nam Beel quidem ipse est vir, zebub autem musca vocatur; Beelzebub ergo, idest vir muscarum interpretatur, ob sordes immolatitii cruoris, ex cuius spurcissimo ritu principem Daemoniorum eum nominabant, cum subdunt et quia in principe Daemoniorum eicit Daemonia. Bede: Now there is a great difference between those who do not understand the word of God from slowness of intellect, such as those who are here spoken of, and those who purposely blaspheme, of whom it is added, "And the Scribes which came down from Jerusalem, &c." For what they could not deny they endeavour to pervert by a malicious interpretation, as if they were not the works of God, but of a most unclean spirit, that is, of Beelzebub, who was the God of Ekrom. For 'Beel' means Baal himself, and 'zebub' a fly; the meaning of Beelzebub therefore is, the man of flies, on account of the filth of the blood which was offered, from which most unclean rite, they call him prince of the devils, adding, "and by the prince of the devils casteth He out devils."
Hieronymus: Mystice autem domus ad quam veniunt primitiva est Ecclesia; turbae quae impediunt panem manducari, peccata et vitia sunt, quia qui manducat indigne, iudicium sibi manducat et bibit. Pseudo-Jerome: But mystically, the house to which they came, is the early Church. The crowds which prevent their eating bread are sins and vices; for he who eateth unworthily, "eateth and drinketh damnation to himself." [1 Cor 11:29]
Beda: Scribae etiam ab Hierosolymis descendentes blasphemant; turba vero ab Hierosolymis veniens secuta est dominum, et ab aliis regionibus Iudaeorum sive gentium: quia sic erat passionis tempus futurum, ut turba illum populi Iudaeorum cum palmis ac laudibus Hierosolymam perduceret, gentiles videre desiderarent; sed Scribae et Pharisaei de eius morte tractarent. Bede: The Scribes also coming down from Jerusalem blaspheme. But the multitude from Jerusalem, and from other regions of Judaea, or of the [p. 65] Gentiles, followed the Lord, because so it was to be at the time of His Passion, that a crowd of the people of the Jews should lead Him to Jerusalem with palms and praises, and the Gentiles should desire to see Him; but the Scribes and Pharisees should plot together for His death.

Lectio 5
23 καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, πῶς δύναται σατανᾶς σατανᾶν ἐκβάλλειν; 24 καὶ ἐὰν βασιλεία ἐφ' ἑαυτὴν μερισθῇ, οὐ δύναται σταθῆναι ἡ βασιλεία ἐκείνη: 25 καὶ ἐὰν οἰκία ἐφ' ἑαυτὴν μερισθῇ, οὐ δυνήσεται ἡ οἰκία ἐκείνη σταθῆναι. 26 καὶ εἰ ὁ σατανᾶς ἀνέστη ἐφ' ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἐμερίσθη, οὐ δύναται στῆναι ἀλλὰ τέλος ἔχει. 27 ἀλλ' οὐ δύναται οὐδεὶς εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἰσχυροῦ εἰσελθὼν τὰ σκεύη αὐτοῦ διαρπάσαι ἐὰν μὴ πρῶτον τὸν ἰσχυρὸν δήσῃ, καὶ τότε τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ διαρπάσει. 28 ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πάντα ἀφεθήσεται τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, τὰ ἁμαρτήματα καὶ αἱ βλασφημίαι ὅσα ἐὰν βλασφημήσωσιν: 29 ὃς δ' ἂν βλασφημήσῃ εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος — 30 ὅτι ἔλεγον, πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον ἔχει.
23. And He called them unto Him, and said unto them in parables, "How can Satan cast out Satan? 24. And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 25. And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 26. And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end. 27. No man can enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house. 28. Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: 29. But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation:" 30. Because they said, "He hath an unclean spirit."

Chrysostomus in Matth. et super Matth.: Posita blasphemia Scribarum, dominus ostendit impossibile fore quod dicebant, suam probationem exemplo confirmans; unde dicit et convocatis eis, in parabolis dicebat illis: quomodo potest Satanas Satanam eicere? Quasi diceret: regnum contra se intestino bello divisum necesse est desolari: quod et in domo et in civitate videtur. Quocirca etsi Satanae regnum in seipsum divisum est, ita quod Satanas ab hominibus repellat Satanam, desolatio regni Daemonum appropinquavit; regnum autem eorum est in hoc quod homines subditos teneant. Si igitur ab hominibus pelluntur, hoc non est aliud quam regnum eorum dissolvi. Si autem adhuc in hominibus tenent potestatem, manifestum est quod regnum maligni adhuc stat, et non est contra seipsum divisum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The blasphemy of the Scribes having been detailed, our Lord shews that what they said was impossible, confirming His proof by an example. Wherefore it says, "And having called them together unto Him, He said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan?" As if He had said, A kingdom divided against itself by civil war must be desolated, which is exemplified both in a house and in a city. Wherefore also if Satan's kingdom by divided against itself, so that Satan expels Satan from men, the desolation of the kingdom of the devils is at hand. But their kingdom consists in keeping men under their dominion. If therefore they are driven away from men, it amounts to nothing less [p. 66] than the dissolution of their kingdom. But if they still hold their power over men, it is manifest that the kingdom of evil is still standing, and Satan is not divided against himself.
Glossa: Et quia iam ostendit exemplo quod Daemon Daemonem non expellit, ostendit quomodo posset expelli, dicens nemo potest vasa fortis in domum ingressus diripere, et cetera. Gloss.: And because He has already shewn by an example that a devil cannot cast out a devil, He shews how he can be expelled, saying, "No man can enter into a strong man's house, &c."
Theophylactus: Exemplum tale est. Fortis est Daemon, vasa eius sunt homines in quibus recipitur: nisi ergo quis prius vincat Daemonem et alliget, quomodo vasa eius, idest daemoniacos, ab eo diripiet? Sic et ego, qui diripio vasa eius, idest libero homines a daemoniaca passione, prius alligo Daemones, supero eos, et inimicus eorum sum. Quomodo ergo dicitis, quod Beelzebub habeo, et Daemonum amicus existens Daemonia eicio? Theophylact: The meaning of the example is this: The devil is the strong man; his goods are the men into whom he is received; unless therefore a man first conquers the devil, how can he deprive him of his goods, that is, of the men whom he has possessed? So also I who spoil his goods, that is, free men from suffering by his possession, first spoil the devils and vanquish them, and am their enemy. How then can ye say that I have Beelzebub and that being the friend of the devils, I cast them out?
Beda: Alligavit etiam dominus fortem, idest Diabolum, hoc est ab electorum seductione compescuit, et ingressus in domum, idest in mundum, domum eius et vasa, idest homines, diripuit: quia ereptos a Diaboli laqueis, Ecclesiae suae adunavit. Vel domum eius diripuit, quia omnes mundi partes, quibus olim hostis dominabatur antiquus, apostolis, eorumque successoribus distribuit, ut populos ad viam vitae converterent. Ostendit autem dominus quod grande scelus committerent qui hoc quod Dei esse cognoverant, Diaboli esse clamabant, cum subdit amen dico vobis, quoniam omnia dimittentur filiis hominum peccata, et blasphemiae quibus blasphemaverint. Omnia quidem peccata et blasphemiae non passim dimittuntur omnibus hominibus, sed his qui dignam pro erroribus suis in hac vita poenitentiam egerint: et sic neque ullum habet locum vel Novatus, qui poenitentibus, qui in martyrio lapsi sunt, veniam neget esse tribuendam; vel Origenes, qui asserit post iudicium universale, transactis licet saeculorum voluminibus, cunctos peccatores veniam peccatorum esse consecuturos; cuius errorem sequentia domini verba redarguunt, cum subditur qui autem blasphemaverit in spiritum sanctum, non habet remissionem in aeternum. Bede, in Marc., 1, 17: The Lord has also bound the strong man, that is, the devil: which means, He has restrained him from seducing the elect, and entering into his house, the world; He has spoiled his house, and his goods, that is men, because He has snatched them from the snares of the devil, and has united them to His Church. Or, He has spoiled his house, because the four parts of the world, over which the old enemy had sway, He has distributed to the Apostles and their successors, that they may convert the people to the way of life. But the Lord shews that they committed a great sin in crying out that which they knew to be of God, was of the devil, when He subjoins, "Verily, I say unto you, All sins are forgiven, &c." All sins and blasphemies are not indeed remitted to all men, but to those who have gone through a repentance in this life sufficient for their sins; thus neither is Novatus right [ed. note: Novatus was a Carthaginian presbyter, who, after having abetted Felicissimus in his schism against St. Cyprian, came to Rome and joined Novatian against Pope Cornelius, A.D. 251. His error, which is here opposed to Origen's, consisted in denying that Christ had left with His Church the power of absolving from certain sins, especially from apostasy.], who denied that any pardon should be granted to penitents, who had lapsed in time of martyrdom; nor Origen, who asserts that after the general judgment, after the revolution of ages, all sinners will receive pardon for their sins, which error the following words of the Lord condemn, when He adds, "But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, &c." [p. 67]
Chrysostomus in Matth: Et quidem blasphemiam quae circa eum erat, excusationem habere dicit, quia tunc videbatur homo despectus, et infimi generis; sed iniuria Dei remissionem non habet. Blasphemia autem in spiritum sanctum contra Deum fit. Est enim spiritus sancti operatio regnum Dei, et propter hoc irremissibilem dicit esse spiritus sancti blasphemiam. Pro eo autem quod hic subditur sed erit reus aeterni delicti, alius Evangelista dicit: neque in hoc saeculo, neque in futuro: per quod intelligitur iudicium quod est secundum legem et futurum. Cum enim lex maledicentem Deum occidi iubeat, in hoc legis secundae excusationem non habet: omnis autem qui baptizatur, extra hoc saeculum fit. Latebat autem Iudaeos remissio quae fit per Baptismum. Qui ergo miracula et Daemonum eiectionem, quae solum sunt propria spiritus sancti, Daemoni appropriat, nulla excusatio sibi de blasphemia relinquetur. Sed neque blasphemia talis, cum sit contra spiritum sanctum, remitti videtur; unde exponens subdit quoniam dicebant: spiritum habet immundum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He says indeed, that blasphemy concerning Himself was pardonable, because He then seemed to be a man despised and of the most lowly birth, but, that contumely against God has no remission. Now blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is against God, for the operation of the Holy Ghost is the kingdom of God; and for this reason, He says, that blasphemy against the Holy Ghost cannot be remitted. Instead, however, of what is here added, "But will be in danger of eternal damnation," another Evangelist says, "Neither in this world, nor in the world to come." By which is understood, the judgment which is according to the law, and that which is to come. For the law orders one who blasphemes God to be slain, and in the judgment of the second law he has no remission. However, he who is baptized is taken out of this world; but the Jews were ignorant of the remission which takes place in baptism. [ed. note: A few words are left out in the Catena, which occur in Victor, and which do away with the obscurity of the passage. The missing of the whole is, that though there is no remission either in this world or in the next, yet that baptism is, as it were, a space between the two worlds, where remission can be obtained. The reason, therefore, why this blasphemy could not be remitted, was, because the Jews would not come to Christ's baptism.] He therefore who refers to the devil miracles, and the casting out of devils which belong to the Holy Ghost alone, has no room left him for remission of his blasphemy. Neither does it appear that such a blasphemy as this is remitted, since it is against the Holy Ghost. Wherefore he adds, explaining it, "Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit."
Theophylactus: Est autem intelligendum, quod veniam non consequentur, nisi poeniteant. Cum vero in carne Christi scandalizabantur, etiam si non poeniterent, aliquid excusationis habebant et remissionis aliquid consequebantur. Theophylact: We must however understand, that they will not obtain pardon unless they repent. But since it was at the flesh of Christ that they were offended, even though they did not repent, some excuse was allowed them, and they obtained some remission.
Hieronymus: Vel hoc dicit, quia non merebitur poenitentiam agere ut recipiatur qui Christum intelligens, principem Daemoniorum esse dicebat. Pseudo-Jerome: Or this is meant; that he will not deserve to work out repentance, so as to be accepted, who, understanding who Christ was, declared that He was the prince of the devils.
Beda: Neque tamen hi qui spiritum sanctum non esse Deum credunt, irremissibilis blasphemiae crimine tenentur: quia non invidentia diabolica, sed humana ignorantia ducti hoc faciunt. Bede: Neither however are those, who do not believe the Holy Spirit to be God, guilty of an unpardonable blasphemy, because they were persuaded to do this by human ignorance, not by devilish malice.
Augustinus de Verb. Dom.: Vel ipsa impoenitentia est blasphemia spiritus sancti, quae non remittetur. Contra enim spiritum sanctum, quo peccata dimittuntur, verbum dicit, sive cogitatione, sive lingua, qui sibi cor impoenitens thesaurizat. Subiungit autem quoniam dicebant: spiritum immundum habet, ut ostenderet hinc fuisse exortam causam ut hoc diceret, eo quod dicerent eum in Beelzebub Daemonem expellere; non quia esset blasphemia quae non remittitur, cum et haec remittatur, si recta poenitentia consequatur; sed hinc causa extitit ut a domino illa sententia proferretur, facta mentione spiritus immundi, quem adversus seipsum divisum dominus ostendit propter spiritum sanctum, qui etiam quos colligit efficit indivisos, peccata, quae adversus se divisa sunt, dimittendo; cui dono remissionis non resistit nisi qui duritiam cordis impoenitentis habuerit. Nam alio loco dixerunt Iudaei de domino, quod Daemonium haberet; nec tamen ibi aliquid dixit de blasphemia spiritus sancti: quoniam non ita obiecerunt spiritum immundum ut in se divisus ex ore eorum posset ostendi, sicut Beelzebub, a quo Daemones eici posse dixerunt. Augustine, Serm., 71, 12, 22: Or else impenitence itself is the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost which hath no remission. For either in his thought [p. 68] or by his tongue, he speaks a word against the Holy Ghost, the forgiver of sins, who treasures up for himself an impenitent heart. But he subjoins, "Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit," that he might shew that His reason for saying it, was their declaring that He cast out a devil by Beelzebub, not because there is a blasphemy, which cannot be remitted, since even this might be remitted through a right repentance; but the cause why this sentence was put forth by the Lord, after mentioning the unclean spirit, (who as our Lord shews was divided against himself,) was, that the Holy Ghost even makes those whom He brings together undivided, by His remitting those sins, which divided them from Himself, which gift of remission is resisted by no one, but him who has the hardness of an impenitent heart. For in another place, the Jews said of the Lord, that He had a devil [John 7:20], without however His saying any thing there about the blasphemy against the Spirit; and the reason is, that they did not there cast in His teeth the unclean spirit, in such a way, that spirit could by their own words be shewn to be divided against Himself, as Beelzebub was here shewn to be, by their saying, that it might be he who cast out devils. [ed. note: St. Augustine explains his meaning by going on to say, that as the Devil was proved by the words of the Jews to be the author of division, so the Holy Ghost was the author of unity, so that one form of blasphemy of the Holy Ghost was rending the unity of the Church, without which there is no remission. St. Ambrose, something in the same way, applies the text to the Arians, as dividing the Holy Trinity, de Fide, i, 1.]

Lectio 6
31 καὶ ἔρχεται ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔξω στήκοντες ἀπέστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν καλοῦντες αὐτόν. 32 καὶ ἐκάθητο περὶ αὐτὸν ὄχλος, καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, ἰδοὺ ἡ μήτηρ σου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί σου [καὶ αἱ ἀδελφαι σου] ἔξω ζητοῦσίν σε. 33 καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτοῖς λέγει, τίς ἐστιν ἡ μήτηρ μου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί [μου]; 34 καὶ περιβλεψάμενος τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν κύκλῳ καθημένους λέγει, ἴδε ἡ μήτηρ μου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί μου. 35 ὃς [γὰρ] ἂν ποιήσῃ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, οὗτος ἀδελφός μου καὶ ἀδελφὴ καὶ μήτηρ ἐστίν.
31. There came then His brethren, and His mother, and, standing without, sent unto Him, calling Him. 32. And the multitude sat about Him, and they said unto Him, "Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without seek for Thee." 33. And He answered them, saying, "Who is My mother, or My brethren?" 34. And He looked round about on them which sat about Him, and said, "Behold My mother and My brethren!" 35. For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is My brother, and My sister, and mother. [p. 69]

Theophylactus: Quia propinqui domini venerant tenere eum tamquam in furiam versum, mater eius amoris compassione detenta, venit ad ipsum; unde dicitur et veniunt mater eius, et fratres, et foris stantes miserunt ad eum vocantes eum. Theophylact: Because the relations of the Lord had come to seize upon Him, as if beside Himself, His mother, urged by the sympathy of her love, came to Him. Wherefore it is said, "And there came unto Him His mother, and, standing without, sent unto Him, calling Him."
Chrysostomus: Ex hoc autem manifestum fit quod non semper cum eo erant fratres eius et mater: quia vero dilectus erat, ad eum propter reverentiam et affectum veniunt, de foris expectantes; unde sequitur: Chrys.: From this it is manifest that His brethren and His mother were not always with Him; but because He was beloved by them, they come from reverence and affection, waiting without.
et sedebat circa eum turba; et dicunt ei: ecce mater tua, et fratres tui foris quaerunt te. Wherefore it goes on, "And the multitude sat about Him, &c."
Beda: Fratres domini non filii semper virginis Mariae, iuxta Helvidium, nec filii Ioseph ex alia uxore, iuxta quosdam, putandi sunt; sed eius potius intelligendi sunt esse cognati. Bede: The brother of the Lord must not be thought to be the sons of the ever-virgin Mary, as Helvidius says [ed. note: The perpetual virginity of the Mother of God is reckoned by White, Bramhall, Patrick and Pearson, amongst the traditions which have ever been held in the Catholic Church. For an account of the heretics who denied it, see Bp. Pearson on the Creed, Art, 3, p. 272, note x., also Catena Aurea in Matt., p 58, note c], nor the sons of Joseph by a former marriage, as some think, but rather they must be understood to be His relations.
Chrysostomus: Alter autem Evangelista dicit, quod fratres eius nondum credebant in eum; cui convenit quod hic dicitur, quod eum quaerebant de foris expectantes; et secundum eamdem intentionem dominus eorum non sicut propinquorum meminit; unde sequitur et respondens eis ait: quae est mater mea, et fratres mei? Hoc autem non dixit, matrem et fratres omnino reprobando, sed ostendens quod super omnem cognationem temporalem oportet propriam animam praehonorare: unde convenienter hoc dicitur his qui vocabant ad propinquorum collocutionem, quasi ad aliquid utilius quam sit doctrina salutis. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But another Evangelist says, that His brethren did not believe on Him. [John 7:5] With which this agrees, which says, that they sought Him, waiting without, and with this meaning the Lord does not mention them as relations. Wherefore it follows, "And He answered them, saying, Who is My mother or My brethren?" But He does not here mention His mother and His brethren altogether with reproof, but to shew that a man must honour his own soul above all earthly kindred; wherefore this is fitly said to those who called Him to speak with His mother and relations, as if it were a more useful task than the teaching of salvation.
Beda: Rogatus ergo officio verbi, dissimulat egredi, non maternae refutans obsequium pietatis; sed paternis se mysteriis amplius quam maternis debere monstrat affectibus. Nec iniuriose fratres contemnit, sed opus spirituale carnis cognationi praeferens, religiosiorem cordium copulam docet esse quam corporum; unde sequitur et circumspiciens eos qui in circuitu eius sedebant, ait: ecce mater mea, et fratres mei. Bede; see Ambr. in Luc. 6, 36: Being asked therefore by a message to go out, He declines, not as though He refused the dutiful service of His mother, but to shew that He owes more to His Father's mysteries than to His mother's feelings. Nor does He rudely despise His brothers, but, preferring His spiritual work to fleshly relationship, He teaches us that religion is the bond of the heart rather than that of the body. Wherefore it goes on, "And looking round about on them which sat about Him, He said, Behold My mother and My brethren."
Chrysostomus: In quo dominus ostendit quod oportet eos qui fidei sunt propinqui, prae omnibus consanguineis honorare. Iesu quidem aliquis mater efficitur praedicando: quasi enim parit dominum quem cordi audientis infuderit. Chrys.: By this, the Lord shews that we should honour those who are relations by faith rather than those [p. 70] who are relations by blood. A man indeed is made the mother of Jesus by preaching Him [ed. note: Nearly the same idea occurs in St. Ambrose, in Luc. 2, 8]; for He, as it were, brings forth the Lord, when he pours Him into the heart of his hearers.
Hieronymus: Sciamus autem nos esse fratres eius et sorores, si voluntatem patris impleverimus, ut coheredes simus eius; unde sequitur qui enim fecerit voluntatem Dei, hic frater meus, et soror mea, et mater est. Pseudo-Jerome: But let us be assured that we are His brethren and His sisters, if we do the will of the Father; that we may be joint-heirs with Him, for He discerns us not by sex but by our deeds. Wherefore it goes on: "Whosoever shall do the will of God, &c."
Theophylactus: Non ergo negans matrem hoc dixit, sed ostendens quod non solum digna est honore propter hoc quod genuit Christum, sed propter omnem aliam virtutem. Theophylact: He does not therefore say this, as denying His mother, but as shewing that He is worthy of honour, not only because she bore Christ, but on account of her possessing every other virtue.
Beda: Mystice autem mater, et fratres Iesu sunt synagoga, ex cuius carne est editus, et populus Iudaeorum, qui, salvatore intus docente, venientes intrare nequeunt, cum spiritualiter intelligere dicta nequeunt. Praeoccupans autem turba ingreditur, quia differente Iudaea, gentilitas fluxit ad Christum: foris enim stantes volunt dominum videre cognati ipsius, cum Iudaei se ad custodiam litterae foris fixerunt, et Christum potius ad carnalia docenda cogunt exire, quam se ad discenda spiritualia consentiunt ingredi. Si ergo foris stantes nec ipsi agnoscuntur parentes, quemadmodum nos agnoscemur, si foris stemus? Intus enim est verbum, intus est lumen. Bede: By mystically, the mother and brother of Jesus means the synagogue, (from which according to the flesh He sprung,) and the Jewish people who, while the Saviour is teaching within, come to Him, and are not able to enter, because they cannot understand spiritual things. But the crowd eagerly enter, because when the Jews delayed, the Gentiles flocked to Christ; but His kindred, who stand without wishing to see the Lord, are the Jews who obstinately remained without, guarding the letter, and would rather compel the Lord to go forth to them to teach carnal things, than consent to enter in to learn spiritual things of Him. If therefore not even His parents when standing without are acknowledged, how shall we be acknowledged, if we stand without? [ed. note: see Ambr. in Luc., 6, 37] For the word is within and the light within.

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Caput 3Chapter 4[p. 71]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ πάλιν ἤρξατο διδάσκειν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν. καὶ συνάγεται πρὸς αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν. 2 καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς πολλά, καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ, 3 ἀκούετε. ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων σπεῖραι. 4 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὃ μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἦλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό. 5 καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες ὅπου οὐκ εἶχεν γῆν πολλήν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς: 6 καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἥλιος ἐκαυματίσθη, καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη. 7 καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν. 8 καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλήν, καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα, καὶ ἔφερεν ἓν τριάκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑκατόν. 9 καὶ ἔλεγεν, ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω. 10 καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς. 11 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ: ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται, 12 ἵνα βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν, καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν, μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς. 13 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην, καὶ πῶς πάσας τὰς παραβολὰς γνώσεσθε; 14 ὁ σπείρων τὸν λόγον σπείρει. 15 οὗτοι δέ εἰσιν οἱ παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ὅπου σπείρεται ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν εὐθὺς ἔρχεται ὁ σατανᾶς καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον τὸν ἐσπαρμένον εἰς αὐτούς. 16 καὶ οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐπὶ τὰ πετρώδη σπειρόμενοι, οἳ ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς μετὰ χαρᾶς λαμβάνουσιν αὐτόν, 17 καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ῥίζαν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀλλὰ πρόσκαιροί εἰσιν: εἶτα γενομένης θλίψεως ἢ διωγμοῦ διὰ τὸν λόγον εὐθὺς σκανδαλίζονται. 18 καὶ ἄλλοι εἰσὶν οἱ εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας σπειρόμενοι: οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τὸν λόγον ἀκούσαντες, 19 καὶ αἱ μέριμναι τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ ἀπάτη τοῦ πλούτου καὶ αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι εἰσπορευόμεναι συμπνίγουσιν τὸν λόγον, καὶ ἄκαρπος γίνεται. 20 καὶ ἐκεῖνοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν σπαρέντες, οἵτινες ἀκούουσιν τὸν λόγον καὶ παραδέχονται καὶ καρποφοροῦσιν ἓν τριάκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἓν ἑκατόν.
1. And Jesus began to teach again by the sea-side: and there was gathered unto Him a great multitude, so that He entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. 2. And He taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in His doctrine: 3: "Hearken: Behold, there went out a sower to sow: 4. And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. 5. And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth: 6. But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7. And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8. And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred." 9. And He said unto them, "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." 10. And when He was alone, they that were about Him with the twelve asked of Him the parable. 11. And He said unto them, "Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables: 12. That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; [p. 72] lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them." 13. And He said unto them, "Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables? 14. The sower soweth the word. 15. And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts. 16. And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness; 17. And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended. 18. And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word, 19. And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful. 20. And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirty-fold, some sixty, and some an hundred."

Theophylactus: Licet matrem dominus superius negligere videretur, tamen reveretur eam: propterea namque egreditur circa mare; unde dicitur et iterum coepit docere ad mare. Theophylact: Although the Lord appears in the transactions mentioned above to neglect His mother, nevertheless He honours her; since on her account He goes forth about the borders of the sea. Wherefore it is said, "And Jesus began to teach again by the sea-side, &c.
Beda: Si enim Evangelium Matthaei inspicimus, patet hanc doctrinam domini ad mare eadem die qua superiorem in domo celebratum esse sermonem: terminato enim primo sermone continuo subiunxit Matthaeus dicens in illo die exiens de domo sedebat ad mare. Bede, in Marc., 1, 18: For if we look into the Gospel of Matthew, it appears that this same teaching of the Lord at the sea, was delivered on the same day as the former. For after the conclusion of the first sermon, Matthew immediately subjoins, saying, "The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea-side."
Hieronymus: Coepit autem docere ad mare, ut locus docendi indicet auditores amaros fuisse et instabiles. Pseudo-Jerome: But He began to teach at the sea, that the [p. 73] place of His teaching might point out the bitter feelings and instability of His hearers.
Beda: Relicta etiam domo coepit docere ad mare quia relicta synagoga ad colligendam per apostolos populi gentilis multitudinem venit; unde sequitur et congregata est ad eum turba multa, ita ut in navim ascendens sederet in mari. Bede: After leaving the house also, He began to teach at the sea, because, quitting the synagogue, He came to gather together the multitude of the Gentile people by the Apostles. Wherefore it continues: "And there was gathered unto Him a great multitude, so that He entered into a ship, and sat in the sea."
Chrysostomus: Quod non sine causa factum oportet intelligi; sed ut post se neminem dimitteret, sed omnes auditores ante faciem haberet. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 44: Which we must understand was not done without a purpose, but that He might not leave any one behind Him, but have all His hearers before His face.
Beda: Praefigurabat autem haec navis Ecclesiam in medio nationum aedificandam, in qua dominus dilectam sibi consecrat mansionem. Bede: Now this ship shewed in a figure the Church, to be built in the midst of the nations, in which the Lord consecrates for Himself a beloved dwelling-place.
Sequitur et dicebat illis in parabolis multa. It goes on: "And He taught them many things by parables."
Hieronymus: Parabola est rerum natura discrepantium sub aliqua similitudine facta comparatio: paravoli, enim Graeco vocabulo dicitur similitudo, quando illud quod intelligi volumus, per comparationes aliquas indicamus. Sic enim ferreum quempiam dicimus, quando durum ac fortem desideramus intelligi: cum velocem, ventis, aut avibus comparamus. Loquitur autem turbis in parabolis more providentiae suae, ut qui caelestia capere non poterant, per similitudinem terrenam audita percipere potuissent. Pseudo-Jerome: A parable is a comparison made between things discordant by nature, under some similitude. For parable is the Greek for a similitude, when we point out by some comparisons what we would have understood. In this way we say an iron man, when we desire that he should be understood to be hardy and strong; when to be swift, we compare him to winds and birds. But He speaks to the multitudes in parables, with His usual providence, that those who could not take in heavenly things, might conceive what they heard by an earthly similitude.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Erigit enim per parabolam audientium mentem, ut manifestiorem sermonem faceret, res visui ostendens. Chrys.: For He rouses the minds of His hearers by a parable, pointing out objects to the sight, to make His discourse more manifest.
Theophylactus: Et ut attentiores faceret auditores, primam parabolam proponit de semine, quod est verbum Dei; unde Theophylact: And in order to rouse the attention of those who heard, the first parable that He proposes is concerning the seed, which is the word of God.
Sequitur et dicebat illis in doctrina sua; non Moysi, non prophetarum, quia suum praedicat Evangelium: exiit seminandum. Seminans autem Christus est. Wherefore it goes on, "And He said to them in His doctrine." Not in that of Moses, nor of the Prophets, because He preaches His own Gospel. "Hearken: behold, there went out a sower to sow." Now the Sower is Christ.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Non autem loco exivit qui praesens existit omnibus, et implet; sed habitu, et dispensatione, qua nobis factus est propinquior per carnis amictum. Quia enim non valebamus ire ad eum, peccatis impedientibus iter nostrum, ipse exiit ad nos. Exiit autem praedicans pietatis seminare sermonem, quem copiose loquebatur. Non autem inculcat sermonem eumdem in eo quod dicit exiit seminans ad seminandum: exit enim aliquando seminans, aut ut faciat novale, aut herbas malas evellat, aut aliquod aliud operetur. Iste autem exiit ad seminandum. Chrys.: Not that He went out in space, Who is present in all space, and fills all, but in the form and economy by which He is made more near to us through the clothing of flesh. For since we were not able to go to Him, because sins impeded our path, He went out to us. But He went out, preaching in order to sow the word of piety, which He spake abundantly. Now He does not needlessly repeat the same word, when He says, "A sower went out to sow," for sometimes a sower goes out that he may break up [p. 74] land for tillage, or to pull up weeds, or for some other work. But this one went out to sow.
Beda: Vel exiit ad seminandum, cum post vocatam ad fidem suam partem synagogae electam, ad vocationem quoque gentium gratiae suae dona diffudit. Bede, in Marc., 1, 19: Or else, He went out to sow, when after calling to His faith the elect portion of the synagogue, He poured out the gifts of His grace in order to call the Gentiles also.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Sicut autem seminans non discernit terram subiectam, sed simpliciter, et absque discretione semen mittit, sic et ipse omnes alloquitur; et ad hoc significandum subdit et dum seminat, aliud cecidit circa viam. Chrys.: Further, as a sower does not make a distinction in the ground which is beneath him, but simply and without distinction puts in the seed, so also He Himself addresses all. And to signify this, He says, "And as he sowed, some fell by the way-side."
Theophylactus: Vide quia non dixit, quod proiecit illud in via, sed quia cecidit: qui enim seminat, quantum in se est, in terram bonam proicit; sed illa, si sit mala, corrumpit verbum. Via autem Christus est; infideles autem sunt circa viam, idest extra Christum. Theophylact: Take notice, that He says not that He threw it in the way, but that it fell, for a sower, as far as he can, throws it into good ground, but if the ground be bad, it corrupts the seed. Now the way is Christ; but infidels are by the way-side, that is, out of Christ.
Beda: Vel via est mens sedulo malarum cogitationum motu trita, ne verbi semen in ea germinare sufficiat. Et ideo quidquid boni seminis vicinia talis viae contigerit, perit, et a Daemonibus rapitur; unde sequitur et venerunt volucres caeli, et comederunt illud. Recte autem Daemones volucres caeli dicuntur, sive quia caelestis spiritualisque sunt naturae, sive quia in aere habitant. Vel qui sunt circa viam, sunt negligentes et desides. Bede: Or else, the way is a mind which is a path for bad thoughts, preventing the seed of the word from growing in it. And therefore whatsoever good seed comes in contact with such a way, perishes, and is carried off by devils. Wherefore there follows, "And the fowls of the air came and devoured it up." And well are the devils called fowls of the air, either because they are of a heavenly and spiritual origin, or because they dwell in the air. Or else, those who are about the way are negligent and slothful men.
Sequitur. Aliud vero cecidit super petrosa. Petram dicit duritiam protervae mentis, terram levitatem animae obedientis, solem fervorem persecutionis saevientis. Altitudo ergo terrae, quae semen Dei debuerat accipere, probitas est animi disciplinis caelestibus exercitati, atque ad obediendum divinis eloquiis regulariter instituti. Petrosa autem loca, quae vim radicis suscipiendae non habent, illa sunt praecordia quae dulcedine tantum auditi sermonis, ac promissis caelestibus ad horam delectantur; sed in tempore tentationis recedunt, quia parum est in eis salutaris desiderii, quod semen vitae concipiat. It goes on: "And some fell on stony ground." He calls stone, the hardness of a wanton mind; He calls ground, the inconstancy of a soul in its obedience; and sun, the heat of a raging persecution. Therefore the depth of earth, which ought to have received the seed of God, is the honesty of a mind trained in heavenly discipline, and regularly brought up in obedience to the Divine words. But the stony places, which have no strength for fixing the root firmly, are those breasts which are delighted only with the sweetness of the word which they hear, and for a time with the heavenly promises, but in a season of temptation fall away, for there is too little of healthful desire in them to conceive the seed of life.
Theophylactus: Vel petrosa sunt qui modicum adhaerentes petrae, idest Christo, inquantum ad tempus verbum recipiunt, postmodum abiciunt recedentes. Theophylact: Or, the stony persons are those who adhering a little to the rock, that is, to Christ, up to a short time, receive the word, and afterwards, falling back, cast it away.
Sequitur et aliud cecidit inter spinas, per quod significantur animae multa curantes: spinae enim curae sunt. It goes on: "And some fell among thorns;" by which are marked souls which care for many things. For thorns are cares. [p. 75]
Chrysostomus in Matth: Ulterius vero ponit terram bonam, dicens et aliud cecidit in terram bonam. Secundum enim conditionem terrae est differentia fructuum. Multa est autem dilectio seminantis ad homines: quoniam et primos commendat, et secundos non reicit, et tertiis tribuit locum. Chrys.: But further He mentions good ground, saying, "And other fell on good ground." For the difference of the fruits follows the quality of the ground. But great is the love of the Sower for men, for the first He commends, and rejects not the second, and gives a place to the third.
Theophylactus: Vide etiam quomodo mali sunt plurimi et pauci qui salvantur; quarta enim pars seminis invenitur salvata. Theophylact: See also how the bad are the greatest number, and the few are those who are saved, for the fourth part of the ground is found to be saved.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Non tamen maior pars seminis occasione amittitur seminantis, sed terrae recipientis, idest animae audientis. Et quidem materialis agricola hoc modo seminando congrue incusaretur: non enim ignorat lapidem, aut viam, aut terram spinosam, terram pinguem non fieri; in rationalibus vero non est sic: petram enim possibile est fieri terram pinguem, et viam non conculcari, et destrui spinas; quod si fieri non posset, non ibi seminasset. Per hoc ergo nobis tribuit poenitentiae spem. Chrys.: This, however, the greater portion of the seed is not lost through the fault of the owner, but of the earth, which received it, that is, of the soul, which hears. And indeed the real husbandman, if he sowed in this way, would be rightly blamed; for he is not ignorant that rock, or the road, or thorny ground, cannot become fertile. But in spiritual things it is not so; for there it is possible that stony ground may become fertile; and that the road should not be trodden down, and that the thorns may be destroyed, for if this could not take place, he would not have sown there. By this, therefore, He gives to us hope of repentance.
Sequitur et dicebat: qui habet aures audiendi, audiat. It goes on, "And He said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear."
Hieronymus: Quoties haec admonitio in Evangelio, aut in Apocalypsi Ioannis interponitur, mysticum hoc quod dicitur, atque ad audiendum, discendumque insinuatur: aures enim audiendi sunt cordis et sensus interioris aures, obediendi et faciendi quae iussa sunt. Bede: As often as this is inserted in the Gospel or in the Apocalypse of John, that which is spoken is mystical, and is pointed out as healthful to be heard and learnt. For the ears by which they are heard belong to the heart, and the ears by which men obey and do what is commanded are those of an interior sense.
Sequitur et cum esset singularis, interrogabant eum hi, qui cum eo erant, duodecim parabolam exponere. Et dicebat eis: vobis datum est scire mysterium regni Dei: illis autem qui foris sunt in parabolis omnia fiunt. There follows, "And when He was alone, the twelve that were with Him asked of Him the parable; and He said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God, but to them that are without all things are done in parables."
Beda: Quasi diceret: vos qui estis digni omnia quae ad praedicationem sunt congrua edoceri, parabolarum manifestationem addiscetis. Ad istos autem parabolis usus sum, quia digni non sunt addiscere propter eorum malitiam: qui enim legis quam acceperant, obedientiam non tenebant, iustum fuit ut novi sermonis participationem non haberent; sed ab utroque sint alieni. Ostendit enim per discipulorum obedientiam quod per contrarium indigni facti sunt reliqui mysticae doctrinae. Postea vero inductione vocis propheticae, eorum confundit nequitiam, tamquam a longe confutatam: unde sequitur ut videntes videant et non videant, et audientes audiant et non intelligant; quasi dicat: ut prophetia impleatur quae hoc praedicit. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: As if He said unto them, You that are worthy to be taught all things which are fitted for teaching, shall learn the manifestation of parables; but I use parables with them who are unworthy to learn, because of their wickedness. For it was right that they who did not hold fast their obedience to that law which they had received, should not have any share in a new teaching, but should be estranged from both; for He shewed by the obedience of His disciples, that, on the other hand, the others were become unworthy of mystical doctrine. But afterwards, by bringing in a voice from prophecy, He confounds [p. 76] their wickedness, as having been long before reproved. Wherefore it goes on, "that seeing they might see, and not perceive, &c." [see Isa 6:9] as if He said that they prophecy might be fulfilled which foretells these things.
Theophylactus: Deus enim eos fecit videntes, idest intelligentes bonum; ipsi vero non vident, voluntarie se fingentes non videre, ne convertantur, et corrigant se, tamquam suae saluti inviderent. Theophylact: For it was God Who made them to see, that is, to understand what is good. But they themselves see not, of their own will making themselves not to see, lest they should be converted and correct themselves, as if they were displeased at their own salvation.
Sequitur ne quando convertantur et dimittantur eis peccata. It goes on, "Lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins be forgiven them."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Sic ergo vident et non vident, audiunt et non intelligunt: quod enim vident et audiunt, contingit eis ex gratia Dei; sed quod vident, et non intelligunt, contingit eis, quia gratiam recipere nolunt, sed oculos claudunt, et fingunt se non videre, neque dictis acquiescunt; et sic a peccatis non mutantur per hoc quod vident et audiunt, sed contrarium patiuntur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Thus, therefore, they see and they do not see, they hear and do not understand, for their seeing and hearing comes to them from God's grace, but their seeing and not understanding comes to them from their unwillingness to receive grace, and closing their eyes, and pretending that they could not see; neither do they acquiesce in what was said, and so are not changed as to their sins by hearing and seeing, but rather are made worse.
Theophylactus: Vel potest aliter intelligi, quod reliquis loquebatur in parabolis, ut videntes non videant, et audientes non intelligant. Deus enim dat visum, et intellectum his qui petunt, reliquos autem obcaecat, ne in maiorem redargutionem sit eis, quod cum intelligerent, noluerunt facere quae oportet; unde sequitur ne quando convertantur et dimittantur eis peccata. Theophylact: Or we may understand in a different way His speaking to the rest in parables, that seeing they might not perceive, and hearing, not understand. For God gives sight and understanding to men who seek for them, but the rest He blinds, lest it become a greater accusation against them, that though they understood, they did not choose to do what they ought. Wherefore it goes on, "Lest at any times they should be, &c."
Augustinus de quaest. Evang: Vel hoc intelliguntur peccatis suis meruisse, ut non intelligerent, et tamen hoc ipsum misericorditer eis est factum ut peccata sua cognoscerent, et conversi veniam mererentur. Augustine, Quaest, 14, in Matt.: Or else they deserved this, their not understanding, and yet this in itself was done in mercy to them, that they might know their sins, and, being converted, merit pardon.
Beda: Illis ergo qui foris sunt, in parabolis omnia fiunt, et facta scilicet, et verba salvatoris: quod neque in his quas operabatur virtutibus, neque in eis quae praedicabat arcanis eum cognoscere Deum valent; ideoque ad remissionem peccatorum attingere non valent. Bede: To those then who are without, all things are done in parables, that is, both the actions and the words of the Saviour, because neither in those miracles which He was working, nor in those mysteries which He preached, were they able to acknowledge Him as God. Therefore they are not able to attain to the remission of their sins.
Chrysostomus: Quod autem non loquebatur eis, nisi in parabolis, nec omnino loqui desistebat, demonstrat quod his qui bono propinqui sunt, etsi in seipsis bonum non habeant, occultum tamen eis ostenditur. Cum autem aliquis cum reverentia ac recto corde accedit, occultorum revelationem consequitur abundanter; cum autem non sana sentit, nec his quae multis facilia sunt dignus fiet, nec etiam eorum auditu. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But His speaking to them only in parables, and yet not leaving off speaking to them entirely, shews that to those who are placed near to what is good, though they may have no good in themselves, still good is shewn disguised. But when a man approaches it with reverence and a right heart, he wins for himself an abundant revelation of mysteries; when on the contrary his thoughts are not sound, [p. 77] he will be neither made worthy of those things which are easy to many men, nor even of hearing them.
Sequitur et ait illis: nescitis parabolam hanc? Et quomodo omnes parabolas cognoscetis? There follows, "And He said unto them, Know ye not this parable, how then shall ye know all parables?"
Hieronymus: Oportebat siquidem ut illi, quibus in parabolis loquebatur, requirerent quod non intelligerent, et per apostolos, quos contemptos habebant, discerent mysterium regni, quod ipsi non habebant. Pseudo-Jerome: For it was necessary that they to whom He spoke in parables should ask for what they did not understand, and learn by the Apostle whom they despised, the mystery of the kingdom which they themselves had not.
Glossa: Et ideo dominus haec dicens, ostendit oportere eos et hanc primam, et omnes consequentes parabolas intelligere; propter quod exponens subdit qui seminat, verbum seminat. Gloss.: And for this reason, the Lord in saying these things, shews that they ought to understand both this first, and all following miracles. Wherefore explaining it, He goes on, "The sower soweth the word."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Et quidem propheta doctrinam populi plantationi vineae comparavit; hic vero seminationi, manifestans per hoc quod brevior est nunc et facilior obedientia, et statim fructum dabit. Chrys., in Matt., Hom. 44: And indeed the prophet has compared the teaching of the people to the planting of a vine; [Isa 5] in this place however it is compared to sowing, to shew that obedience is now shorter and more easy, and will sooner yield fruit.
Beda: In hac autem domini expositione omnes eorum qui audire verba salutis potuerunt, sed ad salutem pervenire nequeunt, distantia comprehenditur. Sunt namque qui verbum quod audiunt, nulla fide, nullo intellectu, nulla saltem tentandae utilitatis occasione percipiunt; de quibus dicit hi autem sunt qui circa viam. Cordibus enim eorum mandatum verbum, confestim immundi spiritus, quasi viae tritae volucres semen, eripiunt. Sunt qui auditi verbi et utilitatem probant, et desiderium gustant; sed ne ad id quod probant perveniant, alios huius vitae adversa terrendo, alios prospera blandiendo retardant; de quorum primis dicitur et hi sunt similiter qui supra petrosa; de aliis dicitur et alii sunt qui in spinis. Spinae autem divitiae vocantur, quia cogitationum suarum punctionibus mentem lacerant; et cum usque ad peccatum pertrahunt, quasi inflicto vulnere cruentant. Dicit autem et aerumnae saeculi, et deceptio divitiarum: quemcumque enim supervacuus divitiarum decipit appetitus, necesse est mox curarum aerumna continuarum affligat. Addit autem et circa reliqua concupiscentiae: quia qui mandatis Dei contemptis, circa reliqua concupiscens aberrat, ad gaudium beatitudinis non potest attingere. Suffocant autem huiusmodi concupiscentiae verbum: quia bonum desiderium, ad quod intrare non sinunt, quasi aditum flatus vitalis necant. Excipiuntur autem ab his hominum differentiis gentiles, qui nec audire verba vitae merentur. Bede: But in this exposition of the Lord there is embraced the whole range of those who might hear the words of truth, but are unable to attain to salvation. For there are some to whom no faith, no intellect, nay no opportunity of trying its usefulness, can give a perception of the word which they hear; of whom He says, "And these are by the wayside." For unclean spirits take away at once the word committed to their hearts, as birds carry away the seed of the trodden way. There are some who both experience its usefulness and feel a desire for it, but some of them the calamities of this world frighten, and others its prosperity allures, so that they do not attain to that which they approve. Of the first of whom He says, "And these are they who fell on stony ground;" of the latter, "And these are they which are sown among thorns." But riches are called thorns, because they tear the soul with the piercing of its own thoughts, and after bringing it to sin, they, as one may say, make it bleed by inflicting a wound. Again He says, "And the toil of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches;" for the man who is deceived by an empty desire of riches must soon be afflicted by the toils of continual cares. He adds, "And the lusts of other things;" because, whosoever despises the commandments of God, and wanders away lustfully seeking other things, is unable to attain to the joy of beatitude. And concupiscences of this sort choke the word, because they do not allow a good desire to enter into the heart, and, as it were, stifle the [p. 78] entrance of vital breath. There are, however, excepted from these different classes of men, the Gentiles who do not even have grace to hear the words of life.
Theophylactus: Eorum vero qui semen suscipiunt, convenienter rursus tres sunt gradus; unde sequitur et hi sunt qui super terram bonam seminati sunt. Qui in centum fructificant, sunt qui perfectam, et obedientem habent vitam, ut virgines et eremitae; qui autem in sexaginta, qui mediocriter se habent, ut continentes, et qui in coenobio sunt; qui autem triginta, qui parvi quidem sunt secundum propriam virtutem fructum ferentes, ut laici, et qui in coniugio sunt. Theophylact: Further, of those who receive the seed as they ought there are three degrees. Wherefore it goes on, "And these are they who are sown on good ground." Those who bear fruit an hundred-fold are those who lead a perfect and an obedient life, as virgins and hermits. Those who bear fruit sixty-fold are those who are in the mean as continent persons [ed. note: The word translated continentes . . . means ascetics, who mix in the affairs of the world; whereas hermits lived quite out of them, and gave themselves up to contemplation; caenobites came between the two, living together in convents, and combined both the practical and contemplative life, see Greg. Naz. Or. 43, 62] and those who are living in convents. Those who bear thirty-fold are those who though weak indeed, bear fruit according to their own virtue, as laymen and married persons.
Beda: Vel triginta fructificat, cum aliquis fidem sanctae Trinitatis electorum cordibus insinuat; sexaginta, cum perfectionem docet bonae operationis; centum, cum caelestis regni praemia demonstrat: centum namque computando in dexteram transferuntur: unde recte in significatione ponuntur perpetuae beatitudinis. Terra autem bona est electorum conscientia, quae omnibus praedictis tribus terris contraria facit: quia et commendatum sibi semen verbi libenter excipit, et exceptum inter adversa et prospera constanter ad fructus usque tempora conservat. Bede: Or he bears thirty-fold, who instills into the minds of the elect faith in the Holy Trinity; sixty-fold, who teaches the perfection of good works; a hundred-fold, who shews the rewards of the heavenly kingdom. For in counting a hundred, we pass on to the right hand [ed. note: "He alludes to the mode of counting among the ancients. All numbers were signified by fingers of the left hand, either straight or variously bent, up to a hundred; and then they changed to the right. Consult Caelius Rhodiginus, Lectionum Antiq. lib. 23, cap. 11, 12." Benedictine note on Greg. Hom. in Ezec. lib. 2, Hom., 5]; therefore that number is fitly made to signify everlasting happiness. But the good ground is the conscience of the elect, which does the contrary to all the former three, which both receives with willingness the seed of the word committed to it, and keeps it when received up to the season of fruit.
Hieronymus: Vel fructus terrae in triginta et sexaginta et centum continetur; hoc est lege et prophetia et Evangelio. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else the fruits of the earth are contained in thirty, sixty, or a hundred-fold, that is, in the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel.

Lectio 2
21 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, μήτι ἔρχεται ὁ λύχνος ἵνα ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον τεθῇ ἢ ὑπὸ τὴν κλίνην; οὐχ ἵνα ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν τεθῇ; 22 οὐ γάρ ἐστιν κρυπτὸν ἐὰν μὴ ἵνα φανερωθῇ, οὐδὲ ἐγένετο ἀπόκρυφον ἀλλ' ἵνα ἔλθῃ εἰς φανερόν. 23 εἴ τις ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω. 24 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε. ἐν ᾧ μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε μετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν καὶ προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν. 25 ὃς γὰρ ἔχει, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ: καὶ ὃς οὐκ ἔχει, καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ' αὐτοῦ.
21. And He said unto them, "Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? 22. For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad. 23. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." [p. 79] 24. And He saith unto them, "Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be given. 25. For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath."

Chrysostomus: Post interrogationem discipulorum de parabola, ac explanationem, bene subiungit et dicebat illis: numquid venit lucerna ut sub modio ponatur, aut sub lecto? Nonne ut super candelabrum ponatur? Quasi dicat: propter hoc parabola dicta est, non ut immanifesta maneat, aut occulta, tamquam sub modio, aut sub lecto, sed ut dignis manifestetur. Lucerna in nobis est intellectualis natura, quae secundum proportionem illuminationis, aut clare apparet, aut obscure. Si enim meditationes quae nutriunt lumen, ac recordationes, in quibus lucerna talis accenditur, negligantur, mox extinguitur. Chrys.: After the question of the disciples concerning the parable, and its explanation, He well subjoins, "And He said unto them, Is a candle brought, &c." As if He said, A parable is given, not that it should remain obscure, and hidden as if under a bed or a bushel, but that it should be manifested to those who are worthy. The candle within us is that of our intellectual nature, and it shines either clearly or obscurely according to the proportion of our illumination. For if meditations which feed the light, and the recollection with which such a light is kindled, are neglected, it is presently extinguished.
Hieronymus: Vel lucerna verbum est de tribus seminibus; modius, aut lectus, auditus est inobedientium; candelabrum apostoli sunt, quos illuminavit verbum Dei; unde sequitur non est enim aliquid absconditum. Absconditum et occultum parabola seminis est; in palam vero venit, dum a domino tractatur. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else the candle is the discourse concerning the three sorts of seed. The bushel or the bed is the hearing of the disobedient. The Apostles are the candlestick, whom the word of the Lord hath enlightened. Wherefore it goes on, "For there is nothing hidden, &c." The hidden and secret thing is the parable of the seed, which comes forth to light, when it is spoken of by the Lord.
Theophylactus: Vel hic dominus discipulos monet lucidos esse secundum vitam et conversationem; quasi dicat: sicut lucerna ad lucendum ponitur, sic ad vitam vestram omnes respicient. Itaque studete bonam vitam habere, et non in angulis sedeatis, sed lucerna estote: lucerna enim non sub lecto, sed supra candelabrum posita lucet. Quam quidem lucernam necesse est ponere super candelabrum, idest in altitudine conversationis, quae secundum Deum est, ut et aliis lucere valeat; non sub modio, idest circa gulam; neque sub lecto, idest otio: nemo enim qui escis studet, et requiem diligit, posset esse lucerna omnibus lucens. Theophylact: Or else the Lord warns His disciples to be as light, in their life and conversation; as if He said, As a candle is put so as to give light, so all will look to your life. Therefore be diligent to lead a good life; sit not in corners, but be ye a candle. For a candle gives light, not when placed under a bed, but on a candlestick; this light indeed must be placed on a candlestick, that is, on the eminence of a godly life, that it may be able to give light to others. Not under a bushel, that is, in things pertaining to the palate, nor under a bed, that is, in idleness. For no one who seeks after the delights of his palate and loves rest can be a light shining over all.
Beda: Vel quia tempus vitae nostrae sub certa divinae provisionis mensura continetur, recte modio comparatur; lectus vero animae corpus est, in quo temporaliter habitans quiescit. Qui ergo amore vitae temporalis et illecebrarum carnalium occultat verbum Dei, modio vel lecto lucernam operit; supra candelabrum autem ponit lucernam qui corpus suum ministerio verbi Dei subicit: unde his verbis typice figuram docet praedicandi; unde sequitur non enim est absconditum quod non reveletur, neque factum est occultum quod non in palam veniat; quasi dicat: nolite erubescere Evangelium, sed inter tenebras persecutorum, lumen verbi Dei supra corporis vestri candelabrum levate, fixa mente retinentes illum diem quo illuminabit Deus abscondita tenebrarum: tunc enim et vos laus, et adversarios poena manet aeterna. Bede, in Marc., 1, 20: Or, because the time of our life is contained under a certain measurement of Divine Providence, it is rightly compared to a bushel. But the bed of the soul is the body, in which it dwells and reposes for a time. He therefore who [p. 80] hides the word of God under the love of this transitory life, and of carnal allurements, covers his candle with a bushel or a bed. But he puts his light on a candlestick who employs his body in the ministry of the word of God; therefore under these words He typically teaches them a figure of preaching. Wherefore it goes on, "For there is nothing hidden, which shall not be revealed, nor is there any thing made secret, which shall not come abroad." As if He said, Be not ashamed of the Gospel, but amidst the darkness of persecution raise the light of the word of God upon the candlestick of your body, keeping fixedly in your mind that day, when the Lord will throw light upon the hidden places of darkness, for then everlasting praise awaits you, and everlasting punishment your adversaries.
Chrysostomus: Vel aliter. Non est aliquid absconditum; quasi dicat: si vos cum diligentia vitam duxeritis, accusationes lucernam vestram non poterunt obumbrare. Chrys., in Matt., Hom. 15: Or else, "There is nothing hid;" as if He said, If ye conduct your life with care, accusation will not be able to obscure your light.
Theophylactus: Unusquisque enim nostrum seu bonum aliquid, seu malum in praeterito fecerit, manifestatur in praesenti, et multo magis in futuro. Quid enim est Deo occultius? Sed tamen et ipse manifestatus est in carne. Theophylact: For each of us, whether he have done good or evil, is brought to light in this life, much more in that which is to come. For what can be more hidden than God, nevertheless He Himself is manifested in the flesh.
Sequitur si quis habet aures audiendi, audiat. It continues, "If any man have ears to hear, let him hear."
Beda: Idest, si quis habet sensum intelligendi verbum Dei, non se subtrahat, non auditum ad fabulas convertat; sed his quae veritas dixit, accommodet aurem scrutandi, manus implendi, linguam praedicandi. Bede: That is, if any man have a sense for understanding the word of God, let him not withdraw himself, let him not turn his ear to fables, but let him lend his ear to search those things which truth hath spoken, his hands for fulfilling them, his tongue for preaching them.
Sequitur et dicebat illis: videte quid audiatis. There follows, "And He said unto them, Take heed what ye hear."
Theophylactus: Ut scilicet nihil eorum quae vobis a me dicuntur subterfugiatis. In qua mensura mensi fueritis, remetietur vobis; idest, quantamlibet mensuram intentionis introducetis, tantam recipietis utilitatem. Theophylact: That is, that none of those things which are said to you by me should escape you. "With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you," that is, whatsoever degree of application ye bring, in that degree ye will receive profit.
Beda: Vel aliter. Si solerter omnia quae valetis, bona facere, ac proximis intimare studueritis, aderit divina pietas, quae vobis et in praesenti sensum altiora capiendi, ac potiora gerendi affectum conferet, et in futuro aeternam retributionem adiciet; et ideo subditur et adicietur vobis. Bede: Or else, If ye diligently endeavor to do all the good which ye can, and to teach it to your neighbours, the mercy of God will come in, to give you both in the present life a sense to take in higher things, and a will to do better things, and will add for the future an everlasting reward. And therefore it is subjoined, "And to you shall more be given."
Hieronymus: Vel aliter. Secundum mensuram fidei unicuique dividitur intelligentia mysteriorum, et scientiae etiam adicientur virtutes. Pseudo-Jerome: According to the measure of his faith the understanding of mysteries is divided to every man, and the virtues of knowledge will also be added to them.
Sequitur qui enim habet, dabitur ei; idest, qui fidem habet, habebit virtutem; et qui habet opus verbi, habebit et intelligentiam mysterii; et qui non habet e contra fidem, deficit virtute; et qui non habet opus verbi, eius intelligentia caret; et qui non intelligit, iam auditum perdidit. It goes on: [p. 81] "For he that hath, to him shall be given;" that is, he who hath faith shall have virtue, and he who hath obedience to the word, shall also have the understanding of the mystery. Again, he who, on the other hand, has not faith, fails in virtue; and he who has not obedience to the word, shall not have the understanding of it; and if he does not understand, he might as well not have heard.
Chrysostomus super Matth: Vel aliter. Qui habet, scilicet affectum et voluntatem audiendi, et petendi, dabitur ei; qui vero non habet divini auditus desiderium, et quod contingit habere scriptae legis, auferetur ab eo. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else, He who has the desire and wish to hear and to seek, to him shall be given. But he who has not the desire of hearing divine things, even what he happens to have of the written law is taken from him.
Beda: Nonnumquam enim lector ingeniosus negligendo se, privat se sapientia, quam tardus ingenio, studiosius elaborando, degustat. Bede: For sometimes a clever reader by neglecting his mind, deprives himself of wisdom, of which he tastes the sweetness, who, though slow in intellect, works more diligently.
Chrysostomus: Potest autem ideo dici quod non habet, quia veritatem non habet. Dicit autem quod habet, propter hoc quod mendacium habet: putat enim aliquid se habere, qui mendacis intellectus existit. Chrys.: Again it may be said, that he "hath not," who has not truth. But our Lord says that "he hath," because he has a lie, for every one whose understanding believes a lie, thinks that he has something.

Lectio 3
26 καὶ ἔλεγεν, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς ἄνθρωπος βάλῃ τὸν σπόρον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς 27 καὶ καθεύδῃ καὶ ἐγείρηται νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν, καὶ ὁ σπόρος βλαστᾷ καὶ μηκύνηται ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός. 28 αὐτομάτη ἡ γῆ καρποφορεῖ, πρῶτον χόρτον, εἶτα στάχυν, εἶτα πλήρη[ς] σῖτον ἐν τῷ στάχυϊ. 29 ὅταν δὲ παραδοῖ ὁ καρπός, εὐθὺς ἀποστέλλει τὸ δρέπανον, ὅτι παρέστηκεν ὁ θερισμός.
26. And He said, "So is the kingdom of god, as if a man should cast seed into the ground; 27. And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how. 28. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. 29. But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come."

Chrysostomus: Posuit supra parabolam de tribus seminibus, diversimode perditis et uno salvato; cuius, secundum proportionem fidei et operationis, tres differentias ostendit: hic vero parabolam ponit solum de salvatis; unde dicit et dicebat: sic est regnum Dei quemadmodum si homo iactet semen in terram. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: A parable occurred, a little above, about the three seeds which perished in various ways, and the one which was saved; in which last He also shews three differences, according to the proportion of faith and practice. Here, however, He puts forth a parable concerning those only who are saved. Wherefore it is said, "And He said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground, &c."
Hieronymus: Regnum Dei Ecclesia est, quae regitur a Deo, et ipsa regit homines, et contrarias virtutes, et vitia calcat. Pseudo-Jerome: The kingdom of God is the Church, which is ruled by God, and herself rules over men, and treads down [p. 82] the powers which are contrary to her, and all wickedness.
Chrysostomus: Vel regnum Dei dicit fidem, quae est in ipsum, ac dispensationem humanitatis; quod quidem regnum est sicut si iaciat sementem homo: ipse enim existens Deus, et Dei filius, homo incommutabiliter factus pro nobis, terram seminavit; idest, totum mundum verbo divinae cognitionis illuminavit. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else He calls by the name of kingdom of God, faith in Him, and in the economy of His Incarnation; which kingdom indeed is as if a man should throw seed. For He Himself being God and the Son of God, having without change been made man, has cast seed upon the earth, that is, He has enlightened the whole world by the word of divine knowledge.
Hieronymus: Semen enim verbum vitae est; terra corda humana; et dormitio hominis mors est salvatoris. Exurgit semen nocte ac die: quia post somnum Christi, numerus credentium per adversa et prospera magis magisque germinavit in fide, et crevit in opere. Pseudo-Jerome: For the seed is the word of life, the ground is the human heart, and the sleep of the man means the death of the Saviour. The seed springs up night and day, because after the sleep of Christ, the number of Christians, through calamity and prosperity, continued to flourish more and more in faith, and to wax greater in deed.
Chrysostomus: Vel exurgit ipse Christus, qui sedebat, expectans per longanimitatem, quod recipientes semen fructificarent. Surgit autem, idest benevolentiae suae verbo ad fructificationem nos erigens per arma iustitiae a dextris, quibus significatur dies, et a sinistris, quibus significatur nox persecutionum: per haec enim semen germinat, nec arescit. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or Christ Himself is the man who rises, for He sat waiting with patience, that they who received seed should bear fruit. He rises, that is, by the word of His love, He makes us grow to the bringing forth fruit, by the armour of righteousness on the right hand, [2 Cor 6:7] by which is meant the day, and on the left, by which is meant the night of persecution; for by these the seed springs up, and does not wither.
Theophylactus: Vel aliter. Christus dormit, idest ascendit in caelum, ubi licet dormire videatur, surgit tamen nocte cum per tentationes nos erigit in suam cognitionem; die vero cum propter orationes nostram disponit salutem. Theophylact: Or else Christ sleeps, that is, ascends into heaven, where, though He seem to sleep, yet He rises by night, when through temptations He raises us up to the knowledge of Himself; and in the day time, when on account of our prayers, He sets in order our salvation.
Hieronymus: Quod autem dicit dum nescit ille, tropica est locutio; idest, nescire nos facit, quis fructus usque in finem afferat. Pseudo-Jerome: But when He says, "He knoweth not how," He is speaking in a figure; that is, He does not make known to us, who amongst us will produce fruit unto the end.
Chrysostomus: Vel dicit nescit ille, ut ostendat liberam voluntatem eorum qui verbum suscipiunt: voluntati enim nostrae committit opus, et non totum ipse solus operatur, ne bonum involuntarium videatur; unde subdit ultro enim terra fructificat; idest, non necessitate coacta contra propriam voluntatem, sed voluntate adducitur ad fructificandum. Primum herbam. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else He says, "He knoweth not," that He may shew the free-will of those who receive the word, for He commits a work to our will, and does not work the whole Himself alone, lest the good should seem involuntary. For the earth brings forth fruits of its own accord, that is, she is brought to bear fruit without being compelled by a necessity contrary to her will. "First the blade."
Hieronymus: Idest timorem: initium enim sapientiae timor domini. Deinde spicam, idest poenitentiam lacrymosam; deinde plenum fructum in spica, idest caritatem: plenitudo enim legis est caritas. Pseudo-Jerome: That is, fear. For "the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. Then the full corn in the ear;" [Ps 111:10] that is, charity, for charity is the fulfilling of the Law. [see Rom 13:8]
Chrysostomus: Vel primo herbam fructificat in lege naturae, paulatim ad profectum crescens, postmodum producit spicas in manipulum colligendas, et in altari domino offerendas, in lege scilicet Moysi; postea plenum fructum in Evangelio: vel quia non solum oportet nos frondere per obedientiam, sed esse prudentes, et quasi arundinis spicas erectos persistere, de ventis agitantibus non curantes. Oportet nos etiam animam curare per assiduitatem memoriae, ut tamquam spicae fructum gestemus; idest, operationem virtutis completam demonstremus. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Cat. e Cat. in Marc.: Or, first it produces the blade, in the law of nature, by degrees growing up to advancement; afterwards it brings forth the ears, which are to be collected into a bundle, and to be offered on an altar to the Lord, that is, in the law [p. 83] of Moses; afterwards the full-fruit, in the Gospel. Or because we must not only put forth leaves by obedience, but also learn prudence, and, like the stalk of corn, remain upright without minding the winds which blow us about. We must also take heed to our soul by a diligent recollection, that, like the ears, we may bear fruit, that is, shew forth the perfect operation of virtue.
Theophylactus: Herbam enim germinamus, cum principium boni ostendimus; deinde spicam, cum resistere tentationibus possumus; deinde fructum, cum perfectum quis operatur. Theophylact: for we put forth the blade when we shew a principle of good; then the ear, when we can resist temptations; then comes the fruit, when a man works something perfect.
Sequitur et cum ex se produxerit fructus, statim mittit falcem, quoniam adest messis. It goes on: "and when it has brought forth the fruit, immediately he sendeth the sickle, because the harvest is come."
Hieronymus: Falx est mors, vel iudicium, quod secat omnia; messis est consummatio saeculi. Pseudo-Jerome: The sickle is death or the judgment, which cuts down all things; the harvest is the end of the world.
Gregorius Moralium: Vel aliter. Semen homo iactat in terram, cum cordi suo bonam intentionem inserit; dormit autem qui iam in spe boni operis quiescit; nocte vero exurgit, ac die, quia inter adversa et prospera proficit, dum ille nescit qui adhuc metiri incrementa sua non valet, et tamen concepta virtus ad perfectum ducitur. Cum igitur desideria bona concipimus, semen in terram mittimus; cum recte operari incipimus, herba sumus; cum ad profectum boni operis crescimus, ad spicam pervenimus; cum in eiusdem operis perfectione solidamur, iam plenum frumentum in spica proferimus. Gregory, in Ezech, 2, Hom. 3: Or else, Man casts seed into the ground, when he places a good intention in his heart; and he sleeps, when he already rests in the hope which attends on a good work. But he rises night and day, because he advances amidst prosperity and adversity, though he knows it not, for he is as yet unable to measure his increase, and yet virtue, once conceived, goes on increasing. When therefore we conceive good desires, we put seed into the ground; when we begin to work rightly, we are the blade. When we increase to the perfection of good works, we arrive at the ear; when we are firmly fixed in the perfection of the same working, we already put forth the full corn in the ear.

Lectio 4
30 καὶ ἔλεγεν, πῶς ὁμοιώσωμεν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἢ ἐν τίνι αὐτὴν παραβολῇ θῶμεν; 31 ὡς κόκκῳ σινάπεως, ὃς ὅταν σπαρῇ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, μικρότερον ὂν πάντων τῶν σπερμάτων τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, 32 καὶ ὅταν σπαρῇ, ἀναβαίνει καὶ γίνεται μεῖζον πάντων τῶν λαχάνων καὶ ποιεῖ κλάδους μεγάλους, ὥστε δύνασθαι ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν αὐτοῦ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνοῦν. 33 καὶ τοιαύταις παραβολαῖς πολλαῖς ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον, καθὼς ἠδύναντο ἀκούειν: 34 χωρὶς δὲ παραβολῆς οὐκ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς, κατ' ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς ἰδίοις μαθηταῖς ἐπέλυεν πάντα.
30. And He said, "Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it? 31. It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth: 32. But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it." 33. And with many such parable spake He the word unto them, as they were able to hear it. [p. 84] 34. But without a parable spake He not unto them: and when they were alone, He expounded all things to His disciples.

Glossa: Postquam posuit parabolam de fructificatione seminis Evangelii, hic subiungit aliam parabolam ad ostendendam excellentiam doctrinae evangelicae ad omnes alias doctrinas; unde dicitur et dicebat: cui assimilabimus regnum Dei? Gloss.: After having narrated the parable concerning the coming forth of the fruit from the seed of the Gospel, he here subjoins another parable, to shew the excellence of the doctrine of the Gospel before all other doctrines. Wherefore it is said, "And He said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God?"
Theophylactus: Parvissimum quidem est fidei verbum. Crede in Deum, et salvus eris. Sed sparsa super terram praedicatio dilatata est et augmentata, ita ut caeli volatilia, idest contemplativi homines, et alti intellectu, et cognitione, sub eo habitent. Quanti enim sapientes gentilium relinquentes sapientiam, sub praedicatione Evangelii requieverunt? Omnium igitur maior praedicatio facta est. Theophylact: Most brief indeed is the word of faith; Believe in God, and thou shalt be saved. But the preaching of it has been spread far and wide over the earth, and increased so, that the birds of heaven, that is, contemplative men, sublime in understanding and knowledge, dwell under it. For how many wise men among the Gentiles, quitting their wisdom, have found rest in the preaching of the Gospel! Its preaching then is greater than all.
Chrysostomus: Et etiam quia quod fuit hominibus in brevibus sermonibus nuntiatum, sapientia quae inter perfectos dicitur, dilatavit super omnes sermones: quia nihil maius est hac veritate. Chrys.: And also because the wisdom spoken amongst the perfect expands, to an extent greater than all other sayings, that which was told to men in short discourses, for there is nothing greater than this truth.
Theophylactus: Ramos autem magnos fecit: quidam enim apostolorum in Romam, et quidam in Indiam, et quidam in alias terrae partes sunt divisi sicut rami. Theophylact: Again, it put forth great boughs, for the Apostles were divided off as the boughs of a tree, some to Rome, some to India, some to other parts of the world.
Hieronymus: Vel semen istud minimum est timore, magnum autem in caritate, quae est maior omnibus oleribus, quia Deus caritas est, et omnis caro foenum. Fecit autem ramos misericordiae et compassionis, cum sub umbra pauperes Christi, qui sunt caeli animalia, delectantur habitare. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, that seed is very small in fear, but great when it has grown into charity, which is greater than all herbs: for "God is love," [1 John 4:16] whilst "all flesh is grass." [Isa 40:6] But the boughs which it puts forth are those of mercy and compassion, since under its shade the poor of Christ, who are meant by the living creatures of the heavens, delight to dwell.
Beda: Homo autem qui seminat a plerisque salvator ipse intelligitur, ab aliis autem ipse homo seminans in corde suo. Bede: Again, the man who sows is by many taken to mean the Saviour Himself, by others, man himself sowing in his own heart.
Chrysostomus: Postea vero Marcus brevitate gaudens, ostendens parabolarum naturam, subiungit et talibus multis parabolis loquebatur eis verbum, prout poterant audire. Chrys.: Then after this, Mark, who delights in brevity, to shew the nature of the parables, subjoins, "And with many such parables spake He the word unto them as they could hear Him."
Theophylactus: Quoniam enim turbae erant indoctae, a comestibilibus, et consuetis nominibus instruit eas; et propter hoc subdit sine parabola autem non loquebatur eis, ut scilicet moverentur ad accedendum et interrogandum. Theophylact: For since the multitude was unlearned, He instructs them from objects of food and familiar names, and for this reason he adds, "But without a parable spake He not unto them," that is, in order that they might be induced to approach and to ask Him.
Sequitur seorsum autem discipulis suis disserebat omnia, scilicet de quibus interrogabant ut ignorantes, non simpliciter omnia tam manifesta, quam immanifesta. It goes on, [p. 85] "And when they were alone, He expounded all things to His disciples," that is, all things about which they were ignorant and asked Him, not simply all, whether obscure or not.
Hieronymus: Illi enim digni erant seorsum audire mysteria in penetrali, in timore sapientiae qui remoti a cogitationum malarum tumultibus in solitudine virtutum permanebant: sapientia enim in tempore otii percipitur. Pseudo-Jerome: For they were worthy to hear mysteries apart, in the most secret haunt of wisdom, for they were men, who, removed from the crowds of evil thoughts, remained in the solitude of virtue; and wisdom is received in a time of quiet.

Lectio 5
35 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὀψίας γενομένης, διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν. 36 καὶ ἀφέντες τὸν ὄχλον παραλαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν ὡς ἦν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, καὶ ἄλλα πλοῖα ἦν μετ' αὐτοῦ. 37 καὶ γίνεται λαῖλαψ μεγάλη ἀνέμου, καὶ τὰ κύματα ἐπέβαλλεν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, ὥστε ἤδη γεμίζεσθαι τὸ πλοῖον. 38 καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἐν τῇ πρύμνῃ ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον καθεύδων: καὶ ἐγείρουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, διδάσκαλε, οὐ μέλει σοι ὅτι ἀπολλύμεθα; 39 καὶ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, σιώπα, πεφίμωσο. καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ ἄνεμος, καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη μεγάλη. 40 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, τί δειλοί ἐστε; οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν; 41 καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν, καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους, τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ;
35. And the same day, when the even was come, He saith unto them, "Let us pass over unto the other side." 36. And when they had sent away the multitude, they took Him even as He was in the ship. And there were also with Him other little ships. 37. And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full. 38. And He was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake Him, and say unto Him, "Master, carest thou not that we perish?" 39. And He arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, "Peace, be still." And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 40. And He said unto them, "Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith?" 41. And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, "What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?"

Hieronymus: Post doctrinam dehinc ad mare venerunt, et fluctibus turbantur; unde dicitur et ait illis in illa die, cum sero esset factum: transeamus contra. Pseudo-Jerome: After His teaching, they come from that place to the sea, and are tossed by the waves. Wherefore it is said, "And the same day, when the even was come, &c."
Remigius: Tria enim legitur dominus habuisse refugia, scilicet navis, montis et deserti; quoties a turbis comprimebatur, ad aliquod istorum refugiebat. Cum ergo vidit dominus turbas multas circa se, earum importunitatem quasi homo volens declinare, iussit discipulos suos transfretare. Remig.: For the Lord is said to have had three places of refuge, namely, the ship, the mountain, and the desert. As often as He was pressed upon by the multitude, He used to fly to one of these. When therefore the Lord saw many crowds about Him, as man, He wished to avoid their importunity, and ordered His disciples to go over to the other side.
Sequitur et dimittentes turbam, assumunt eum, ita ut erat in navi. There follows: "And sending away the multitudes, they took Him, &c." [p. 86]
Chrysostomus: Discipulos quidem assumpsit dominus, ut visores fierent futuri miraculi; sed solum ipsos assumit, ne alii cognoscerent ipsos esse tam modicae fidei; unde ad ostendendum quod separatim alii transfretabant, subiungit et aliae naves erant cum illo. Ne autem superbirent discipuli quod eos solos assumpserat, periclitari eos permittit, et ut etiam per hoc discerent tentationes viriliter sustinere; unde sequitur et facta est procella magna. Ut autem futuri miraculi maiorem eis imprimat sensum, dat tempus timori, dormiendo; unde Chrys., Hom. in Matt. 28: The Lord took the disciples indeed, that they might be spectators of the miracle which was coming, but He took them alone, that no others might see that they were of such little faith. Wherefore, to shew that others went across separately, it is said, "And there were also with Him other ships." Lest again the disciples might be proud of being alone taken, He permits them to be in danger; and besides this, in order that they might learn to bear temptations manfully. Wherefore it goes on, "And there arose a great storm of wind;" and that He might impress upon them a greater sense of the miracle which was to be done, He gives time for their fear, by sleeping.
Sequitur et erat ipse in puppi super cervical dormiens. Si enim vigilasset, aut non timuissent, neque rogassent tempestate orta; aut eum aliquid tale facere non putassent. Wherefore there follows, "And He was Himself in the hinder part of the ship, &c." For if He had been awake, they would either not have feared, not have asked Him to save them when the storm arose, or they would not have thought that He could do any such things.
Theophylactus: Dimisit ergo eos incidere in timore periclitationis, ut eius virtutem in seipsis cognoscerent, qui alios ab eo beneficiatos videbant. Dormiebat autem super cervical navis, ligneum siquidem. Theophylact: Therefore He allowed them to fall into the fear of danger, that they might experience His power in themselves, who saw others benefitted by Him. But He was sleeping upon the pillow of the ship, that is, on a wooden one.
Chrysostomus: Ostendens suam humilitatem, et ex hoc multam sapientiam docens. Nondum autem discipuli, qui circa eum existebant, eius gloriam cognoscebant; et quidem quod surgens poterat ventis imperare credebant, sed quod quiescens, seu dormiens nequaquam; et ideo Chrys., Hom. in Matt. 28: Shewing His humility, and thus teaching us many lessons of wisdom. But not yet did the disciples who remained about Him know His glory; they thought indeed that if He arose He could command the winds, but could by no means do so reposing or asleep.
Sequitur et excitant eum, et dicunt ei: magister, non ad te pertinet quia perimus? And therefore there follows, "And they awake Him, and say unto Him, "Master, carest thou not that we perish?"
Theophylactus: Ipse autem exurgens, comminatur primo quidem vento, qui maris tempestatem et fluctus faciebat; et hoc est quod subditur et exurgens comminatus est vento; deinde praecipit mari; unde sequitur et dixit mari: tace, obmutesce. Theophylact: But He arising, rebukes first the wind, which was raising the tempest of the sea, and causing the waves to swell, and this is expressed in what follows, "And He arose, and rebuked the wind;" then He commands the sea. Wherefore it goes on, "And He said to the sea, Peace, be still."
Glossa: Ex commotione enim maris quidam sonitus consurgit, qui videtur esse quaedam maris locutio periculum comminantis; et ideo convenienter sub quadam metaphora tranquillitatem imperat taciturnitatis vocabulo; sicut et in cohibitione ventorum, qui sua violentia mare conturbant, comminationem nominavit. Solent enim potestatem habentes, eos qui violentia pacem hominum conturbant, comminatione poenarum refrenare. Per hoc ergo datur intelligi quod sicut rex aliquis potest comminatione violentos comprimere, et suis edictis murmur subiecti populi mitigare, ita Christus rex universae creaturae existens, sua comminatione ventorum cohibuit violentiam, et mari taciturnitatem indixit: et statim est effectus secutus; sequitur enim et cessavit ventus, cui scilicet fuerat comminatus, et facta est tranquillitas magna; scilicet in mari, cui taciturnitatem indixerat. Gloss.: For from the troubling of the sea there arises a certain sound, which appears to be its voice threatening danger, and therefore, by a sort of metaphor, He fitly commands tranquility by a word signifying silence: just as in the restraining of the winds, which trouble the sea with their violence, He uses a rebuke. For men who are in power are accustomed to curb those, who rudely disturb the peace of mankind, by threatening to punish them; by this, therefore, we are given to understand, that, as a king can repress violent [p. 87] men by threats, and by his edicts sooth the murmurs of his people, so Christ, the King of all creatures, by His threats restrained the violence of the winds, and compelled the sea to be silent. And immediately the effect followed, for it continues, "And the wind ceased," when He had threatened, "and there arose a great calm," that is, in the sea, to which He had commanded silence.
Theophylactus: Comminatus est etiam et discipulis tamquam fidem non habentibus; sequitur enim et ait illis: quid timidi estis? Necdum habetis fidem? Si enim habuissent fidem, credidissent quod etiam dormiens servare eos potuisset incolumes. Theophylact: He rebuked His disciples for not having faith; for it goes on, "And He said unto them, Why are ye so fearful?" How is it that ye have not faith? For if they had faith, they would have believed that even when sleeping, He could preserve them safe.
Sequitur et timuerunt timore magno, et dicebant ad alterutrum: quis, putas, est iste, quia venti et mare obediunt ei? Etenim dubie habebant se erga eum; inquantum enim iussu mare placavit, non baculo, ut Moyses, non precibus, ut Eliseus Iordanem, neque arca, ut Iesus Nave, secundum hoc vere Deus eis videbatur, secundum vero quod dormiebat, homo. There follows, "And they feared with a great fear, and said one to another, &c." For they were in doubt about Him, for since He stilled the sea, not with a rod like Moses, nor with prayers as Elisha at the Jordan, nor with the ark as Joshua, the son of Nun, on this account they thought Him truly God, but since He was asleep, they thought Him a man.
Hieronymus: Mystice vero puppis Ecclesiae est initium, in qua dominus corporaliter dormit, quia nunquam dormit qui custodit Israel; puppis enim mortuis pellibus vivos continet, et fluctus arcet, et ligno solidatur; idest, cruce et morte domini Ecclesia salvatur. Cervical corpus domini est, cui divinitas sicut caput inclinata est. Ventus autem et mare Daemones et persecutores sunt; quibus dicit tace, quando compescit edicta regum iniquorum, ut voluerit. Tranquillitas magna est pax Ecclesiae post pressuram, sive theorica post vitam activam. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, however, the hinder part of the ship is the beginning of the Church, in which the Lord sleeps in the body only, for He never sleepeth who keepeth Israel; for the ship with its skins of dead animals keeps in the living, and keeps out the waves, and is bound together by wood, that is, by the cross and the death of the Lord the Church is saved. The pillow is the body of the Lord, on which His Divinity, which is as His head, has come down. But the wind and the sea are devils and persecutors, to whom He says Peace, when He restrains the edicts of impious kings, as He will. The great calm is the peace of the Church after oppression, or a contemplative after an active life.
Beda: Vel navicula quam ascendit, passionis arbor intelligitur, per quam fideles ad securitatem securi littoris perveniunt. Aliae naves quae fuisse dicuntur cum domino, illos significant qui fide dominicae crucis imbuti sunt, non tamen turbine tribulationum pulsati; vel post tentationum procellas serenitate pacis utuntur. Discipulis autem navigantibus Christus obdormivit, quia fidelibus futuri regni quietem meditantibus, tempus dominicae passionis advenit: unde hoc sero factum fuisse perhibetur, ut veri solis occubitum non sola domini dormitio, sed ipsa descendentis lucis hora significet. Ascendente autem illo in puppim crucis, fluctus blasphemantium persecutorum assurgunt daemoniacis excitati procellis; quibus tamen non ipsius patientia turbatur, sed discipulorum imbecillitas concutitur. Excitant autem discipuli dominum: quia cuius mortem viderant, maximis votis resurrectionem quaerebant. Vento exurgens comminatus est: quia resurrectione celebrata, Diaboli superbiam stravit. Mare silere praecepit: quia Iudaeorum rabiem resurgendo deiecit. Discipuli autem arguuntur: quia post resurrectionem exprobavit eis incredulitatem eorum. Et nos quoque cum signo dominicae crucis imbuti saeculum relinquere disponimus, navem cum Iesu conscendimus, mare transire conamur; sed nobis navigantibus inter aequoris fremitus obdormit, quando inter medios virtutum usus, vel immundorum spirituum, vel hominum pravorum, vel ipsarum nostrarum cogitationum impetus, amoris flamma refrigescit. Verum inter huiusmodi procellas illum sedulo excitemus; mox tempestatem compescet, refundet tranquillitatem, portum salutis indulgebit. Bede: Or else the ship into which He embarked, is taken to mean the tree of His passion, by which the faithful attain to the security of the safe shore. The other ships which are said to have been with the Lord signify those who are imbued with faith in the cross of Christ, and are not beaten about by the whirlwind of tribulation; or who, after the storms of temptation, are enjoying the serenity of peace. And whilst His disciples are sailing on, Christ is asleep, because the time of our Lord's Passion came on His faithful ones when they were meditating on the rest of His future reign. Wherefore it is related, that it took place late, that not only the sleep of our Lord, but the hour itself of departing [p. 88] light might signify the setting of the true Sun. Again, when He ascended the cross, of which the stern of the ship was a type, His blaspheming persecutors rose like the waves against Him, driven on by the storms of the devils, by which, however, His own patience is not disturbed, but His foolish disciples are stuck with amazement. The disciples awake the Lord, because they sought, with most earnest wishes, the resurrection of Him whom they had seen die. Rising up, He threatened the wind, because when He had triumphed in His resurrection, He prostrated the pride of the devil. He ordered the sea to be still, that is, in rising again, He cast down the rage of the Jews. The disciples are blamed, because after His resurrection, He chided them for their unbelief. And we also when being marked with the sign of the Lord's cross, we determine to quit the world, embark in the ship with Christ; we attempt to cross the sea; but, He goes to sleep, as we are sailing amidst the roaring of the waters, when amidst the strivings of our virtues, or amidst the attacks of evil spirits, of wicked men, or of our own thoughts, the flame of our love grows cold. Amongst storms of this sort, let us diligently strive to awake Him; He will soon restrain the tempest, pour down peace upon us, give us the harbour of salvation.

Caput 5Gospel of Mark, Chapter 5 [p. 89]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν γερασηνῶν. 2 καὶ ἐξελθόντος αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου εὐθὺς ὑπήντησεν αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν μνημείων ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, 3 ὃς τὴν κατοίκησιν εἶχεν ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν: καὶ οὐδὲ ἁλύσει οὐκέτι οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο αὐτὸν δῆσαι, 4 διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν πολλάκις πέδαις καὶ ἁλύσεσιν δεδέσθαι καὶ διεσπάσθαι ὑπ' αὐτοῦ τὰς ἁλύσεις καὶ τὰς πέδας συντετρῖφθαι, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἴσχυεν αὐτὸν δαμάσαι: 5 καὶ διὰ παντὸς νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἦν κράζων καὶ κατακόπτων ἑαυτὸν λίθοις. 6 καὶ ἰδὼν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ μακρόθεν ἔδραμεν καὶ προσεκύνησεν αὐτῷ, 7 καὶ κράξας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγει, τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ υἱὲ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου; ὁρκίζω σε τὸν θεόν, μή με βασανίσῃς. 8 ἔλεγεν γὰρ αὐτῷ, ἔξελθε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. 9 καὶ ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν, τί ὄνομά σοι; καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, λεγιὼν ὄνομά μοι, ὅτι πολλοί ἐσμεν. 10 καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν πολλὰ ἵνα μὴ αὐτὰ ἀποστείλῃ ἔξω τῆς χώρας. 11 ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ πρὸς τῷ ὄρει ἀγέλη χοίρων μεγάλη βοσκομένη: 12 καὶ παρεκάλεσαν αὐτὸν λέγοντες, πέμψον ἡμᾶς εἰς τοὺς χοίρους, ἵνα εἰς αὐτοὺς εἰσέλθωμεν. 13 καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν αὐτοῖς. καὶ ἐξελθόντα τὰ πνεύματα τὰ ἀκάθαρτα εἰσῆλθον εἰς τοὺς χοίρους, καὶ ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, ὡς δισχίλιοι, καὶ ἐπνίγοντο ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ. 14 καὶ οἱ βόσκοντες αὐτοὺς ἔφυγον καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς: καὶ ἦλθον ἰδεῖν τί ἐστιν τὸ γεγονός. 15 καὶ ἔρχονται πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ θεωροῦσιν τὸν δαιμονιζόμενον καθήμενον ἱματισμένον καὶ σωφρονοῦντα, τὸν ἐσχηκότα τὸν λεγιῶνα, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν. 16 καὶ διηγήσαντο αὐτοῖς οἱ ἰδόντες πῶς ἐγένετο τῷ δαιμονιζομένῳ καὶ περὶ τῶν χοίρων. 17 καὶ ἤρξαντο παρακαλεῖν αὐτὸν ἀπελθεῖν ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρίων αὐτῶν. 18 καὶ ἐμβαίνοντος αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ πλοῖον παρεκάλει αὐτὸν ὁ δαιμονισθεὶς ἵνα μετ' αὐτοῦ ᾖ. 19 καὶ οὐκ ἀφῆκεν αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ λέγει αὐτῷ, ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου πρὸς τοὺς σούς, καὶ ἀπάγγειλον αὐτοῖς ὅσα ὁ κύριός σοι πεποίηκεν καὶ ἠλέησέν σε. 20 καὶ ἀπῆλθεν καὶ ἤρξατο κηρύσσειν ἐν τῇ δεκαπόλει ὅσα ἐποίησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ πάντες ἐθαύμαζον.
1. And they came over unto the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 2. And when He was come out of the ship, immediately there met Him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, 3. Who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with chains: 4. Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him. 5. And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones. 6. But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped Him. 7. And cried with a loud voice, and said, "What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, that Thou torment me not." 8. For He said unto him, "Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit." 9. And He asked him, "What is thy name?" And he answered, saying, "My name is Legion: for we are many." 10. And he besought Him much that He would not send them away out of the country. [p. 90] 11. Now there was nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding. 12. And all the devils besought Him, saying, "Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them." 13. And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand;) and were choked in the sea. 14. And they that fed the swine fled, and told it in the city, and in the country. And they went out to see what it was that was done. 15. And they come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid. 16. And they that saw it told them how it befell to him that was possessed with the devil, and also concerning the swine. 17. And they began to pray Him to depart out of their coasts. 18. And when He was come into the ship, he that had been possessed with the devil prayed Him that he might be with Him. 19. Howbeit Jesus suffered him not, but saith unto him, "Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee." 20. And he departed, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him: and all men did marvel.

Theophylactus: Quia qui in navicula erant conquirebant ad invicem quis, putas, est iste? Inimicorum testimonio confirmatur quis esset: accessit enim daemoniacus confitens ipsum esse filium Dei; ad quod narrandum Evangelista accedens, dicit et venerunt trans fretum maris, in regionem Gerazenorum. Theophylact: Those who were in the ship enquired among themselves, "What manner of man is this?" and now it is made known Who He is by the testimony of His enemies. For the demoniac came up confessing that He was the Son of God. [p. 91] Proceeding to which circumstance the Evangelist says, "And they came over unto the other side, &c."
Beda: Geraza est urbs insignis Arabiae trans Iordanem, iuxta montem Galaad, quam tenuit tribus Manasse, non longe a stagno Tiberiadis, in quod porci praecipitati sunt. Bede, in Marc., 2, 21: Geraza is a noted town of Arabia, across the Jordan, near mount Galaad, which the tribe of Manasseh held, not far from the lake of Tiberias, into which the swine were precipitated.
Chrysostomus: Sed tamen neque Gadarenorum, neque Gerazenorum exquisita Scriptura continet, sed Gergesenorum. Gadara enim civitas est Iudaeae, cui prope adiacet stagnum, et nullo modo mare; Geraza vero Arabiae civitas est, neque mare, neque stagnum proximum habens. Et ne tam evidens mendacium Evangelistae dixisse videantur, viri tam diligenter scientes ea quae circa Iudaeam erant; Gergesa quidem, a qua Gergeseni dicti, antiqua civitas fuit, iuxta eam quae nunc Tiberias appellatur, circa quam praecipuum est circumpositum stagnum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Nevertheless the exact reading contains neither Gadarenes, nor Gerasines, but Gergesenes. For Gadara is a city of Judaea, which has no sea at all about it; and Geraza is a city of Arabia, having neither lake nor sea near it. And that the Evangelists may not be thought to have spoken so manifest a falsehood, well acquainted as they were with the parts around Judaea, Gergese, from which come the Gergesenes, was an ancient city, now called Tiberias, around which is situated a considerable lake. [ed. note: Reland seems to feel the same difficulty about Gadara as the author of this comment; but he reconciles it by saying that the whole region might have been so called from the town of Gadara in Peroea, though the town itself was not on the lake. Reland, Palace., v2, p774, also Lightfoot, Horae Hebr. in locum.]
Sequitur et exeunti ei de navi statim occurrit de monumentis homo. It continues, "And when He was come out of the ship, immediately there met Him, &c."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Cum Matthaeus dicat duos fuisse, Marcus et Lucas unum commemorant, ut intelligas unum eorum fuisse personae alicuius clarioris, quem regio illa maxime dolebat. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 24: Though Matthew says that there were two, Mark and Luke mention one, that you may understand that one of them was a more illustrious person, concerning whose state that country was much afflicted.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Vel videtur quod Marcus et Lucas illud quod erat miserabilius narraverunt; et propter hoc diffusius quod illi contigerat enarrant; sequitur enim et neque catenis iam quisquam poterat eum ligare. Dixerunt ergo simpliciter daemoniacum, numerum non quaerendo; vel ut virtutem maiorem ostenderent operantis; nam qui unum talem curaverat, non erat ei impossibile multos alios curare. Nec tamen hic dissonantia demonstratur: non enim dixerunt, quod unus solus erat; quod si dixissent, Matthaeo contradicere viderentur. Habitabant autem in monumentis Daemones, erroneum dogma multis volentes immittere, quod decedentium animae in Daemones convertebantur. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc., see Chrys., Hom. in Matthew, 28: Or else, Mark and Luke relate what was most worthy of compassion, and for this reason they put down more at length what had happened to this man; for there follows, "no man could bind him, no, not with chains." They therefore simply said, a "man possessed of a devil," without taking heed to the number; or else, that he might shew the greater virtue in the Worker; for He who had cured one such, might cure many others. Nor is there any discrepancy shewn here, for they did not say that there was one alone, for then they would have contradicted Matthew. Now devils dwelt in tombs, wishing to convey a false opinion to many, that the souls of the dead were changed to devils.
Gregorius Nyssenus: Paraverat autem se coetus Daemonum ad resistendum divinae potestati. Cum autem appropinquaret qui potestatem habet super omnia, exclamant eminentem eius virtutem; unde sequitur videns autem Iesum a longe, cucurrit, et adoravit eum, et clamans voce magna dixit: quid mihi et tibi Iesu fili Dei altissimi? Greg. Nyss.: Now the assembly of the devils had prepared itself to resist the Divine power. But when He was approaching Who had power over all things, they proclaim aloud His eminent virtue. Wherefore there follows, "But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him, saying, &c."
Cyrillus: Vide Daemonem duplici passione divisum, audacia et timore: reluctatur, et orat; quasi quaestionem aliquam intentans, vult scire quid sibi et Iesu commune; quasi dicat: qua de causa eicis me ab hominibus, cum sint mei? Cyril: See how the devil is divided between to passions, fear and audacity; he hangs back and prays, as [p. 92] if meditating a question; he wishes to know what he had to do with Jesus, as though he would say, "Do you cast me out from men, who are mine?"
Beda: Quae autem impietas est Iudaeorum eum dicere in principe Daemoniorum eiecisse Daemonia quem et ipsa Daemonia fatentur nihil secum habere commune?
Cyrillus: Deinde orans subiungit adiuro te per Deum ne me torqueas; emissionem enim reputabat tormentum; vel etiam invisibiliter torquebatur. Bede: And how great is the impiety of the Jews, to say that He cast out devils by the prince of the devils, when the very devils confess that they have nothing in common with Him.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quamvis enim mali sint Daemones, sciunt tamen quod ipsos propter peccata expectat ultimo aliqua poena: quia vero nondum eis tempus ultimae poenae advenerat, firmissime cognoscebant; maxime cum permissum esset eis hominibus commisceri. Sed quia Christus comprehenderat eos tanta mala perpetrare, putabant quod propter factorum excessum, ultimum punitionis tempus minime expectarent; propter hoc supplicant ne torqueantur. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc., and Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 28: Then praying to Him, he subjoins, "I adjure thee by God, that Thou torment me not." For he considered being cast out to be a torment, or else he was also invisibly tortured. For however bad the devils are, they know that there awaits them at last a punishment for their sins; but that the time of their last punishment was not yet come, they full well knew, especially as they were permitted to mix among men. But because Christ had come upon them as they were doing such dreadful deeds, they thought that such was the heinousness of their crimes, He would not wait for the last times, to punish them; for this reason they beg that they may not be tormented.
Beda: Magnum enim tormentum est Daemoni a laesione hominis cessare; et tanto dimittit gravius quanto possidet durius; Bede: For it is a great torment for a devil to cease to hurt a man, and the more severely he possesses him, the more reluctantly he lets him go.
Sequitur enim dicebat enim illi: exi, spiritus immunde, ab homine isto. For it goes on, "For He said unto Him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit."
Cyrillus: Attendas inexpugnabilem virtutem Christi; conquassat Satanam, cui verba Christi sunt ignis et flamma: secundum quod Psalmista dicit: liquefacti sunt montes a facie Dei, idest sublimes, et superbae virtutes. Cyril: Consider the unconquerable power of Christ; He makes Satan shake, for to him the words of Christ are fire and flame: as the Psalmist says, "The mountains melted at the presence of the Lord, [Ps 97:5] that is, great and proud powers.
Sequitur et interrogabat eum: quod tibi nomen est? There follows, "And He asked him, What is thy name?"
Theophylactus: Interrogat quidem dominus, non ut ipse sciret; sed ut ceteri sciant multitudinem habitantium Daemonum. Theophylact: The Lord indeed asks, not that He Himself required to know, but that the rest might know that there was a multitude of devils dwelling in him.
Chrysostomus: Ne si ipse diceret, quod multi sunt, incredibile fieret. Vult ergo quod ipsi confiteantur, quod multi erant; unde sequitur et dicit ei: legio mihi nomen est, quia multi sumus. Non dicit determinatum numerum, sed multitudinem: non enim prodest ad scientiam exquisitio numeri. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Lest he should not be believed, if He affirmed there were many, He wishes that they themselves should confess it; wherefore there follows, "And he saith unto Him, Legion, for we are many." He gives not a fixed number, but a multitude, for such accuracy in the number would not help us to understand it.
Beda: Confessa autem publice peste, quam furens tolerabat, virtus curantis gratior apparet. Sed et nostri temporis sacerdotes, qui per exorcismi gratiam eicere norunt, solent dicere, patientes non aliter valere curari, nisi, quantum sapere possunt, omne quod ab immundis spiritibus visu, auditu, gustu, tactu, vel alio quolibet corporis aut animi sensu vigilantes, dormientesve pertulerint, confitendo patenter exponant. Bede: But by the public declaration of the scourge which the madman suffered the virtue of the Healer appears more gracious. And even the priests of our time, who know how to cast out devils by the grace of exorcism, are wont to say that the sufferers cannot be cured at all, unless they in confession openly declare, as far as they are able to know, what they have suffered from the unclean spirits in sight, in hearing, in taste, in touch, or [p. 93] any other sense of body or soul, whether awake or asleep.
Sequitur et deprecabatur eum multum ne se expelleret extra regionem. It goes on, "And he besought Him much that He would not send them away out of the country."
Chrysostomus: Aut, ut Lucas dicit, in abyssum; abyssus enim est separatio huius mundi: promerentur enim Daemones mitti ad tenebras exteriores, Diabolo et suis Angelis praeparatas. Hoc autem Christus facere poterat; permisit tamen eos in hac terra esse, ne absentia tentatoris homines corona victoriae privaret. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Luke, however, says, "into the abyss." [Luke 8:3] For the abyss is the separation of this world, for devils deserve to be sent into outer darkness, prepared for the devil and his angels. This Christ might have done, but He allowed them to remain in this world, lest the absence of a tempter should deprive men of the crown of victory.
Theophylactus: Et ut nobiscum pugnantes, nos peritiores constituant. Theophylact: Also that by fighting with us, they may make us more expert.
Sequitur erat autem ibi circa montem grex porcorum magnus pascens. It goes on, "Now there was there about the mountain a great herd of swine feeding."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Quod hic dicit Marcus circa montem fuisse gregem, Lucas autem in monte, nihil repugnat: grex enim porcorum tam magnus fuit ut aliquid eius esset in monte, et aliquid circa montem. Augustine, de Con. Evan, ii, 24: What Mark here says, that the herd was about the mountain, and what Luke calls on the mountain, are by no means inconsistent. For the herd of swine was so large, that some part were on the mountain, the rest around it.
Sequitur et deprecabantur eum spiritus, dicentes: mitte nos in porcos, ut in eos introeamus. It goes on: "And the devils besought Him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them."
Remigius super Matth: Idcirco autem intraverunt in porcos non sponte, sed petierunt ut eis concederetur, ut demonstraretur quia non possunt nocere hominibus, nisi permissione divina. Ideo autem non petierunt mitti in homines, quia illum cuius virtute torquebantur, humanam speciem gestare videbant; nec petierunt ut in pecora mitterentur, quia velut munda animalia in templo Dei offerebantur. Petierunt ut in porcos mitterentur, quia nullum animal est immundius porco, et Daemones semper in spurcitiis delectantur. Remig., see Aurea Catena in Matt., p.327: The devils entered not into the swine of their own will, but their asking for this concession was that is might be shewn that they cannot hurt men without Divine permission. They did not ask to be sent into men, because they saw that He, by whose power they were tortured, bore a human form. Nor did they desire to be sent into the flocks, for they are clean animals offered up in the temple of God. But they desired to be sent into the swine, because no animal is more unclean than a hog, and devils always delight in filthiness.
Sequitur et concessit eis statim Iesus. It goes on: "And forthwith Jesus gave them leave."
Beda: Ideo quidem permisit ut per interfectionem porcorum hominibus salutis occasio praebeatur. Bede: And He gave them leave, that by the killing of the swine, the salvation of men might be furthered.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Volens furiam quam contra homines habent Daemones, omnibus demonstrare, et quod multo peiora vellent hominibus infligere, si possent virtute non impediti divina. Et quia in hominibus hanc demonstrationem fieri eius pietas non ferebat, ipsos in porcos intrare permisit, ut in illis virtus, et furor Daemonum videatur. Pseudo-Chyrs., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He wished to shew publicly the fury which devils entertain against men, and that they would inflict much worse things upon men, if they were not hindered by Divine power; because, again, His compassion would not allow this to be shewn on men, He permitted them to enter into the swine, that on them the fury and power of the devils might be made known.
Sequitur et exeuntes spiritus immundi introierunt in porcos. There follows: "And the unclean spirits went out."
Titus: Fugam autem arripuerunt pastores, ne cum porcis perirent, et huiusmodi terrorem civibus intulerunt; unde sequitur qui autem pascebant eos, et cetera. Illos ad salvatorem adduxit damni necessitas: frequenter enim cum Deus homines damnat in rebus possessis, confert beneficium animabus; unde sequitur et veniunt ad Iesum, et vident illum qui a Daemonio vexabatur sedentem, scilicet iuxta pedes a quibus nactus erat salutem, quem antea nec catenae compescere poterant; vestitum et sanae mentis, qui continuo nudus erat: et obstupuerunt; unde sequitur et timuerunt. Hoc igitur miraculum partim visu, partim verbis comperiunt; unde sequitur et narraverunt illis qui viderant. Titus: But the herdsmen also took to flight, lest they should perish with the swine, and spread the same fear amongst the inhabitants of the town. Wherefore there follows: "And they that fed them, &c." The necessity of their loss, however, brought these men to the Saviour; for [p. 94] frequently when God makes men suffer loss in their possessions, He confers a benefit on their souls. Wherefore it goes on: "And they came to Jesus, and see him that was tormented by the devil, &c." that is, at the feet of Him from whom he had obtained health; a man, whom before, not even chains could bind, clothed and in his right mind, though he used to be continually naked; and they were amazed. Wherefore it says, "And they were afraid." This miracle then they find out partly by sight, partly by words. Wherefore there follows: "And they that saw it told them."
Theophylactus: Stupentes autem propter miraculum quod audierant, timuerunt, et propter hoc deprecantur ipsum ut ab eorum recedat finibus; et hoc est quod subditur et rogare eum coeperunt ut discederet a finibus eorum: timebant enim ne aliquando tale aliquid paterentur. Contristati enim de porcorum perditione, praesentiam renuunt salvatoris. Theophylact: But amazed at the miracle, which they had heard, they were afraid, and for this reason they beseech Him to depart out of their borders; which is expressed in what follows: "And they began to pray Him to depart out of their coasts;" for they feared lest some time or other they should suffer a like thing: for, saddened at the loss of their swine, they reject the presence of the Saviour.
Beda: Vel conscii fragilitatis propriae, praesentia domini se iudicabant indignos. Bede: Or else, conscious of their own frailty, they judged themselves unworthy of the presence of the Lord.
Sequitur cumque ascenderet navim, coepit illum deprecari qui a Daemone vexatus fuerat, ut esset cum illo. It goes on: "And when He was going to the ship, he that had been tormented, &c."
Theophylactus: Timebat enim ne aliquando invenientes eum Daemones reintrarent in eum. Dominus vero remittit eum in domum suam, innuens ei quod quamvis ipse praesens non esset, tamen sua virtus ipsum custodiret; simul etiam ut curatus aliis prosit; unde Theophylact: For he feared lest some time or other the devils should find him, and enter into him a second time. But the Lord sends him back to his house, intimating to him, that though He Himself was not present, yet His power would keep him; at the same time also that he might be of use in the healing of others.
Sequitur et non admisit eum, sed ait illi: vade in domum tuam ad tuos, et nuntia illis quanta tibi dominus fecerit, et misertus sit tui. Vide salvatoris humilitatem: non dixit: denuntia omnia quae feci tibi, sed omnia quae fecit tibi dominus: sic et tu cum aliquid boni feceris, non tibi, sed Deo attribuas. Wherefore it goes on: "And He did not suffer him, and saith unto him, Go home to thy friends, &c." See the humility of the Saviour. He said not, 'Proclaim all things which I have done to you,' but, all that the Lord hath done; do thou also, when thou hast done any good thing, take it not to thyself, but refer it to God.
Chrysostomus: Licet autem aliis sanatis praeceperit nemini dicere, convenienter tamen huic praecepit quod annuntiet: quoniam omnis illa regio Daemonibus detenta sine Deo manebat. Chrys.: But although He bade others, whom He healed, to tell it to no one, He nevertheless fitly bids this one proclaim it, since all that region, being possessed by devils, remained without God.
Theophylactus: Ipse igitur coepit praedicare, et omnes mirantur; et hoc est quod sequitur et coepit praedicare. Theophylact: He therefore began to proclaim it, and all wonder, which, is that which follows: "And he began to publish."
Beda: Mystice autem Gerasa sive Gergese, ut quidam legunt, colonum eiciens, sive advena appropinquans interpretatur: quia gentium populus et hostem de corde repulit, et qui erat longe, factus est prope. Bede: Mystically, however, Gerasa or Gergese, as some read it, is interpreted casting out a dweller or a stranger approaching, because the people of the Gentiles both expelled the enemy from the heart, and he who was afar off is made near.
Hieronymus: Hic autem daemoniacus, desperatissimus gentium populus est, nec lege naturae, nec Dei, nec humano timore alligatus. Pseudo-Jerome: Here again the demoniac is the people of the Gentiles, in a most hopeless case, bound neither by the [p. 95] law of nature, nor of God, nor by human fear.
Beda: Qui in monumentis habitabat, quia in mortuis operibus, hoc est in peccatis, delectabatur, semper nocte ac die furebat, quia in prosperis et adversis a servitio malignorum spirituum non cessabat; sed per operum foeditatem quasi in monumentis iacebat, per fastum superbiae in montibus errabat, per verba durissimae infidelitatis quasi lapidibus se concidebat. Dicit autem legio mihi nomen est, quia populus gentium diversis idololatriae cultibus erat mancipatus. Quod autem exeuntes spiritus immundi ab homine intrant porcos, quos in mare praecipitant, significat quod liberato populo gentium a damnatione Daemonum, qui Christo credere noluerunt, in abditis agunt sacrilegos ritus. Bede: Who dwelt in the tombs, because they delighted in dead works, that is, in sins; who were ever raging night and day, because whether in prosperity or in adversity, they were never free from the service of malignant spirits: again, by the foulness of their works, they lay as it were in the tombs, in their lofty pride, they wandered over the mountains, by words of most hardened infidelity, they as it were cut themselves with stones. But he said, "My name is Legion," because the Gentile people were enslaved to divers idolatrous forms of worship. Again, that the unclean spirits going out from man enter into swine, which they cast headlong into the sea, implies that now that the people of the Gentiles are freed from the empire of demons, they who have not chosen to believe in Christ, work sacrilegious rites in hidden places.
Theophylactus: Vel per hoc significatur quod Daemones intrant in homines ad modum porcorum viventes, et volutabro voluptatum se involventes; ac praecipitant eos praecipitio perditionis in mare vitae istius, et suffocantur. Theophylact: Or by this it is signified that devils enter into those men who live like swine, rolling themselves in the slough of pleasure; they drive them headlong into the sea down the precipice of perdition, into the sea of an evil life where they are choked.
Hieronymus: Vel suffocantur in Inferno sine respectu misericordiae per impetum immaturae mortis; a quibus fugiunt multi, quia flagellato stulto, sapiens prudentior fit. Pseudo-Jerome: Or they are choked in hell without any touch of mercy by the rushing on of an early death; which evils many persons thus avoid, for by the scourging of the fool, the wise is made more prudent.
Beda: Quod autem dominus volentem esse cum illo non admisit, significat quod quisque intelligat post remissionem peccatorum ingrediendum sibi esse in conscientiam bonam, et serviendum Evangelio propter aliorum salutem, ut deinde cum Christo requiescat. Bede: But that the Lord did not admit him, though he wished to be with Him, signifies, that every one after the remission of his sins should remember that he must work to obtain a good conscience, and serve the Gospel for the salvation of others, that at last he may rest in Christ.
Gregorius Moralium: Cum enim quantumlibet parum de divina cognitione percepimus, redire iam ad humana nolumus, quietem contemplationis quaerentes; sed dominus praecipit, ut mens prius exsudet in opere, et postmodum refici debeat per contemplationem. Greg., Mor., 37: For when we have perceived ever so little of the Divine knowledge, we are at once unwilling to return to human affairs, and seek for the quiet of contemplation; but the Lord commands that the mind should first toil hard at its work, and afterwards should refresh itself with contemplation.
Hieronymus: Homo autem sanatus praedicabat in Decapoli, dum a Romano nunc regno Iudaei convertuntur, qui in littera tantum pendent Decalogi. Pseudo-Jerome: But the man who is healed preached in Decapolis, where the Jews, who hang on the letter of the Decalogue, are being turned away from the Roman rule.

Lectio 2
21 καὶ διαπεράσαντος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ [ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ] πάλιν εἰς τὸ πέραν συνήχθη ὄχλος πολὺς ἐπ' αὐτόν, καὶ ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν. 22 καὶ ἔρχεται εἷς τῶν ἀρχισυναγώγων, ὀνόματι ἰάϊρος, καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν πίπτει πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ 23 καὶ παρακαλεῖ αὐτὸν πολλὰ λέγων ὅτι τὸ θυγάτριόν μου ἐσχάτως ἔχει, ἵνα ἐλθὼν ἐπιθῇς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῇ ἵνα σωθῇ καὶ ζήσῃ. 24 καὶ ἀπῆλθεν μετ' αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἠκολούθει αὐτῷ ὄχλος πολύς, καὶ συνέθλιβον αὐτόν. 25 καὶ γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος δώδεκα ἔτη 26 καὶ πολλὰ παθοῦσα ὑπὸ πολλῶν ἰατρῶν καὶ δαπανήσασα τὰ παρ' αὐτῆς πάντα καὶ μηδὲν ὠφεληθεῖσα ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εἰς τὸ χεῖρον ἐλθοῦσα, 27 ἀκούσασα περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλθοῦσα ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὄπισθεν ἥψατο τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ: 28 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι ἐὰν ἅψωμαι κἂν τῶν ἱματίων αὐτοῦ σωθήσομαι. 29 καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξηράνθη ἡ πηγὴ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς, καὶ ἔγνω τῷ σώματι ὅτι ἴαται ἀπὸ τῆς μάστιγος. 30 καὶ εὐθὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐπιγνοὺς ἐν ἑαυτῷ τὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἐπιστραφεὶς ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ἔλεγεν, τίς μου ἥψατο τῶν ἱματίων; 31 καὶ ἔλεγον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, βλέπεις τὸν ὄχλον συνθλίβοντά σε, καὶ λέγεις, τίς μου ἥψατο; 32 καὶ περιεβλέπετο ἰδεῖν τὴν τοῦτο ποιήσασαν. 33 ἡ δὲ γυνὴ φοβηθεῖσα καὶ τρέμουσα, εἰδυῖα ὃ γέγονεν αὐτῇ, ἦλθεν καὶ προσέπεσεν αὐτῷ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν. 34 ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, θυγάτηρ, ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε: ὕπαγε εἰς εἰρήνην, καὶ ἴσθι ὑγιὴς ἀπὸ τῆς μάστιγός σου.
21. And when Jesus was passed over again by ship unto the other side, much people gathered unto Him: and He was nigh unto the sea. [p. 96] 22. And, behold, there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name; and when he saw Him, he fell at His feet, 23. And besought Him greatly, saying, "My little daughter lieth at the point of death: I pray thee, come and lay Thy hands on her, that she may be healed; and she shall live." 24. And Jesus went with him; and much people followed Him, and thronged Him. 25. And a certain woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years, 26. And had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, 27. When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and touched His garment. 28. For she said, "If I may touch but His clothes, I shall be whole." 29. And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was healed of that plague. 30. And Jesus, immediately knowing in Himself that virtue had gone out of Him, turned Him about in the press, and said, "Who touched My clothes?" 31. And His disciples said unto Him, "Thou seest the multitude thronging Thee, and saying Thou, 'Who touched Me?' " 32. And He looked round about to see her that had done this thing. 33. But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what was done in her, came and fell down before Him, and told Him all the truth. 34. And He said unto her, "Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague." [p. 97]

Theophylactus: Post miraculum daemoniaci, aliud miraculum dominus operatur, filiam scilicet archisynagogi resuscitans, ad cuius miraculi narrationem Evangelista accedens, dicit et cum ascendisset Iesus in navi, rursus trans fretum. Theophylact: After the miracle of the demoniac, the Lord works another miracle, namely, in raising up the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue; the Evangelist, before narrating this miracle, says, "And when Jesus was passed over again by ship unto the other side, much people gathered unto Him."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang. Intelligendum est autem quod de archisynagogi filia subditur, factum esse cum ascendisset Iesus in navi rursus trans fretum; sed quantum post, non apparet: nisi enim fuisset intervallum, non esset quando fieret quod narrat Matthaeus de convivio domus suae; post quod factum nihil aliud continuo sequitur quam illud de archisynagogi filia: sic enim ipse contexit, ut ipse transitus aperte indicet hoc consequenter narrari quod consequenter est factum. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 28: But we must understand, that what is added of the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue, took place when Jesus had again crossed the sea in a ship, though how long after does not appear; for if there were not an interval, there could be no time for the taking place of that which Matthew relates, concerning the feast at his own house; after which event, nothing follows immediately, except this concerning the daughter of the chief of the synagogue. For he has so put it together, that the transition itself shews that the narrative follows the order of time.
Sequitur et venit quidam de archisynagogis nomine Iairus. It goes on, "There cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, &c."
Chrysostomus: Nomen posuit propter Iudaeos, qui tunc erant, ut nomen miraculi fieret ostensivum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He has recorded the name on account of the Jews of that time, that it might mark the miracle.
Sequitur et videns eum procidit ad pedes eius, et deprecabatur eum multum, dicens: quoniam filia mea in extremis est. Et quidem Matthaeus narrat archisynagogum puellam mortuam nuntiasse; Marcus vero graviter infirmatam; sed postmodum archisynagogo, cum quo dominus ire debebat, nuntiatum fuisse puellam mortuam esse. Matthaeus ergo eamdem rem similem significat, quod scilicet mortuam suscitaverit, brevitatis causa eam dicens obiisse, quam constat mortuam suscitatam fuisse. It goes on, "And when he saw Him, he fell at His feet, and besought Him greatly, &c." Matthew indeed relates that the chief of the synagogue reported that his daughter was dead, but Mark says that she was very sick, and that afterwards it was told to the ruler of the synagogue, when our Lord was about to go with him, that she was dead. The fact then, which Matthew implies, is the same, namely, that He raised her from the dead; and it is for the sake of brevity, that he says that she was dead, which was evident from her being raised.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Attendit enim non verba patris de filia, sed, quod est potissimum, voluntatem: ita enim desperaverat ut potius eam vellet reviviscere, non credens vivam posse inveniri quam morientem reliquerat. Augustine: For he attaches himself not to the words of the father, but to what is of most importance, his wishes; for he was in such despair, that his wish was that she should return to life, not thinking that she could be found alive, whom he had left dying.
Theophylactus: Fuit autem hic vir ex parte fidelis, inquantum cecidit ad pedes Iesu, inquantum vero deprecatur ut veniat, non quantam oportebat habere fidem, ostendit. Oportebat enim dicere: dic verbo, et sanabitur filia mea. Theophylact: Now this man was faithful in part, inasmuch as he fell at the feet of Jesus, but in that he begged of Him to come, he did not shew as much faith as he ought. For he ought to have said, 'Speak the word only, and my daughter shall be healed.'
Sequitur et abiit cum illo, et sequebatur eum turba multa, et comprimebat eum; et mulier quae erat in profluvio sanguinis duodecim annis (...) venit in turba retro. There follows, "And He went away with him, and much people followed Him, and thronged Him; and a woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years, &c."
Chrysostomus: Mulier ista famosa et nota omnibus, propter hoc ad salvatorem in manifesto accedere non audebat, neque ante eum venire, quia secundum legem immunda erat; propter hoc retro tetigit, et non ante, quia nec hoc facere audebat, nec etiam tetigit vestimentum, sed vestimentorum fimbriam. Non autem fimbria, sed eius cogitatio eam salvam fecit. Chrys., see Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 31: This woman, who was celebrated and known to all, did not dare to approach the Saviour openly, nor to [p. 98] come to Him, because, according to the law, she was unclean; for this reason she touched Him behind, and not in front, for that she durst not do, but only ventured to touch the hem of His garment. It was not however the hem of the garment, but her frame of mind that made her whole.
Sequitur dicebat enim: quia si vel vestimenta eius tetigero, salva ero. There follows, "For she said, "If I may but touch His clothes, I shall be whole."
Theophylactus: Fidelissima est haec mulier, quae a fimbriis curationem speravit, propter quod consequitur sanitatem; unde sequitur et confestim siccatus est fons sanguinis eius, et sensit corpore quia sanata esset a plaga. Theophylact: Most faithful indeed is this woman, who hoped for healing from His garments. For which reason she obtains health. Wherefore it goes on, "And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up, and she felt in her body that she was healed."
Chrysostomus: His autem qui fide tangunt Christum, virtutes eius cum sua voluntate donantur; unde sequitur et statim Iesus cognoscens in semetipso virtutem quae exierat de illo, conversus ad turbam aiebat: quis tetigit vestimenta mea? Virtutes quidem salvatoris exeunt ab eo non localiter, aut corporaliter, ipsum modo aliquo relinquentes: incorporales enim cum sint, ad alios exeunt, aliisque donantur, neque tamen extra eum sunt a quo exire dicuntur; sicut scientiae, quae a doctore discentibus tribuuntur. Dicit ergo cognoscens in semetipso virtutem quae exierat de eo: ut intelligeres quod eo sciente, non ignorante mulier salutem recepit. Interrogabat vero quis me tetigit? Licet sciret tangentem, ut mulierem venientem manifestet, et eius publicet fidem, et ne virtus miraculosi operis oblivioni tradatur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Now the virtues of Christ are by His own will imparted to those men, who touch Him by faith. Wherefore there follows, "And Jesus, immediately knowing in Himself that virtue had gone out of Him, turned Him about in the press, and said, Who touched My clothes?" The virtues indeed of the Saviour do not go out of Him locally or corporally, nor in any respect pass away from Him. For being incorporeal, they go forth to others and are given to others; they are not however separated from Him, from whom they are said to go forth, in the same way as sciences are given by the teacher to his pupils. Therefore it says, "Jesus, knowing in Himself the virtue which had gone out of Him," to shew that with His knowledge, and not without His being aware of it, the woman was healed. But He asked, "Who touched me?" although He knew her who touched Him, that He might bring to light the woman, by her coming forward, and proclaim her faith, and lest the virtue of His miraculous work should be consigned to oblivion.
Sequitur et dicebant ei discipuli sui: vides turbam comprimentem te, et dicis: quis me tetigit? Quaesierat autem dominus: quis me tetigit? Idest cogitatione et fide: non enim comprimentes turbae me tangunt, quia non cogitatu et fide accedunt. It goes on, "And His disciples said unto Him, Thou seest the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched Me?" But the Lord asked, "Who touched Me," that is in thought and faith, for the crowds who throng Me cannot be said to touch Me, for they do not come near to Me in thought and in faith.
Sequitur et circumspiciebat videre eam quae hoc fecerat. There follows, "And He looked round about to see her that had done this thing."
Theophylactus: Volebat enim dominus mulierem manifestare, primo quidem ut fidem approbaret mulieris; deinde ut archisynagogum ad confidentiam provocaret, quia sic eius filia curaretur; simulque ut mulierem solveret a timore: etenim timebat mulier, quia furata erat sanitatem: propter quod Theophylact: For the Lord wished to declare the woman, first to give His approbation to her faith, secondly to urge the chief of the synagogue to a confident hope that He could thus cure his child, and also to free the woman from fear. For the woman feared because she had stolen health.
Sequitur mulier autem timens et tremens, sciens quid factum esset in se, venit, et procidit ante eum, et dixit ei omnem veritatem. Wherefore there follows, "But the woman fearing [p. 99] and trembling, &c."
Beda: Ecce quo tendebat interrogatio: ut scilicet mulier confiteatur veritatem diuturnae infidelitatis, subitae credulitatis et sanationis: et ita ipsa confirmatur in fide, et aliis praebet exemplum. Bede, in Marc., 2, 22: Observe that the object of His question was that the woman should confess the truth of her long want of faith, of her sudden belief and healing, and so herself be confirmed in faith, and afford an example to others.
Sequitur ille autem dixit ei: filia, fides tua te salvam fecit: vade in pace, et esto sana a plaga tua. Non dixit: fides tua te salvam factura est, sed te salvam fecit, quasi dicat: in eo quod credidisti, iam salva facta es. "But He said to her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague." He said not, Thy faith is about to make thee whole, but has made thee whole, that is, in that thou hast believed, thou hast already been made whole.
Chrysostomus: Filiam vero vocat salvatam fidei ratione: fides enim Christi, Dei filiationem praestat. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc., see Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 31: He calls her "daughter" because she was saved by her faith; for faith in Christ makes us His children.
Theophylactus: Dicit autem ei vade in pace, idest in requie; quasi dicat: vade, requiesce, quia hucusque fuisti in angustiis et turbationibus. Theophylact: But He saith to her, "Go in peace," that is, in rest, which means, go and have rest, for up to this time thou hast been in pains and torture.
Chrysostomus: Vel dicit vade in pace, mittens eam in finem bonorum: in pace enim Deus habitat; ut cognoscat quod non solum corpore curata est, sed etiam a causis corporalis passionis, idest peccatis, mundata. Pseudo-Chrys.: Or else He says, "Go in peace," sending her away into that which is the final good, for God dwells in peace, that thou mayest know, that she was not only healed in body, but also from the causes of bodily pain, that is, from her sins.
Hieronymus: Mystice autem post praedicta venit Iairus archisynagogus: quia cum intraverit plenitudo gentium, tunc omnis Israel salvus fiet. Iairus, sive illuminans, sive illuminatus interpretatur; idest, Iudaicus populus, umbra litterae deposita, spiritu illustratus et illuminatus, procidens ad pedes verbi, idest ad incarnationem Iesu se humilians, rogat pro filia; quia qui sibi vivit, alios vivere facit. Abraham etiam et Moyses et Samuel rogant pro plebe mortua; et sequitur Iesus preces eorum. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, however, Jairus comes after the healing of the woman, because when the fulness of the Gentiles has come in, then shall Israel be saved. [Romans 11] Jairus means either illuminating, or illuminated, that is, the Jewish people, having cast off the shadow of the letter, enlightened by the Spirit, and enlightening others, falling at the feet of the Word, that is, humbling itself before the Incarnation of Christ, prays for her daughter, for when a man lives himself, he makes others live also. Thus Abraham, and Moses, and Samuel, intercede for the people who are dead, and Jesus comes upon their prayers.
Beda: Ad puellam autem sanandam pergens dominus a turba comprimitur: quia genti Iudaeae salutaria monita praebens, noxia carnalium populorum est consuetudine gravatus. Mulier autem sanguine fluens, sed a domino curata, Ecclesia est, congregata de gentibus: fluxus enim sanguinis, et super idololatriae pollutione et super his quae carnis ac sanguinis delectatione geruntur potest recte intelligi. Sed dum verbum Dei Iudaeam salvare decerneret, plebs gentium paratam promissamque aliis praeripuit spe certa salutem. Bede: Again, the Lord going to the child, who is to be healed, is thronged by the crowd, because though He gave healthful advice to the Jewish nation, He is oppressed by the wicked habits of that carnal people; but the woman with an issue of blood, cured by the Lord, is the Church gathered together from the nations, for the issue of blood may be either understood of the pollution of idolatry, or of those deeds, which are accompanied by pleasure to flesh and blood. But whilst the word of the Lord decreed salvation to Judaea, the people of the Gentiles by an assured hope seized upon the health, promised and prepared for others.
Theophylactus: Vel per mulierem, quae haemorrhoissa erat, intelligas humanam naturam: profluebat enim peccatum, quod animam occidens quasi sanguinem fudit animarum nostrarum. Haec a pluribus medicorum, sapientum dico huius mundi et legis et prophetarum, curari non valuit: mox ut fimbriam Christi tetigit, idest carnem eius, sanata est: qui enim credit filium Dei incarnatum, hic est qui vestimentorum fimbriam tangit. Theophylact: Or else, by the woman, who had a bloody flux, understand human nature; for sin rushed in upon it, which [p. 100] since it killed the soul, might be said to spill its blood. It could not be cured by many physicians, that is, by the wise men of this world, and of the Law and the Prophets; but the moment that it touched the hem of Christ's garment, that is, His flesh, it was healed, for whosoever believes the Son of man to be Incarnate is he who touches the hem of His garment.
Beda: Unde una credula mulier dominum tangit, turba comprimit: quia qui diversis haeresibus, sive perversis moribus gravatur, solo Ecclesiae Catholicae corde fideliter veneratur. Venit autem Ecclesia gentium retro: quia praesentem in carne dominum non videns, peractis iam sacramentis incarnationis illius, ad fidei eius gratiam pervenit; sicque dum participatione sacramentorum eius salvari a peccatis meruit, quasi tactu vestimentorum eius, fontem sui sanguinis siccavit. Circumspiciebat autem dominus videre eam quae hoc fecerat: quia omnes qui salvari merentur, suo dignos intuitu ac miseratione iudicat. Bede: Wherefore one believing woman touches the Lord, whilst the crowd throngs Him, because He, who is grieved by divers heresies, or by wicked habits, is worshipped faithfully with the heart of the Catholic Church alone. But the Church of the Gentiles came behind Him; because though it did not see the Lord present in the flesh, for the mysteries of His Incarnation had been gone through, yet it attained to the grace of His faith, and so when by partaking of His sacraments, it merited salvation from its sins, as it were the fountain of its blood was dried up by the touch of His garments. And the Lord looked round about to see her who had done this, because He judges that all who deserve to be saved are worthy of His look and of His pity.

Lectio 3
35 ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἔρχονται ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου λέγοντες ὅτι ἡ θυγάτηρ σου ἀπέθανεν: τί ἔτι σκύλλεις τὸν διδάσκαλον; 36 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς παρακούσας τὸν λόγον λαλούμενον λέγει τῷ ἀρχισυναγώγῳ, μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευε. 37 καὶ οὐκ ἀφῆκεν οὐδένα μετ' αὐτοῦ συνακολουθῆσαι εἰ μὴ τὸν πέτρον καὶ ἰάκωβον καὶ ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἰακώβου. 38 καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου, καὶ θεωρεῖ θόρυβον καὶ κλαίοντας καὶ ἀλαλάζοντας πολλά, 39 καὶ εἰσελθὼν λέγει αὐτοῖς, τί θορυβεῖσθε καὶ κλαίετε; τὸ παιδίον οὐκ ἀπέθανεν ἀλλὰ καθεύδει. 40 καὶ κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ. αὐτὸς δὲ ἐκβαλὼν πάντας παραλαμβάνει τὸν πατέρα τοῦ παιδίου καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ τοὺς μετ' αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἰσπορεύεται ὅπου ἦν τὸ παιδίον: 41 καὶ κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ παιδίου λέγει αὐτῇ, ταλιθα κουμ, ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον τὸ κοράσιον, σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειρε. 42 καὶ εὐθὺς ἀνέστη τὸ κοράσιον καὶ περιεπάτει, ἦν γὰρ ἐτῶν δώδεκα. καὶ ἐξέστησαν [εὐθὺς] ἐκστάσει μεγάλῃ. 43 καὶ διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς πολλὰ ἵνα μηδεὶς γνοῖ τοῦτο, καὶ εἶπεν δοθῆναι αὐτῇ φαγεῖν.
35. While He yet spake, there came from the ruler of the synagogue's house certain which said, "Thy daughter is dead: why troublest thou the Master any further?" 36. As soon as Jesus heard the word that was spoken, He saith unto the ruler of the synagogue, "Be not afraid, only believe." 37. And He suffered no man to follow Him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James. 38. And He cometh to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept and wailed greatly. 39. And when He was come in, He saith unto them, "Why make ye this ado, and weep? The damsel is not dead, but sleepeth." 40. And they laughed Him to scorn. But when He had put them all out, He taketh the father and the mother of the damsel, and them that were with Him, and entereth in where the damsel was lying. [p. 101] 41. And He took the damsel by the hand, and said unto her, "Talitha cumi;" which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, arise. 42. And straightway the damsel arose, and walked; for she was of the age of twelve years. And they were astonished with a great astonishment. 43. And He charged them straitly that no man should know it; and commanded that something should be given her to eat.

Theophylactus: Hi qui circa archisynagogum erant, Christum unum ex prophetis esse credebant, et propter hoc eum deprecandum putabant, ut veniens super puellam oraret; quia vero iam expiraverat puella, putabant non esse precandum; et ideo dicitur adhuc eo loquente, veniunt ad archisynagogum, dicentes: quia filia tua mortua est: quid ultra vexas magistrum? Sed ipse dominus ad confidendum patrem inducit; sequitur enim noli timere: tantummodo crede. Theophylact: Those who were about the ruler of the synagogue, thought that Christ was one of the prophets, and for this reason they thought that they should beg of Him to come and pray over the damsel. But because she had already expired, they thought that He ought not to be asked to do so. Therefore it is said, "While He yet spake, there came messengers to the ruler of the synagogue, which said, Thy daughter is dead; why troublest thou the Master any further?" But the Lord Himself persuades the father to have confidence. For it goes on, "As soon as Jesus heard the word which was spoken, He saith to the ruler of the synagogue, Be not afraid; only believe."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Non legitur, quod suis nuntiantibus et prohibentibus ne iam magister veniret, ille consenserit; ac per hoc quod dominus dixit ei noli timere, crede, non diffidentem reprehendit, sed credentem robustius confirmavit. Si autem Evangelista archisynagogum commemorasset dixisse quod sui a domo venientes dixerunt, quod iam non vexaretur Iesus, repugnarent eius cogitationi verba quae posuit Matthaeus eum dixisse, quod scilicet puella mortua esset. Augustine: It is not said that he assented to his friends who brought the tidings and wished to prevent the Master from coming, so that our Lord's saying, "Fear not, only believe," is not a rebuke for his want of faith, but was intended to strengthen the belief which he had already. But if the Evangelist had related, that the ruler of the synagogue joined the friends who came from his house, in saying that Jesus should not be troubled, the words which Matthew relates him to have said, namely, that the damsel was dead, would then have been contrary to what was in his mind.
Sequitur et non admittit quemquam sequi se, nisi Petrum et Iacobum et Ioannem fratrem Iacobi. It goes on, "And He suffered no man to follow Him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James."
Theophylactus: Non enim humilis Christus ad ostentationem voluit aliquid operari. Theophylact: For Christ in His lowliness would not do any thing for display.
Sequitur et veniunt in domum archisynagogi, et vident tumultum et flentes et eiulantes multum. It goes on, "And He cometh to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept and wailed greatly."
Chrysostomus: Ipse autem iubet non ululare, tamquam puella non sit mortua, sed dormiens; unde sequitur et ingressus ait: quid turbamini et ploratis? Puella non est mortua, sed dormit. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But He Himself commands them not to wail, as if the damsel was not dead, [p. 102] but sleeping. Wherefore it says, "And when He was come in, He saith unto them, Why make ye this ado, and weep? the damsel is not dead, but sleepeth."
Hieronymus: Archisynagogo dicitur filia tua mortua est; Iesus autem dixit non est mortua, sed dormit. Utrumque verum est; quasi dicat: mortua est vobis, mihi dormit. Pseudo-Jerome: It was told the ruler of the synagogue, Thy daughter is dead. But Jesus said to him, She is not dead, but sleepeth. Bother are true, for the meaning is, She is dead to you, but to Me she is asleep.
Beda: Hominibus enim mortua erat, qui suscitare nequiverant; Deo dormiebat, in cuius dispositione et anima vivebat, et caro resuscitanda quiescebat. Unde mos apud Christianos obtinuit ut mortui, qui resurrecturi non dubitantur, dormientes vocentur. Bede: For to men she was dead, who were unable to raise her up; but to God she was asleep, in whose purpose both the soul was living, and the flesh was resting, to rise again. Whence it became a custom amongst Christians, that the dead, who, they doubt not, will rise again, should be said to sleep.
Sequitur et irridebant eum. It goes on, "And they laughed Him to scorn."
Theophylactus: Derident autem eum tamquam ulterius non posset aliquid facere; sed ipsemet contra seipsos attestantes disputat, tamquam vere mortuam suscitaverit: et ideo miraculosum erit, si suscitaverit eam. Theophylact: But they laugh at Him, as if unable to do any thing farther; and in this He convicts them of bearing witness involuntarily, that she was really dead whom He raised up, and therefore, that it would be a miracle if He raised her.
Beda: Quia ergo verbum resuscitantis irridere quam credere malebant, merito foras excluduntur, utpote indigni qui potentiam resuscitantis, ac resurgentis mysterium viderent; unde Bede: Because they chose rather to laugh at than to believe in this saying concerning her resurrection, they are deservedly excluded from the place, as unworthy to witness His power in raising her, and the mystery of her rising.
Sequitur ipse vero eiectis omnibus assumit secum patrem et matrem puellae, et cetera. Wherefore it goes on, "But when He had put them all out, He taketh the father and the mother of the damsel, and them that were with Him, and entereth in where the damsel was lying."
Chrysostomus: Vel ut ostentationem auferret, propter hoc non omnes secum esse sinit; ut vero testes postmodum haberet divinae virtutis, tres praecipuos ex discipulis elegit, et patrem et matrem puellae, tamquam prae omnibus magis necessarios. Manu vero et verbo puellam vivificat; unde sequitur et tenens manum puellae, ait illi: Thabitha cumi, quod est interpretatum: puella, tibi dico, surge. Manus enim Iesu vivificativa existens, mortuum corpus vivificat, vox autem iacentem excitat; unde sequitur et confestim surrexit puella et ambulavit. Chrys.: Or else, to take away all display, He suffered not all to be with Him; that, however, He might leave behind Him witnesses of His divine power, He chose His three chief disciples and the father and mother of the damsel, as being necessary above all. And He restores life to the damsel both by His hand, and by word of mouth. Wherefore it says, "And He took the damsel by the hand, and said unto her, Talitha cumi; which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, Arise." For the hand of Jesus, having a quickening power, quickens the dead body, and His voice raises her as she is lying. Wherefore it follows, "And straightway the damsel arose and walked."
Hieronymus de optimo genere Interpret: Arguat aliquis Evangelistam mendacii, quare exponendo addiderit tibi dico; cum in Hebraico Thabitha, cumi tantum significet puella, surge. Sed ut emphaticoteron faceret et sensum vocantis et imperantis exprimeret, addit tibi dico, surge. Jerome, Hier. ad Pam., Ep. 57: Some one may accuse the Evangelist of a falsehood in his explanation, in that he had added, "I say unto thee," when in Hebrew, "Talitha cumi" only means, "Damsel, arise;" but He adds, "I say unto thee, Arise," to express that His meaning was to call and command her.
Sequitur erat autem annorum duodecim. It goes on, "For she was of the age of twelve years."
Glossa: Hoc Evangelista addidit ad ostendendum puellam huius aetatis esse quod poterat ambulare. In ambulatione eius non solum suscitata, sed etiam perfecte sanata ostenditur. Gloss.: The Evangelist added this, [p. 103] to shew that she was of an age to walk. By her walking, she is shewn to have been not only raised up, but also perfectly cured.
Sequitur et obstupuerunt stupore magno; et praecepit illis vehementer, ut nemo id sciret; et iussit illi dari manducare. It continues, "And they were astonished with a great astonishment."
Chrysostomus: Ad demonstrandum, quod eam vere suscitaverit et non secundum phantasiam. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 81: To shew that He had raised her really, and not only to the eye of fancy.
Beda: Mystice autem salvata a profluvio sanguinis muliere, mox filia archisynagogi mortua nuntiatur: quia dum Ecclesia gentium a vitiorum labe mundata, et ob fidei meritum filia est cognominata, continuo synagoga perfidiae simul et invidiae zelo soluta est; perfidiae quidem, quia in Christo credere noluit; invidiae vero, quia Ecclesiam credere doluit. Et quod aiebant nuntii archisynagogo, quid ultra vexas magistrum? Per eos hodie dicitur qui a Deo destitutum synagogae statum vident, ut restaurari posse non credant: ideoque pro resuscitatione illius supplicandum non esse aestimant. Sed si archisynagogus, idest coetus doctorum legis, credere voluerit, et subiecta ei synagoga salva erit. Quia vero synagoga laetitiam dominicae inhabitationis merito infidelitatis amisit, quasi inter flentes et eiulantes mortua iacet. Tenens autem puellae manum dominus eam suscitavit: quia nisi prius mundate fuerint manus Iudaeorum, quae sanguine plenae sunt, synagoga mortua non resurget. In sanatione autem haemorrhoissae mulieris, et suscitatione puellae, salus ostenditur generis humani, quae a domino ita dispensata est, ut primo aliqui ex Israel ad fidem venirent, deinde plenitudo gentium intraret, ac sic omnis Israel salvus fieret. Annorum autem duodecim erat puella, et annis duodecim mulier erat passa: quia peccata non credentium apparuerunt in initio fidei credentium: unde dicitur: credidit Abraham Deo, et reputatum est ei ad iustitiam. Bede: Mystically; the woman was cured of a bloody flux, and immediately after the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue is reported to be dead, because as soon as the Church of the Gentiles is washed from the stain of vice, and called daughter by the merits of her faith, at once the synagogue is broken up on account of its zealous treachery and envy; treachery, because it did not choose to believe in Christ; envy, because it was vexed at the faith of the Church. What the messengers told the ruler of the synagogue, "Why troublest thou the Master any more," is said by those in this day who, seeing the state of the synagogue, deserted by God, believe that it cannot be restored, and therefore think that we are not to pray that it should be restored. But if the ruler of the synagogue, that is, the assembly of the teachers of the Law, determine to believe, the synagogue also, which is subjected to them, will be saved. Further, because the synagogue lost the joy of having Christ to dwell in it, as its faithlessness deserved, it lies dead as it were, amongst persons weeping and wailing. Again, our Lord raised the damsel by taking hold of her hand, because the hands of the Jews, which are full of blood, must first be cleansed, else the synagogue, which is dead, cannot rise again. But in the woman with the bloody flux, and the raising of the damsel, is shewn the salvation of the human race, which was so ordered by the Lord, that first some from Judaea, then the fulness of the Gentiles, might come in, and so all Israel might be saved. Again, the damsel was twelve years old, and the woman had suffered for twelve years, because the sinning of unbelievers was contemporary with the beginning of the faith of believers. Wherefore it is said, "Abraham believed on God, and it was counted to him for righteousness." [Gen 15:6] [ed. note: Bede's own words are rather more clear than those in the Catena: "That is, the woman began to be afflicted at the same time as the damsel was born; for nearly at the same period of the world the synagogue began to arise amongst the patriarchs, and the race of Gentiles throughout the world to be polluted with idolatry."] [p. 104]
Gregorius Moralium: Moraliter vero redemptor noster puellam in domo, iuvenem vero extra portam, in sepulcro autem Lazarum suscitat; adhuc quidem in domo mortuus iacet qui latet in peccato; iam extra portam educitur cuius iniquitas usque ad vecordiam publicae perpetrationis aperitur; sepulturae vero aggere premitur qui perpetratione nequitiae etiam usu consuetudinis pressus gravatur. Greg., Mor. 4, 27: Morally again, our Redeemer raised the damsel in the house, the young man without the gate, Lazarus in the tomb; he still lies dead in the house, whose sin is concealed; he is carried without the gate, whose sin has broken forth into the madness of an open deed; he lies crushed under the mound of the tomb, who in the commission of sin, lies powerless beneath the weight of habit.
Beda: Et notandum, quod leviores et quotidiani erratus, levioris poenitentiae possunt remedio curari: unde iacentem in conclavi dominus facillima voce puellam resuscitat dicens puella, surge; ut vero quatriduanus mortuus sepulcri claustra evadere posset, fremuit spiritu, turbavit seipsum, lacrymas fudit. Quanto igitur gravior animae mors, tanto acrior necesse est ut poenitentis fervor insistat. Sed et hoc notandum, quia publica noxa publico eget remedio: unde Lazarus de monumento vocatus populis innotuit; levia autem peccata, secreta queunt poenitentia deleri: unde puella in domo iacens paucis arbitris exsurgit, eisdemque ut nemini manifestent praecipitur. Turba etiam foris eicitur, ut puella suscitetur: quia si non prius a secretioribus cordis expellitur saecularium multitudo curarum, anima quae intrinsecus iacet mortua, non resurgit. Bene autem surrexit et ambulat: quia anima a peccatis resuscitata, non solum a sordibus scelerum exurgere, sed et in bonis proficere debet operibus, et mox necesse est ut caelesti pane satietur, divini scilicet verbi et altaris particeps effecta. Bede: And we may remark, that lighter and daily errors may be cured by the remedy of a lighter penance. Wherefore the Lord raises the damsel, lying in the inner chamber with a very easy cry, saying, "Damsel, arise;" but that he who had been four days dead might quit the prison of the tomb, He groaned in spirit, He was troubled, He shed tears. In proportion, then, as the death of the soul presses the more heavily, so much the more ardently must the fervour of the penitent press forward. But this too must be observed, that a public crime requires a public reparation; wherefore Lazarus, when called from the sepulchre, was placed before the eyes of the people: but slight sins require to be washed out by a secret penance, wherefore the damsel lying in the house is raised up before few witnesses, and those are desired to tell no man. The crowd also is cast out before the damsel is raised; for if a crowd of worldly thoughts be not first cast out from the hidden parts of the heart, the soul, which lies dead within, cannot rise. Well too did she arise and walk, for the soul, raised from sin, ought not only to rise from the filth of its crimes, but also to make advances in good works, and soon it is necessary that it should be filled with heavenly bread, that is, made partaker of the Divine Word, and of the Altar.

Caput 6Gospel of Mark, Chapter 6[p. 105]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκεῖθεν, καὶ ἔρχεται εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσιν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 2 καὶ γενομένου σαββάτου ἤρξατο διδάσκειν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ: καὶ πολλοὶ ἀκούοντες ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες, πόθεν τούτῳ ταῦτα, καὶ τίς ἡ σοφία ἡ δοθεῖσα τούτῳ καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γινόμεναι; 3 οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ. 4 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τοῖς συγγενεῦσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 5 καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο ἐκεῖ ποιῆσαι οὐδεμίαν δύναμιν, εἰ μὴ ὀλίγοις ἀρρώστοις ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας ἐθεράπευσεν: 6 καὶ ἐθαύμαζεν διὰ τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν.
1. And He went out from thence, and came into His own country; and His disciples follow Him. 2. And when the sabbath day was come, He began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing Him were astonished, saying, "From whence hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands? 3. Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us?" And they were offended at Him. 4. But Jesus said unto them, "A prophet is not without honour but in his own country, and among his own kind, and in his own house." 5. And He could there do no mighty work, save that He laid His hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them. 6. And He marvelled because of their unbelief.

Theophylactus: Post praemissa miracula dominus in patriam suam revertitur, non ignorans quoniam spernerent eum, sed ut occasionem non haberent ulterius dicendi: quia si venisses, credidissemus tibi; unde dicitur et egressus inde abiit in patriam suam: et sequebantur eum discipuli sui. Theophylact: After the miracles which have been related, the Lord returns into His own country, not that He was ignorant that they would despise Him, but that they might have no reason to say, If Thou hadst come, we had believed Thee. Wherefore it is said, "And He went out from thence, and came into His own country."
Beda: Patriam eius Nazareth dicit, in qua erat nutritus. Sed quanta Nazaraeorum caecitas, qui eum quem verbis factisque illius Christum cognoscere poterant, ob solam gentis notitiam contemnunt? Bede, in Marc., 2, 23: He means by His country, Nazareth, in which He was brought up. But how great the blindness of the Nazarenes! they despise Him, Who [p. 106] by His words and deeds they might know to be the Christ, solely on account of His kindred.
Sequitur et facto sabbato coepit in synagoga docere; et multi audientes admirabantur in doctrina eius, dicentes: unde huic haec omnia? Et quae est sapientia quae data est illi, et virtutes tales quae per manus eius efficiuntur? Sapientiam ad doctrinam, virtutes referunt ad sanitates et miracula quae faciebat. It goes on: "And when the sabbath day was come, He began to teach in the synagogue; and many hearing Him were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands?" By wisdom is meant His doctrine, by powers, the cures and miracles which He did.
Sequitur nonne hic est faber filius Mariae? It goes on: Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary?"
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Matthaeus quidem fabri filium eum dictum esse dicit; nec mirandum est, cum utrumque dici potuerit: eo enim fabrum credebant quo et fabri filium. Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 42: Matthew indeed says that He was called the son of a carpenter; nor are we to wonder, since both might have been said, for they believed Him to be a carpenter, because He was the son of a carpenter.
Hieronymus: Filius quidem fabri Iesus vocatur, sed fabri qui fabricatus est auroram et solem, idest Ecclesiam primam, et sequentem; in quarum figura mulier, et puella sanatur. Pseudo-Jerome: Jesus is called the son of a workman, of that one, however, whose work was the morning and the sun, that is, the first and second Church, as a figure of which the woman and the damsel are healed.
Beda: Nam etsi humana non sint comparanda divinis, typus tamen integer est: quia pater Christi igne operatur et spiritu. Bede: For although human things are not to be compared with divine, still the type is complete, because the Father of Christ works by fire and spirit.
Sequitur frater Iacobi, et Ioseph, et Iudae, et Simonis; nonne et sorores eius hic nobiscum sunt? Fratres et sorores eius secum esse testantur: qui tamen non liberi Ioseph, aut Mariae, iuxta haereticos, sunt putandi; sed potius, iuxta morem sacrae Scripturae, cognati sunt intelligendi; quomodo Abraham, et Lot fratres appellantur, cum esset Lot filius fratris Abrahae. Et scandalizabantur in illo. Scandalum et error Iudaeorum salus nostra est, et haereticorum condemnatio. Intantum enim spernebant dominum Iesum Christum ut eum fabrum, et fabri vocarent filium. It goes on: "The brother of James, and Joses, of Jude, and of Simon. And are not his sisters here with us?" They bear witness that His brothers and sisters were with Him, who nevertheless are not to be taken for the sons of Joseph or of Mary, as heretics say, but rather, as is usual in Scripture, we must understand them to be His relations, as Abraham and Lot are called brothers, though Lot was brother's son to Abraham. "And they were offended at Him." The stumbling and the error of the Jews is our salvation, and the condemnation of heretics. For so much did they despise the Lord Jesus Christ, as to call Him a carpenter, and son of a carpenter.
Sequitur et dicebat eis Iesus, quia non est propheta sine honore nisi in patria sua, et in domo sua, et in cognatione sua. Prophetam dici in Scripturis dominum Iesum etiam Moyses testis est, futuram eius incarnationem praedicens filiis Israel, ait: prophetam vobis suscitabit dominus Deus vester de fratribus vestris. Non solum autem ipse qui dominus est prophetarum, sed et Elias, et Ieremias ceterique prophetae, minores in patria sua quam in exteris civitatibus habiti sunt: quia propemodum naturale est cives semper civibus invidere: non enim considerant praesentia viri opera, sed fragilem recordantur infantiam. It goes on: "And Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country." Even Moses bears witness that the Lord is called a Prophet in the Scripture, for predicting His future Incarnation to the sons of Israel, he says, "A Prophet shall the Lord raise up unto you of your brethren." [Acts 7:37] But not only He Himself, Who is Lord of prophets, but also Elias, Jeremiah, and the remaining lesser prophets, were worse received in their own country than in strange cities, for it is almost natural for men to envy their fellow-townsmen; for they do not consider the present works of the man, but they remember the weakness of Him [p. 107] infancy.
Hieronymus: Comitatur etiam saepe vilitas originem, ut est illud: quis est filius Isai? Quia humilia dominus respicit, et alta a longe cognoscit. Pseudo-Jerome: Oftentimes also the origin of a man brings him contempt, as it is written, "Who is the son of Jesse?" [1 Sam 25:10] for the Lord "hath respect unto the lowly; as to the proud, He beholdeth them afar off."
Theophylactus: Sive etiam praeclaros consanguineos propheta habeat, cives odiunt eos, et propter hoc dehonorant prophetam. Theophylact: Or again, if the prophet has noble relations, his countrymen hate them, and on that account do not honour the prophet.
Sequitur et non poterat ibi virtutem ullam facere; nisi paucos infirmos impositis manibus curavit. Quod autem dicit non poterat, intelligere oportet: non volebat: quia non ipse impotens, sed illi infideles erant: ergo ibi non operatur virtutes, parcens eis, ne maiori reprehensione digni essent, etiam factis miraculis non credentes. Vel aliter. In miraculis faciendis necessaria est virtus operantis, et recipientium fides, quae ibi deficiebat: unde non volebat Iesus ibi signa facere. There follows, "And He could there do no mighty work, &c." What, however, is here expressed by He could not, we must take to mean, He did not choose, because it was not that He was weak, but that they were faithless; He does not therefore work any miracles there, for He spared them, lest they should be worthy of greater blame, if they believed not, even with miracles before their eyes. Or else, for the working of miracles, not only the power of the Worker is necessary, but the faith of the recipient, which was wanting in this case: therefore Jesus did not choose to work any signs there.
Sequitur et mirabatur propter incredulitatem illorum. There follows: "And He marvelled at their unbelief."
Beda: Non quasi inopinata et improvisa miratur qui novit omnia antequam fiant; sed qui novit occulta cordis, quod mirandum intimare vult hominibus, mirari se coram hominibus ostendit: Iudaeorum enim miranda notatur caecitas, qui nec prophetis suis credere de Christo, nec ipsi inter se nato voluerunt credere Christo. Mystice autem Iesus despicitur in domo, et in patria sua, hoc est in populo Iudaeorum; et ideo pauca ibi signa fecit, ne penitus excusabiles ibi fierent. Maiora autem signa quotidie in gentium populo facit, non tam in sanitate corporum quam in animarum salute. Bede: Not as if He Who knows all things before they are done, wonders at what He did not expect or look forward to, but knowing the hidden things of the heart, and wishing to intimate to men that it was wonderful, He openly shews that He wonders. And indeed the blindness of the Jews is wonderful, for they neither believed what their prophets said of Christ, nor would in their own persons believe on Christ, Who was born amongst them. Mystically again; Christ is despised in His own house and country, that is, amongst the people of the Jews, and therefore He worked few miracles there, lest they should become altogether inexcusable. But He performs greater miracles every day amongst the Gentiles, not so much in the healing of their bodies, as in the salvation of their souls.

Lectio 2
καὶ περιῆγεν τὰς κώμας κύκλῳ διδάσκων. 7 καὶ προσκαλεῖται τοὺς δώδεκα, καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοὺς ἀποστέλλειν δύο δύο, καὶ ἐδίδου αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν ἀκαθάρτων: 8 καὶ παρήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδὲν αἴρωσιν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰ μὴ ῥάβδον μόνον, μὴ ἄρτον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ εἰς τὴν ζώνην χαλκόν, 9 ἀλλὰ ὑποδεδεμένους σανδάλια καὶ μὴ ἐνδύσησθε δύο χιτῶνας. 10 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ὅπου ἐὰν εἰσέλθητε εἰς οἰκίαν, ἐκεῖ μένετε ἕως ἂν ἐξέλθητε ἐκεῖθεν. 11 καὶ ὃς ἂν τόπος μὴ δέξηται ὑμᾶς μηδὲ ἀκούσωσιν ὑμῶν, ἐκπορευόμενοι ἐκεῖθεν ἐκτινάξατε τὸν χοῦν τὸν ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς. 12 καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκήρυξαν ἵνα μετανοῶσιν, 13 καὶ δαιμόνια πολλὰ ἐξέβαλλον, καὶ ἤλειφον ἐλαίῳ πολλοὺς ἀρρώστους καὶ ἐθεράπευον.
6b. And He went round about the villages, teaching. 7. And He called unto Him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and gave them power over unclean spirits; 8. And commanded them that they should take [p. 108] nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse: 9. But be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats. 10. And He said unto them, "In what place soever ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart from that place. 11. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them. Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city." 12. And they went out, and preached that men should repent. 13. And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them.

Theophylactus: Non solum in civitatibus praedicabat dominus, sed et in castellis, ut discamus parva non spernere; neque magnas semper quaerere civitates, sed verbum Dei in vicis abiectis et vilibus seminare; unde dicitur et circuibat castella in circuitu docens. Theophylact: The Lord not only preached in the cities, but also in villages, that we may learn not to despise little things, nor always to seek for great cities, but to sow the word of the Lord in abandoned and lowly villages. Wherefore it is said, "And He went round about the villages, teaching."
Beda: Benignus autem et clemens dominus, ac magister non invidet servis atque discipulis suis virtutes suas; et sicut ipse curaverat omnem languorem, et omnem infirmitatem, apostolis quoque suis dedit potestatem; unde sequitur et convocavit duodecim, et coepit eos mittere binos, et dabat illis potestatem spirituum immundorum. Sed multa distantia est inter donare et accipere: iste quodcumque agit, potestate domini agit, illi si quid faciunt imbecillitatem suam, et virtutes domini confitentur, dicentes: in nomine Iesu surge et ambula. Bede, in Marc., 2, 24: Now our kind and merciful Lord and Master did not grudge His servants and their disciples His own virtues, and as He Himself had healed every sickness and every infirmity, so also He gave the same power to His disciples. Wherefore it goes on: "And He called unto Him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and gave them power over unclean spirits." Great is the difference between giving and receiving. Whatsoever He does, is done in His own power, as Lord; if they do any thing, they confess their own weakness and the power of the Lord, saying in the name of Jesus, "Arise, and walk."
Theophylactus: Binos autem apostolos mittit, ut fierent promptiores: quia, ut ait Ecclesiastes, melius est simul duos esse, quam unum. Si autem plures quam duos misisset, non esset sufficiens numerus ut in plura castella mitterentur. Theophylact: Again He sends the Apostles two and two that they might become more active; for, as says the Preacher, "Two are better than one." [Eccles 4:9] But if He had sent more than two, there would not have been a sufficient number to allow of their being [p. 109] sent to many villages.
Gregorius in Evang: Binos autem in praedicationem discipulos mittit, quoniam duo sunt praecepta caritatis: Dei videlicet amor, et proximi, et minus quam inter duos caritas haberi non potest. Per hoc ergo nobis innuit quia qui caritatem erga alterum non habet, praedicationis officium suscipere nullatenus debet. Greg., Hom. in Evan., 17: Further, the Lord sent the disciples to preach, two and two, because there are two precepts of charity, namely, the love of God, and of our neighbour; and charity cannot be between less than two; by this therefore He implies to us, that he who has not charity towards his neighbour, ought in no way to take upon himself the office of preaching.
Sequitur et praecepit eis ne quid tollerent in via, nisi virgam tantum; non peram, neque panem, neque in zona aes; sed calceatos sandaliis, et ne induerentur duabus tunicis. There follows: "And He commanded them, that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse: but be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats."
Beda: Tanta enim praedicatori in Deo debet esse fiducia ut praesentis vitae sumptus, quamvis non provideat, tamen hos sibi non deesse certissime sciat, ne dum mens eius occupatur ad temporalia, minus aliis provideat aeterna. Bede: For such should be the preacher's trust in God, that, though he takes no thought for supplying his own wants in this present world, yet he should feel most certain that these will not be left unsatisfied, lest whilst his mind is taken up with temporal things, he should provide less of eternal things to others.
Chrysostomus: Hoc etiam eis dominus praecepit, ut per habitum ostenderent quantum a divitiarum desiderio distabant. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The Lord also gives them this command, that they might shew by their mode of life, how far removed they were from the desire of riches.
Theophylactus: Instruens etiam eos per hoc non esse amatores munerum, et ut videntes eos praedicare paupertatem, acquiescant, cum apostoli nihil habeant. Theophylact: Instructing them also by this means not to be fond of receiving gifts, in order too that those, who saw them proclaim poverty, might be reconciled to it, when they saw that the Apostles themselves possessed nothing.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Vel quia cum, secundum Matthaeum, dominus continue subiecerit: dignus est enim operarius cibo suo, satis ostendit cur eos possidere haec, aut ferre noluerit: non quod necessaria non sint necessitati huius vitae, sed quia sic eos mittebat ut eis hoc deberi demonstraret ab illis quibus Evangelium credentibus nuntiarent: unde apparet hoc non ita praecepisse dominum tamquam Evangelistae vivere aliunde non debeant, quam eis praebentibus quibus annuntiant Evangelium; alioquin contra hoc praeceptum fecit apostolus, qui victum de manuum suarum labore transigebat; sed potestatem dedisse, in qua scirent sibi ista deberi. Solet item quaeri quomodo Matthaeus et Lucas commemoraverint dixisse dominum discipulis, ut nec virgam ferrent, cum dicat Marcus et praecepit eis ne quid tollerent in via nisi virgam tantum. Quod ita solvitur, ut intelligamus sub alia significatione dictam virgam, quae secundum Marcum ferenda est, et sub alia illam quae secundum Matthaeum et Lucam non est ferenda. Potuit enim sic breviter dici: nihil necessariorum vobiscum feratis nisi virgam tantum, ut illud quod dictum est: nec virgam, intelligatur nec minimas quidem res; quod vero adiunctum est nisi virgam tantum, intellegatur quia per potestatem a domino receptam, quae virgae nomine significata est, etiam quae non portantur, non deerunt. Utrumque ergo dominus dixit; sed quia non utrumque unus Evangelista commemoravit, putatur ille qui virgam sub alia significatione positam tollendam dixit, ei qui virgam rursus aliud significantem non tollendam, dixit, esse contrarius; sed iam ratione reddita non putetur. Sic et calceamenta cum dicit Matthaeus in via non esse portanda, curam prohibet: quia ideo cogitantur portanda ne desint. Hoc et de duabus tunicis intelligendum est, ne quisquam eorum praeter eam qua esset indutus, aliam portandam curaret, sollicitus ne opus esset, cum ex illa potestate posset accipere. Proinde Marcus dicendo, calceari eos sandaliis vel soleis, aliquid hoc calceamentum mysticae significationis habere admonet, ut pes neque tectus sit desuper, nec nudus ad terram; idest nec occultetur Evangelium, nec terrenis commodis innitatur. Et quod non haberi, vel portari duas tunicas, sed expressius indui prohibet, quid eos monet nisi non dupliciter, sed simpliciter ambulare? Quisquis autem putat non potuisse dominum in uno sermone quaedam figurate, quaedam proprie ponere eloquia, cetera eius inspiciat, et videbit, quod hoc temere ac inerudite arbitretur. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 30: Or else; according to Matthew, the Lord immediately subjoined, "The workman is worthy of his meat," [Matt 10:19] which sufficiently proves why He forbade their carrying or possessing such things; not because they were not necessary, but because He sent them in such a way as to shew, that they were due to them from the faithful, to whom they preached the Gospel. From this it is evident that the Lord did not mean by this precept that the Evangelists ought to live only on the gifts of those to whom they preach the Gospel, else the Apostle transgressed this precept when he procured his livelihood by the labour of his own hands, but He meant that He had given them a power, in virtue of which, they might be assured these things were due to them. It is also often asked, how it comes that Matthew and Luke have related that the Lord commanded His disciples not to carry even a staff, whilst Mark says, "And He commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only." Which question is solved, by supposing that the word 'staff' has a meaning in [p. 110] Mark, who says that it ought to be carried, different from that which it bears in Matthew and Luke, who affirm the contrary. For in a concise way one might say, Take none of the necessaries of life with you, nay, not a staff, save a staff only; so that the saying, nay not a staff, may mean, nay not the smallest thing; but that which is added, "save a staff only," may mean that, through the power received by them from the Lord, of which a rod is the ensign, nothing, even of those things which they do not carry, will be wanting to them. The Lord, therefore, said both, but because one Evangelist has not given both, men suppose, that he who has said that the staff, in one sense, should be taken, is contrary to him who again has declared, that, in another sense, it should be left behind: now however that a reason has been given, let no one think so. So also when Matthew declares that shoes are not to be worn on the journey, he forbids anxiety about them, for the reason why men are anxious about carrying them, is that they may not be without them. This is also to be understood of the two coats, that no man should be troubled about having only that with which he is clad from anxiety lest he should need another, when he could always obtain one from the power given by the Lord. In like manner Mark, by saying that they are to be shod with sandals or soles, warns us that this mode of protecting the feet has a mystical signification, that the foot should neither be covered above nor be naked on the ground, that is, that the Gospel should neither be hid, nor rest upon earthly comforts; and in that He forbids their possessing or taking with them, or more expressly their wearing, two coats, He bids them walk simply, not with duplicity. But whosoever thinks that the Lord could not in the same discourse say some things figuratively, others in a literal sense, let him look into His other discourses, and he shall see, how rash and ignorant is his judgment.
Beda: In duabus autem tunicis videtur mihi duplex ostendere vestimentum: non quod in locis Scythiae glaciali nive rigentibus, una quis tunica debeat esse contentus; sed in tunica vestimentum intelligamus, ne aliud vestiti, aliud nobis futurorum timore servetur. Bede: Again, by the two tunics He seems to me to mean two sets of clothes; not that in places like Scythia, covered with the ice and snow, a man should be content with only one garment, but by coat, I think a suit of clothing is implied, that being clad with one, we should not keep another through anxiety as to what may happen.
Chrysostomus: Vel aliter. Matthaeus et Lucas non calceamenta, neque baculum portare permittit, quod ostendit perfectissimum esse; Marcus vero baculum iubet assumere, et sandaliis calceari; quod dictum est permissive. Pseudo-Chrys.: Or else, Matthew and Luke neither allow shoes nor [p. 111] staff, which is meant to point out the highest perfection. But Mark bids them take a staff and be shod with sandals, which is spoken by permission. [see 1 Cor 7:6]
Beda: Allegorice autem per peram onera saeculi, per panem deliciae temporales, per aes in zona occultatio sapientiae designatur: quia quisquis officium doctoris accipit, neque oneribus saecularium negotiorum deprimi, neque desideriis carnalibus resolvi, neque commissum sibi talentum verbi, sub otio debet lenti torporis abscondere. Bede: Again, allegorically; under the figure of a scrip is pointed out the burdens of this world, by bread is meant temporal delights, by money in the purse, the hiding of wisdom; because he who receives the office of a doctor, should neither be weighed down by the burden of worldly affairs, nor be made soft by carnal desires, nor hide the talent of the word committed to him under the case of an inactive body.
Sequitur et dicebat eis: quocumque introieritis in domum, illic manete donec exeatis inde: ubi dat constantiae generale mandatum, ut hospitalis necessitudinis iura custodiant, alienum a praedicatore regni caelestis astruens cursitare per domos. It goes on, "And He said unto them, In what place soever ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart from that place." Where He gives a general precept of constancy, that they should look to what is due to the tie of hospitality, adding, that it is inconsistent with the preaching of the kingdom of heaven to run about from house to house.
Theophylactus: Ne scilicet de gula contingeret eos reprehendi, ab aliis in alios transeuntes. Theophylact: That is, lest they should be accused of gluttony in passing from one to another.
Sequitur et quicumque non receperint vos, nec audierint vos, exeuntes inde, excutite pulverem de pedibus vestris in testimonium illis. Hoc autem dominus praecepit ut ostenderet quod longam propter eos viam ambulaverunt, et nihil eis profuit: vel quia nihil ab eis acceperunt, etiam neque pulverem; sed et hunc excutiunt, ut hoc sit in testimonium illis, idest in redargutionem illis. It goes on, "And whoever shall not receive you, &c." This the Lord commanded them, that they might shew that they had walked a long way for their sakes, and to no purpose. Or, because they received nothing from them, not even dust, which they shake off, that it might be a testimony against them, that is, by way of convicting them.
Chrysostomus: Vel ut sit in testimonium laboris viae quam sustinebant pro eis, aut tamquam pulvis peccatorum praedicantium convertatur in ipsos. Pseudo-Chrys.: Or else, that it might be a witness of the toil of the way, which they sustained for them; or as if the dust of the sins of the preachers was turned against themselves.
Sequitur et exeuntes praedicabant ut poenitentiam agerent; et Daemonia multa eiciebant, et ungebant oleo multos aegrotos, et sanabantur. Quod oleo ungerent, solus Marcus enarrat; Iacobus autem in epistola sua canonica similia dicit. Oleum enim et labores curat, et luminis et hilaritatis causa existit. Significat autem oleum unctionis Dei misericordiam, infirmitatis medelam, et cordis illuminationem; quod totum oratio operatur. It goes on: "And they went and preached that men should repent. And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them." Mark alone mentions their anointing with oil. James however, in his canonical Epistle, says a thing similar. For oil both refreshes our labours, and gives us light and joy; but again, oil signifies the mercy of the unction of God, the healing of infirmity, and the enlightening of the heart, the whole of which is worked by prayer.
Theophylactus: Significat etiam gratiam spiritus sancti, per quam a laboribus transmutamur, et lumen et laetitiam spiritualem suscipimus. Theophylact: It also means, the grace of the Holy Ghost, by which we are eased from our labours, and receive light and spiritual joy.
Beda: Unde patet ab ipsis apostolis hunc sanctae Ecclesiae morem esse traditum, ut energumeni, vel alii quilibet aegroti, ungantur oleo, pontificali benedictione consecrato. Bede: Where it is evident from the Apostles themselves, that it [p. 112] is an ancient custom of the holy Church that persons possessed or afflicted with any disease whatever, should be anointed with oil consecrated by priestly blessing.

Lectio 3
14 καὶ ἤκουσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἡρῴδης, φανερὸν γὰρ ἐγένετο τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον ὅτι ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐγήγερται ἐκ νεκρῶν, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐνεργοῦσιν αἱ δυνάμεις ἐν αὐτῷ. 15 ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι ἠλίας ἐστίν: ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι προφήτης ὡς εἷς τῶν προφητῶν. 16 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ ἡρῴδης ἔλεγεν, ὃν ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα ἰωάννην, οὗτος ἠγέρθη.
14. And king Herod heard of Him; (for His name was spread abroad:) and he said, "That John the Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him." 15. Others said, "That it is Elias." And others said, "That it is a prophet, or as one of the prophets." 16. But when Herod heard thereof, he said, "It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead."

Glossa: Post praedicationem discipulorum Christi, et miraculorum operationem convenienter Evangelista subiungit de fama quae consurgebat in populo; unde dicit et audivit Herodes rex. Gloss.: After the preaching of the disciples of Christ, and the working of miracles, the Evangelist fitly subjoins an account of the report, which arose amongst the people. Wherefore he says, "And king Herod heard of Him."
Chrysostomus: Herodes iste filius erat primi Herodis, sub quo Ioseph Iesum duxerat in Aegyptum. Tetrarcham autem Matthaeus nominat hunc, atque Lucas tamquam principantem super quartam partem regni patris sui. Romani enim post mortem patris, regnum in partes quatuor diviserunt. Marcus vero regem eum vocat, aut patris consuetudine, aut quia hoc loco eius congruum existebat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Aut. e Cat. in Marc.: This Herod is the son of the first Herod, under whom Joseph had led Jesus into Egypt. But Matthew calls him Tetrarch, and Luke mentions him as ruling over one fourth of his father's kingdom; for the Romans after the death of his father divided his kingdom into four parts. But Mark calls him a king, either after the title of his father, or because it was consonant to his own wish.
Hieronymus: Sequitur manifestum enim factum est nomen eius: lucernam enim sub modio abscondi fas non est. Et dicebant, scilicet aliqui de turba, quia Ioannes Baptista resurrexit a mortuis, et propterea operantur virtutes in illo. Pseudo-Jerome: It goes on, "For His name was spread abroad." For it is not right that a candle should be placed under a bushel. "And they said," that is, some of the multitude, "that John the Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do shew themselves forth in him."
Beda: Quanta enim fuit Iudaeorum invidia docemur: ecce enim Ioannem, de quo dictum est quia signum fecit nullum, a mortuis potuisse resurgere, nullo attestante credebant; Iesum autem approbatum a Deo virtutibus et signis cuius resurrectionem Angeli, apostoli, viri ac feminae praedicabant, non resurrexisse, sed furtim esse ablatum credere maluerunt: qui cum dicerent Ioannem resurrexisse a mortuis, et propterea virtutes operatas esse in illo, bene de virtute resurrectionis senserunt, quod maioris potentiae futuri sunt sancti, cum a mortuis resurrexerint, quam fuerunt cum carnis adhuc infirmitate gravarentur. Bede, in Marc., 2, 25: Here we are taught how great was the envy of the Jews. For, lo, they believe that John, of whom it was said that he did no miracle, could rise from the dead, and that, without the witness of any one. But Jesus, approved of God by miracles and signs, whose resurrection, Angles and Apostles, men and women, preached, they chose to believe was carried away by stealth, rather than suppose that He had risen again. And these men, in saying that John was risen from the dead, and that therefore mighty works were wrought in him, had just thoughts of the power of [p. 113] the resurrection, for men, when they shall have risen from the dead, shall have much greater power than they possessed when still weighed down by the weakness of the flesh.
Sequitur alii autem dicebant, quia Elias est. There follows: "But others said, that it is Elias."
Theophylactus: Confutabat enim multos homines Ioannes quando dicebat: genimina viperarum. Theophylact: For John confuted many men, when he said, "Ye generation of vipers."
Sequitur alii autem dicebant, quia propheta est, quasi unus ex prophetis. It goes on: "But others said, that it is a prophet, or as one of the prophets."
Chrysostomus: Mihi quidem videtur hunc prophetam dicere de quo Moyses dixit: prophetam suscitabit vobis Deus de fratribus vestris. Recte quidem; sed quia manifeste dicere trepidabant: hic est Christus, Moysi utebantur voce, propriam suspicionem velantes, praepositorum suorum timore. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Is seems to me that this prophet means that one of whom Moses said, "God will raise up a prophet unto thee of thy brethren." [Deut 18:15] They were right indeed, but because they feared to say openly, This is the Christ, they used the voice of Moses, veiling their own surmise through fear of their rules.
Sequitur quo audito, Herodes ait: quem ego decollavi Ioannem, hic a mortuis resurrexit. Per ironiam hoc Herodes expresse pronuntiat. There follows: "But when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead." Herod expressly says this in irony.
Theophylactus: Vel aliter. Sciens Herodes quod Ioannem iustum existentem sine causa occiderat, credebat eum a mortuis resurrexisse, et quod ex resurrectione suscepisset miraculorum operationem. Theophylact: Or else, Herod, knowing that he without a cause had slain John, who was a just man, thought that he had risen from the dead, and had received through his resurrection the power of working miracles.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: In his autem verbis Lucas Marco attestatur, ad hoc dumtaxat quod alii dixerint, non Herodes, Ioannem surrexisse; sed haesitantem Lucas, commemoravit Herodem, verbaque eius ita posuit dicentis: Ioannem ego decollavi. Quis autem est iste, de quo audio talia? Intelligendum est autem post hanc haesitationem confirmasse in animo suo quod ab aliis dicebatur, cum ait pueris suis, sicut Matthaeus narrat: hic est Ioannes Baptista, ipse surrexit a mortuis. Aut ita pronuntianda sunt haec verba ut haesitantem adhuc indicent; praesertim quia et Marcus, qui superius dixerat ab aliis dictum fuisse, quod Ioannes a mortuis resurrexit; in extremo tamen ipsum Herodem dixisse non tacet. Quem ego decollavi Ioannem, hic a mortuis resurrexit. Quae item verba duobus modis pronuntiari possunt, ut aut confirmantis, aut dubitantis intelligantur. Augustine, de Con. Even., ii, 43: But in these words Luke bears witness to Mark, to this point at least, that others and not Herod said that John had risen; but Luke had represented Herod as hesitating and has put down his words as if he said, "John have I beheaded, but who is this of whom I hear such things?" [Luke 9:7] We must, however, suppose that after this hesitation he had confirmed in his own mind what others had said, for he says to his children, as Matthew relates, "This is John the Baptist, he has risen from the dead." [Matt 14:2] Or else these words are to be spoken, so as to indicate that he is still hesitating, particularly as Mark who had said above that others had declared that John had risen from the dead, afterwards however is not silent as to Herod's plainly saying, "It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead." Which words also may be spoken in two ways, either they may be understood as those of a man affirming or doubting.

Lectio 4
17 αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ ἡρῴδης ἀποστείλας ἐκράτησεν τὸν ἰωάννην καὶ ἔδησεν αὐτὸν ἐν φυλακῇ διὰ ἡρῳδιάδα τὴν γυναῖκα φιλίππου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι αὐτὴν ἐγάμησεν: 18 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὁ ἰωάννης τῷ ἡρῴδῃ ὅτι οὐκ ἔξεστίν σοι ἔχειν τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου. 19 ἡ δὲ ἡρῳδιὰς ἐνεῖχεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἤθελεν αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδύνατο: 20 ὁ γὰρ ἡρῴδης ἐφοβεῖτο τὸν ἰωάννην, εἰδὼς αὐτὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον καὶ ἅγιον, καὶ συνετήρει αὐτόν, καὶ ἀκούσας αὐτοῦ πολλὰ ἠπόρει, καὶ ἡδέως αὐτοῦ ἤκουεν. 21 καὶ γενομένης ἡμέρας εὐκαίρου ὅτε ἡρῴδης τοῖς γενεσίοις αὐτοῦ δεῖπνον ἐποίησεν τοῖς μεγιστᾶσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῖς χιλιάρχοις καὶ τοῖς πρώτοις τῆς γαλιλαίας, 22 καὶ εἰσελθούσης τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ ἡρῳδιάδος καὶ ὀρχησαμένης, ἤρεσεν τῷ ἡρῴδῃ καὶ τοῖς συνανακειμένοις. εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τῷ κορασίῳ, αἴτησόν με ὃ ἐὰν θέλῃς, καὶ δώσω σοι: 23 καὶ ὤμοσεν αὐτῇ [πολλά], ὅ τι ἐάν με αἰτήσῃς δώσω σοι ἕως ἡμίσους τῆς βασιλείας μου. 24 καὶ ἐξελθοῦσα εἶπεν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς, τί αἰτήσωμαι; ἡ δὲ εἶπεν, τὴν κεφαλὴν ἰωάννου τοῦ βαπτίζοντος. 25 καὶ εἰσελθοῦσα εὐθὺς μετὰ σπουδῆς πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα ᾐτήσατο λέγουσα, θέλω ἵνα ἐξαυτῆς δῷς μοι ἐπὶ πίνακι τὴν κεφαλὴν ἰωάννου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ. 26 καὶ περίλυπος γενόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς διὰ τοὺς ὅρκους καὶ τοὺς ἀνακειμένους οὐκ ἠθέλησεν ἀθετῆσαι αὐτήν: 27 καὶ εὐθὺς ἀποστείλας ὁ βασιλεὺς σπεκουλάτορα ἐπέταξεν ἐνέγκαι τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἀπεκεφάλισεν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ 28 καὶ ἤνεγκεν τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ πίνακι καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῷ κορασίῳ, καὶ τὸ κοράσιον ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς. 29 καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἦλθον καὶ ἦραν τὸ πτῶμα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔθηκαν αὐτὸ ἐν μνημείῳ.
17. For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife: for he had married her. [p.114] 18. For John had said unto Herod, "It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife." 19. Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not; 20. For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and an holy, and observed him; and when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him gladly. 21. And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee; 22. And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, "Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee." 23. And he sware unto her, "Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom." 24. And she went forth, and said unto her mother, "What shall I ask?" And she said, "The head of John the Baptist." 25. And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, "I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist." 26. And the king was exceeding sorry; yet for his oath's sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, he would not reject her. 27. And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought: and he went and beheaded him in the prison, 28. And brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel: and the damsel gave it to her mother. 29. And when the disciples heard of it, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. [p. 115]

Theophylactus: Ex praemissis Marcus Evangelista occasionem sumens, hic de morte commemorat praecursoris, dicens ipse enim Herodes misit, ac tenuit Ioannem et vinxit eum in carcere, propter Herodiadem uxorem fratris sui quia duxerat eam. Theophylact: The Evangelist Mark, taking occasion from what went before, here relates the death of the Forerunner, saying, "For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife: for he had married her."
Beda: Vetus narrat historia, Philippum Herodis maioris filium, sub quo dominus fugit in Aegyptum, fratrem huius Herodis, sub quo passus est Christus, duxisse Herodiadem uxorem filiam regis Aretae, postea vero socerum eius, exortis quibusdam contra generum simultatibus, tulisse filiam suam, et in dolorem mariti prioris, Herodis inimici eius nuptiis copulasse. Ergo Ioannes Baptista arguit Herodem et Herodiadem, quod illicitas nuptias fecerint, et non liceat, fratre vivente germano, illius uxorem ducere. Bede: Ancient history relates, that Philip, the son of Herod the great, under whom the Lord fled into Egypt, the brother of this Herod, under whom Christ suffered, married Herodias, the daughter of king Aretas; but afterwards, that his father-in-law, after certain disagreements had arisen with his son-in-law, had taken his daughter away, and, to the grief of her former husband, had given her in marriage to his enemy; therefore John the Baptist rebukes Herod and Herodias for contracting an unlawful union, and because it was not allowed for a man to marry his brother's wife during his lifetime.
Theophylactus: Alii autem dicunt, quod Philippus iam mortuus reliquerit ex se filiam: quapropter non debebat Herodes fratris, quamvis defuncti, uxorem ducere. Lex enim praecipiebat quod frater uxorem fratris acciperet, cum defunctus prolem non haberet; illi autem erat filia, propter quod erant nuptiae sceleratae. Theophylact: The law also commanded a brother to marry his brother's wife, if he died without children; but in this case there was a daughter, which made the marriage criminal.
Sequitur Herodias autem insidiabatur illi, et volebat occidere eum, et non poterat. There follows: "Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not."
Beda: Timebat enim Herodias ne Herodes aliquando resipisceret, vel Philippo fratri suo amicus fieret; atque illicitae nuptiae repudio solverentur. Bede: For Herodias was afraid, lest Herod should repent at some time, or be reconciled to his brother Philip, and so the unlawful marriage be divorced.
Sequitur Herodes autem metuebat Ioannem, quia sciebat eum virum iustum et sanctum. It goes on: "For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man, and a holy."
Glossa: Timebat, inquam, eum reverendo; sciebat enim eum esse iustum, quoad homines, et sanctum, quoad Deum; et custodiebat eum, ne scilicet ab Herodiade interficeretur; et audito eo multa faciebat: quia putavit eum spiritu Dei loqui; et libenter eum audiebat: quia reputabat utilia quae ab eo dicebantur. Gloss.: He feared him, I say, because he revered him, for he knew him to be just in his dealings with men, and holy towards God, and he took care that Herodias should not slay him. "And when he heard him, he did many things," for he thought that he spake by the Spirit of God, "and heard him gladly," because he considered that what he said was profitable.
Theophylactus: Vide autem quantum operatur concupiscentiae rabies: quia cum Herodes tantam circa Ioannem habebat reverentiam, et timorem, horum fit immemor, ut suae fornicationi provideret. Theophylact: But see how great is the fury of lust, for though Herod had such an awe and fear of John, he forgets it all, that he may minister to his fornication.
Remigius super Matth: Libidinosa enim voluntas eum coegit in illum manum mittere quem sciebat iustum et sanctum. Ac per hoc datur intelligi quia minus peccatum factum est ei causa maioris peccati, secundum illud: qui in sordibus est, sordescat adhuc. Remig.: For his lustful will drove him to lay hands on a man whom he knew to be just and holy. And by this, we may see how a less fault became the cause to him of a greater; as it is said, "He which is filthy, let him be filthy still." [Rev 22:11]
Sequitur et cum dies opportunus accidisset, Herodes natalis sui coenam fecit principibus, et tribunis, et primis Galilaeae. It goes on: "And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee."
Beda: Soli mortalium Herodes et Pharao leguntur diem natalis sui gaudiis festivis celebrasse; sed uterque rex infausto auspicio festivitatem suam sanguine foedavit: verum Herodes tanto maiore impietate, quanto sanctum, et innocentem doctorem veritatis occidit; et hoc pro voto ac petitione saltatricis; Bede: The only men [p. 116] whom we read of, as celebrating their birthdays with festive joys are Herod and Pharaoh, but each, with an evil presage, stained his birthday with blood; Herod, however, with so much the greater wickedness, as he slew the holy and guiltless teacher of truth, and that by the wish, and at the instance of a female dancer.
Sequitur enim cumque introisset filia ipsius Herodiadis, et saltasset, et placuisset Herodi, et simul recumbentibus, rex ait: pete a me quod vis, et dabo tibi. For there follows: "And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee."
Theophylactus: Dum enim convivium fit, Satanas per puellam saltat, et iusiurandum perficitur sceleratum; Theophylact: For during the banquet, Satan danced in the person of the damsel, and the wicked oath is completed.
Sequitur enim et iuravit illi: quia quidquid petieris dabo tibi, licet dimidium regni mei. For it goes on: "And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom."
Beda: Non excusatur ab homicidio per iuramentum: ideo enim forte iuravit, ut occasionem inveniret occidendi; et si patris, aut matris interitum postulasset, non utique concessisset Herodes. Bede: His oath does not excuse his murder, for perchance his reason for swearing was, that he might find an opportunity for slaying, and if she had demanded the death of his father and mother, he surely would not have granted it.
Sequitur quae cum exisset, dixit matri suae: quid petam? At illa dixit: caput Ioannis Baptistae. Digno operi saltationis, dignum postulatur sanguinis praemium. It goes on: "And she went forth, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask? And she said, The head of John the Baptist." Worthy is blood to be asked as the reward of such a deed as dancing.
Sequitur cumque introisset statim cum festinatione ad regem, petivit dicens: volo ut protinus des mihi in disco caput Ioannis Baptistae. It goes on: "And she came in straightway with haste, &c."
Theophylactus: Maligna mulier protinus sibi caput Ioannis dari petit, idest statim in illa hora; timebat enim ne Herodes resipisceret. Theophylact: The malignant woman begs that the head of John be given to her immediately, that is, at once, in that very hour, for she feared lest Herod should repent.
Sequitur et contristatus est rex. There follows: "And the king was exceeding sorry."
Beda: Consuetudinis est Scripturarum ut opinionem multorum sic narret historicus, quomodo eo tempore ab omnibus credebatur: sicut et Ioseph ab ipsa quoque Maria appellatur pater Iesu; ita et nunc Herodes dicitur contristatus, quia hoc discumbentes putabant: dissimulator enim mentis tristitiam praeferebat in facie, cum laetitiam haberet in mente; scelusque excusat iuramento, ut sub occasione pietatis impius fieret; unde Bede: It is usual with Scripture, that the historian should relate events as they were then believed by all, thus Joseph is called the father of Jesus by Mary herself. So now also Herod is said to be "exceeding sorry," for so the guests thought, since the hypocrite bore sadness on his face, when he had joy in his heart; and he excuses the wickedness by his oath, that he might be impious under pretence of piety.
Sequitur propter iusiurandum, et propter simul discumbentes noluit eam contristare. Wherefore there follows: "For his oath's sake, and for their sakes who sat with him, he would not reject her."
Theophylactus: Herodes quidem non sui compos, sed voluptuosus iusiurandum implevit, et iustum interemit. Decebat autem magis in hoc periurare, et non tantum scelus operari. Theophylact: Herod not being his own master, but full of lust, fulfilled his oath, and slew the just man; it would have been better however to break his oath, than to commit so great a sin.
Beda: Quod autem subdit, et propter simul recumbentes, vult omnes sceleris sui esse consortes, ut in luxurioso, impuroque convivio cruentae epulae deferrentur; unde sequitur sed, misso spiculatore, praecepit afferri caput Ioannis in disco. Bede: In that again which is added, "And for their sakes who sat with him," he wishes to make all partakers in [p. 117] his guilt, that a bloody feast might be set before luxurious and impure guests. Wherefore it goes on: "But sending an executioner, he commanded his head to be brought in a charger."
Theophylactus: Spiculator carnifex dicitur, qui constituitur ad homines interficiendum. Theophylact: 'Spiculator' is the name for the public servant commissioned to put men to death.
Beda: Non autem Herodem puduit caput occisi hominis ante convivas inferre. Pharao vero nil talis vesaniae commisisse legitur. Ex utroque tamen exemplo probatur utilius esse nobis diem mortis futurae timendo et caste agendo saepius in memoriam revocare, quam diem nativitatis luxuriando celebrare. Homo enim ad laborem nascitur in mundo, et electi ad requiem per mortem transeunt e mundo. Bede: Now Herod was not ashamed to bring before his guests the head of a murdered man; but we do not read of such an act of madness in Pharaoh. From both examples, however, it is proved to be more useful, often to call to mind the coming day of our death, by fear and by living chastely, than to celebrate the day of our birth with luxury. For man is born in the world to toil, but the elect pass by death out of the world to repose.
Sequitur et decollavit eum in carcere et attulit caput eius in disco, et dedit illud puellae, et puella dedit matri suae. It goes on: "And he beheaded him in prison, &c."
Gregorius Moralium: Non sine gravissima admiratione perpendo, quod ille prophetiae spiritu intra matris uterum impletus, quo inter natos mulierum nemo maior surrexit, ab iniquis in carcerem mittitur, et pro puellae saltu capite truncatur, et vir tantae severitatis pro usu turpium moritur. Numquid credimus aliquid fuisse quod in eius vita, illa sic despecta mors tergeret? Sed quando ille vel in cibo peccavit, qui locustas solummodo, et mel silvestre edit? Quando conversatione sua offendere potuit, qui de eremo non recessit? Quid est quod omnipotens Deus sic vehementer in hoc saeculo despicit quos sic sublimiter ante saecula elegit? Nisi hoc quod pietati fidelium patet: quoniam idcirco sic eos premit in infimis, quia videt quomodo remuneret in summis; et foras usque ad despecta deicit, quia intus usque ad incomprehensibilia perducit. Hinc ergo unusquisque colligat, quid illic passuri sint quos reprobat, si hic sic cruciat quos amat. Greg., Mor., 3, 7: I cannot, without the greatest wonder, reflect that he, who was filled even in his mother's womb with the spirit of prophecy, and who was the greatest that had arisen amongst those born of women, is sent into prison by wicked men, is beheaded for the dancing of a girl, and though a man of so great austerity, meets death through such a foul instrument. Are we to suppose that there was something evil in his life, to be wiped away by so ignominious a death? When, however, could he commit a sin even in his eating, whose food was only locusts, and wild honey? How could he offend in his conversation, who never quitted the wilderness? How is it that Almighty God so despises in this life those whom He has so sublimely chosen before all ages, if it be not for the reason, which is plain to the piety of the faithful, that He thus sinks them into the lowest place, because He sees how He is rewarding them in the highest, and outwardly He throws them down amongst things despised, because inwardly He draws them up even to incomprehensible things. Let each then infer from this what they shall suffer, whom He rejects, if He so grieves those whom He loves.
Sequitur quo audito discipuli eius venerunt, et tulerunt corpus eius, et posuerunt illud in monumento. There follows: "And when his disciples heard of it, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb."
Beda: Narrat Iosephus, vinctum Ioannem in castellum Macheronta adductum, ibique truncatum; narrat vero ecclesiastica historia sepultum eum in Sebaste Palaestinae urbe, quae quondam Samaria dicta est. Decollatio autem Ioannis, minorationem famae illius, qua Christus a populo credebatur, insinuat, sicut exaltatio salvatoris in crucem profectum designabat fidei: quia et ipse qui prius a turbis propheta esse credebatur, Dei filius a cunctis fidelibus est agnitus: unde Ioannes quem oportebat minui, cum diurnum lumen decrescere incipit natus est; dominus autem eo tempore anni quo dies crescere incipit. Bede: Josephus relates, that John was brought bound into the castle of Macheron, and there slain; and ecclesiastical history says [Theodoret, Hist., Eccles., 3, 3] that he was buried in Sebaste, a city of Palestine, once called Samaria. But the beheading of John the Baptist signifies the lessening of that fame, by which he was thought to be Christ [p. 118] by the people, as the raising of our Saviour on the cross typifies the advance of the faith, in that He Himself, who was first looked upon as a prophet by the multitude, was recognized as the Son of God by all the faithful; wherefore John, who was destined to decrease, was born when the daylight begins to wax short; but the Lord at that season of the year in which the day begins to lengthen.
Theophylactus: Mystice autem Herodes, qui interpretatur pelliceus, populus est Iudaeorum; qui habebat uxorem, scilicet inanem gloriam, cuius filia saltat, et movetur etiam nunc circa Iudaeos, scilicet falsus intellectus Scripturarum: decapitaverunt siquidem Ioannem, idest verbum propheticum, et sine capite Christo habent eum. Theophylact: In a mystical way, however, Herod, whose name means, 'of skin,' is the people of the Jews, and the wife to whom he was wedded means vain glory, whose daughter even now encircles the Jews with her dance, namely, a false understanding of the Scriptures; they indeed beheaded John, that is, the word of prophecy, and hold to him without Christ, his head.
Hieronymus: Vel aliter. Caput legis, quod est Christus, de corpore abscinditur proprio, idest Iudaico populo et datur gentili puellae, idest Romanae Ecclesiae, et puella dat matri suae adulterae, idest synagogae crediturae in fine. Corpus Ioannis sepelitur, caput in disco collocatur: littera humata tegitur, spiritus in altari honoratur et sumitur. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, the head of the law, which is Christ, is cut off from His own body, that is, the Jewish people, and is given to a Gentile damsel, that is, the Roman Church, and the damsel gives it to her adulterous mother, that is, to the synagogue, who in the end will believe. The body of John is buried, his head is put in a dish; thus the human Letter is covered over, the Spirit is honoured, and received on the altar.

Lectio 5
30 καὶ συνάγονται οἱ ἀπόστολοι πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν αὐτῷ πάντα ὅσα ἐποίησαν καὶ ὅσα ἐδίδαξαν. 31 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, δεῦτε ὑμεῖς αὐτοὶ κατ' ἰδίαν εἰς ἔρημον τόπον καὶ ἀναπαύσασθε ὀλίγον. ἦσαν γὰρ οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες πολλοί, καὶ οὐδὲ φαγεῖν εὐκαίρουν. 32 καὶ ἀπῆλθον ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς ἔρημον τόπον κατ' ἰδίαν. 33 καὶ εἶδον αὐτοὺς ὑπάγοντας καὶ ἐπέγνωσαν πολλοί, καὶ πεζῇ ἀπὸ πασῶν τῶν πόλεων συνέδραμον ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτούς. 34 καὶ ἐξελθὼν εἶδεν πολὺν ὄχλον, καὶ ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπ' αὐτοὺς ὅτι ἦσαν ὡς πρόβατα μὴ ἔχοντα ποιμένα, καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς πολλά.
30. And the Apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told Him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught. 31. And He said unto them, "Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place, and rest a while:" for there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 32. And they departed into a desert place by ship privately. 33. And the people saw them departing, and many knew Him, and ran afoot thither out of all cities, and outwent them, and came together unto Him. 34. And Jesus, when He came out, saw many people, and was moved with compassion toward them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and He began to teach them many things. [p. 119]

Glossa: Postquam Evangelista narravit mortem Ioannis, narrat ea quae Christus cum suis discipulis post mortem Ioannis egerit, dicens et convenientes apostoli ad Iesum, renuntiaverunt ei omnia quae egerant et docuerant. Gloss.: The Evangelist, after relating the death of John, gives an account of those things which Christ did with His disciples after the death of John, saying, "And the Apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told Him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught."
Hieronymus: Ad locum enim unde exeunt flumina, revertuntur. Deo semper referunt gratias missi super his quae acceperant. Pseudo-Jerome: For they return to the fountain-head whence the streams flow; those who are sent by God, always offer up thanks for those things which they have received.
Theophylactus: Discamus autem et nos cum in ministerium aliquod mittimur, non elongari, et ultra commissum officium non efferri; sed mittentem visitare et renuntiare ei omnia quae egimus et docuimus. Theophylact: Let us also learn, when we are sent on any mission, not to go far away, and not to overstep the bounds of the office committed, but to go often to him, who sends us, and report all that we have done and taught; for we must not only teach but act.
Beda: Non enim solum oportet docere, sed facere. Non solum autem quae ipsi egerant et docuerant, apostoli domino renuntiant; sed etiam quae Ioannes, eis in docendo occupatis, sit passus, et sui, et Ioannis discipuli domino renuntiant, sicut Matthaeus describit. Bede: Not only do the Apostles tell the Lord what they themselves had done and taught, but also His own and John's disciples together tell Him what John had suffered, during the time that they were occupied in teaching, as Matthew relates.
Sequitur et ait illis: venite seorsum in desertum locum, et requiescite pusillum. It goes on: "And He said to them, Come ye yourselves apart, &c."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Hoc continuo post Ioannis passionem factum esse commemorat: unde post haec facta sunt illa quae primo narrata sunt, quibus motus Herodes dixit: hic est Ioannes Baptista quem ego decollavi. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 45: This is said to have taken place, after the passion of John, therefore what is first related took place last, for it was by these events that Herod was moved to say, "This is John the Baptist, whom I beheaded."
Theophylactus: In desertum autem recedit locum propter humilitatem. Quiescere autem facit Christus suos discipulos, ut addiscant praepositi, quod qui laborant in opere et sermone, requiem promerentur, et quod non debent continue laborare. Theophylact: Again, He goes into a desert place from His humility. But Christ makes His disciples rest, that men who are set over others may learn, that they who labour in any work or in the word deserve rest, and ought not to labour continually.
Beda: Quae autem necessitas fuerit concedendae requiei discipulis, ostendit cum subdit erant enim qui veniebant et redibant multi; et nec spatium manducandi habebant: ubi temporis illius felicitas de labore docentium simul, et discentium studio demonstratur. Bede: How arose the necessity for giving rest to His disciples, He shews, when He adds, "For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat;" we may then see how great was the happiness of that time, both from the toil of the teachers, and from the diligence of the learners.
Sequitur et ascendentes in navim abierunt in desertum locum seorsum. Non discipuli soli, sed assumpto domino ascendentes in navim locum petiere desertum, ut Matthaeus demonstrat. Tentat autem fidem turbarum: petendo enim solitudinem, an sequi curent explorat: illi sequendo, et non in iumentis, aut vehiculis diversis sed proprio labore pedum, quantam salutis suae curam gerant, ostendunt. It goes on: "And embarking in a ship, they departed into a desert place privately." The disciples did not enter into the ship alone, but taking up the Lord with them, they went to a desert place, as Matthew shews. [Matt 14] Here He tries the faith of the multitude, and by seeking a desert place He would see whether they care to follow Him. And they follow Him, and not on horseback, nor in carriages, but laboriously coming on foot, they shew how great is their anxiety for their salvation.
Sequitur et viderunt eos abeuntes, et cognoverunt multi, et pedestres de omnibus civitatibus cucurrerunt illuc, et praevenerunt eos. Dum pedestres eos praevenisse dicuntur, ostenditur quia non in aliam maris, sive Iordanis ripam navigio pervenerunt discipuli cum domino, sed proxima eiusdem regionis loca adierunt, quo etiam indigenae pedestres poterant praevenire. There follows: "And the people saw them departing, and many knew Him, and ran afoot [p. 120] thither out of all cities, and outwent them." In saying that they outwent them on foot, it is proved that the disciples with the Lord did not reach the other bank of the sea, or of the Jordan, but they went to the nearest places of the same country, where the people of those parts could come to them on foot.
Theophylactus: Ita tu Christum non expectans quod ipse revocet, sed praecurrens eum, praevenias. Theophylact: So do thou not wait for Christ till He Himself call you, but outrun Him, and come before Him.
Sequitur et exiens vidit turbam multam Iesus, et misertus est super eos, quia erant sicut oves non habentes pastorem. Pharisaei lupi existentes rapaces, non pascebant populum, sed devorabant: propter hoc ad Christum verum congregantur pastorem; qui tradidit illis cibum spiritualem, scilicet verbi Dei; unde sequitur et coepit eos docere multa. Videns enim eos qui miraculorum occasione eum sequebantur prae longitudine viae fessos, eorum misertus, voluit eorum satisfacere voluntati, docendo eos. There follows: "And Jesus when He came out saw many people, and was moved with compassion towards them, because they were as sheep having no shepherd." The Pharisees being ravening wolves did not feed the sheep, but devoured them; for which reason they gather themselves to Christ, the true Shepherd, who gave them spiritual food, that is, the word of God. Wherefore it goes on: "And He began to teach them many things." For seeing that those who followed Him on account of His miracles were tired from the length of the way, He pitied them, and wished to satisfy their wish by teaching them.
Beda: Matthaeus dicit, quod curavit languidos eorum: hoc est enim veraciter pauperum misereri, eis veritatis viam docendo aperire, et molestias corporis auferre. Bede, in Marc., 2, 26: Matthew says that He healed their sick, for the real way of pitying the poor is to open to them the way of truth by teaching them, and to take away their bodily pains.
Hieronymus: Mystice autem seorsum ducit dominus quos elegit, ut inter malos viventes, mala non intendant, ut Lot in Sodomis, et Iob in terra Hus, et Abdias in domo Achab. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, however, the Lord took apart those whom He chose, that though living amongst evil men, they might not apply their minds to evil things, as Lot in Sodom, Job in the land of Uz, and Obadiah in the house of Ahab.
Beda: Derelicta etiam Iudaea, in deserto Ecclesiae praedicatores sancti, qui apud Iudaeos tribulationum sarcina premebantur, de gratia fidei gentibus collata requiem nacti sunt. Bede, in Marc., 2, 25: Leaving also Judaea, the holy preachers, in the desert of the Church, overwhelmed by the burden of their tribulations amongst the Jews, obtained rest by the imparting of the grace of faith to the Gentiles.
Hieronymus: Pusilla tamen est hic sanctis requies, longus labor; sed postea dicitur illis ut requiescant a laboribus suis. Sicut autem in arca Noe animalia quae intus erant, foris mittebantur, et quae foris erant, intro erumpebant; sic agitur in Ecclesia: Iudas recessit, latro accessit. Sed quamdiu receditur a fide in Ecclesia, non est requies sine moerore: Rachel enim plorans filios suos noluit consolari. Non est etiam hoc convivium, in quo bibitur vinum novum cum cantabitur canticum novum ab hominibus novis, cum mortale hoc induerit immortalitatem. Pseudo-Jerome: Little indeed is the rest of the saints here on earth, long is their labour, but afterwards, they are bidden to rest from their labours. But as in the ark of Noah, the animals that were within were sent forth, and they that were without rushed in, so is it in the Church, Judas went, the thief came to Christ. But as long as men go back from the faith, the Church can have no refuge from grief; for Rachel weeping for her children would not be comforted. Moreover, this world is not the banquet, in which the new wine is drank, when the new song will be sung by men made anew, when this mortal shall have put on immortality.
Beda: Christum autem petentem deserta gentium, multae fidelium catervae relictis moenibus priscae conversationis sequuntur. Bede, in Marc., 2, 26: But when Christ [p. 121] goes to the deserts of the Gentiles, many bands of the faithful leaving the walls of their cities, that is their old manner of living, follow Him.

Lectio 6
35 καὶ ἤδη ὥρας πολλῆς γενομένης προσελθόντες αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἔλεγον ὅτι ἔρημός ἐστιν ὁ τόπος, καὶ ἤδη ὥρα πολλή: 36 ἀπόλυσον αὐτούς, ἵνα ἀπελθόντες εἰς τοὺς κύκλῳ ἀγροὺς καὶ κώμας ἀγοράσωσιν ἑαυτοῖς τί φάγωσιν. 37 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, δότε αὐτοῖς ὑμεῖς φαγεῖν. καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, ἀπελθόντες ἀγοράσωμεν δηναρίων διακοσίων ἄρτους καὶ δώσομεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν; 38 ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐτοῖς, πόσους ἄρτους ἔχετε; ὑπάγετε ἴδετε. καὶ γνόντες λέγουσιν, πέντε, καὶ δύο ἰχθύας. 39 καὶ ἐπέταξεν αὐτοῖς ἀνακλῖναι πάντας συμπόσια συμπόσια ἐπὶ τῷ χλωρῷ χόρτῳ. 40 καὶ ἀνέπεσαν πρασιαὶ πρασιαὶ κατὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ κατὰ πεντήκοντα. 41 καὶ λαβὼν τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εὐλόγησεν καὶ κατέκλασεν τοὺς ἄρτους καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς [αὐτοῦ] ἵνα παρατιθῶσιν αὐτοῖς, καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἐμέρισεν πᾶσιν. 42 καὶ ἔφαγον πάντες καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν: 43 καὶ ἦραν κλάσματα δώδεκα κοφίνων πληρώματα καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων.
35. And when the day was now far spent, His disciples came unto Him, and said, "This is a desert place, and now the time is far passed: 36. Send them away, that they may go into the country round about, and into the villages, and buy themselves bread: for they have nothing to eat." 37. He answered and said unto them, "Give ye them to eat." And they said unto Him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred pennyworth of bread, and give them to eat?" 38. He saith unto them, "How many loaves have ye? go and see." And when they knew, they say, "Five, and two fishes." 39. And He commanded them to make all sit down by companies upon the green grass. 40. And they sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and by fifties. 41. And when He had taken the five loaves and the two fishes, He looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the loaves, and gave them to His disciples to set before them; and the two fishes divided He among them all. 42. And they did all eat, and were filled. 43. And they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments, and of the fishes. 44. And they that did eat of the loaves were about five thousand men.

Theophylactus: Praeponens dominus quod utilius est, scilicet cibum sermonis Dei, deinde etiam corporalem cibum praebuit turbae; ad cuius narrationem Evangelista accedit, dicens et cum iam hora multa fieret, accesserunt discipuli eius dicentes: desertus est locus hic. Theophylact: The Lord, placing before them, first, what is most profitable, that is, the food of the word of God, afterwards also gave the multitude food for their bodies; in beginning to relate which, the Evangelist say, "And when the [p. 122] day was now far spent, His disciples came unto Him, and said, This is a desert place.
Beda: Horam multam vespertinum tempus dicit; unde Lucas dicit: dies autem coeperat declinare. Bede: The time being far spent, points out that it was evening. Wherefore Luke says, "But the day had begun to decline."
Theophylactus: Vide autem quomodo discipuli Christi circa hominum amorem proficiunt: turbarum enim miserti accedunt ad Christum, et pro eis intercedunt. Dominus autem tentavit eos si eius virtutem tantam esse cognoverant quod turbas pascere posset; unde sequitur et respondens ait illis: date eis manducare. Theophylact: See now, how those who are disciples of Christ grow in love to man, for they pity the multitudes, and come to Christ to intercede for them. But the Lord tried them, to see whether they would know that His power was great enough to feed them. Wherefore it goes on: "He answered and said unto them, Give ye them to eat."
Beda: Provocat etiam apostolos, hoc dicens, ad fractionem panis, ut illis se non habere testantibus magnitudo signi notior fieret. Bede: By these words He calls on His Apostles, to break bread for the people, that they might be able to testify that they had no bread, and thus the greatness of the miracle might become more known.
Theophylactus: Discipuli autem arguebant eum tamquam ignorantem quid illis esset necessarium ad tantam multitudinem turbarum pascendam: unde turbati respondent; Theophylact: But the disciples thought that He did not know what was necessary for the feeding of so large a multitude, for their answer shews that they were troubled.
Sequitur enim et dixerunt ei: euntes emamus ducentis denariis panes, et dabimus illis manducare. For it goes on, "And they said unto Him, Let us go and buy two hundred pennyworth of bread, and give them to eat."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Hoc Philippus apud Ioannem respondet; sed Marcus a discipulis responsum esse commemorat; volens intelligi hoc ex ore ceterorum Philippum respondisse; quamquam et pluralem numerum pro singulari usitatissime ponere potuerit. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 46: This in the Gospel of John is the answer to Philip, but Mark gives it as the answer of the disciples, wishing it to be understood that Philip made this answer as a mouthpiece of the others; although he might put the plural number for the singular, as is usual.
Sequitur et dicit eis: quot panes habetis? Ite, et videte. Hoc a domino factum esse ceteri Evangelistae praetermiserunt. It goes on: "And He saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? go and see." The other Evangelists pass over this being done by the Lord.
Sequitur et cum cognovissent, dicunt: quinque, et duos pisces. Quod Andreas apud Ioannem de quinque panibus, et duobus piscibus suggesserat, hoc ceteri Evangelistae pluralem numerum pro singulari ponentes, ex discipulorum persona retulerunt. It goes on: "And when they knew, they say, "Five, and two fishes." This, which was suggested by Andrew, as we learn from John, the other Evangelists, using the plural for the singular, have put into the mouth of the disciples.
Sequitur et praecepit illis ut accumbere facerent omnes secundum contubernia super viride faenum. Et discubuerunt in partes per centenos et quinquagenos. Quod autem Lucas dicit quinquagenos iussos esse discumbere, Marcus vero quinquagenos et centenos, ideo non hoc movet, quia unus partem dicit, alter totum: qui enim de centenis retulit, hoc retulit quod ille praetermisit. It goes on, "And He commanded them to make all sit down by companies upon the green grass, and they sat down in ranks by hundreds and by fifties." But we need not be perplexed, though Luke says that they were ordered to sit down by fifties, and Mark by hundreds and fifties, for one has mentioned a part, the other the whole. Mark, who mentions the hundreds, fills up what the other has left out.
Theophylactus: Per hoc autem datur intelligi, quod separatim discubuerunt per partes et partes: quod enim hic dicitur per contubernia, in Graeco geminate dicitur, symposia symposia; hoc est, per distributa convivia. Theophylact: We are given to understand that they lay down in parties, separate from one another, for what is translated by companies, is repeated twice over in the Greek, as though it were by companies and companies.
Sequitur et acceptis quinque panibus et duobus piscibus, intuens in caelum, benedixit, et fregit panes, et dedit discipulis, ut ponerent ante eos; et duos pisces divisit omnibus. It goes on, "And when He had taken the five loaves and the [p. 123] two fishes, He looked up to heaven, and blessed, and broke the loaves, and gave them to His disciples to set before them: and the two fishes divided He among them all."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Decenter autem in caelum aspexit: quia in deserto manna accipientes Iudaei, de Deo dicere attentaverunt: numquid poterit dare panem? Ne vero hoc contingat, antequam faceret, ad patrem retulit quod erat facturus. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc., see Hom. in Matt., 49: Now it was with fitness that He looked up to heaven, for the Jews, when receiving manna in the desert, presumed to say of God, "Can he give bread?" [Ps 78:20] To prevent this, therefore, before He performed the miracle, He referred to His Father when He was about to do.
Theophylactus: Intuetur etiam in caelum, ut nos instrueret a Deo petere escam, et non a Diabolo, sicut faciunt illi qui alienis iniuste laboribus nutriuntur. Ex hoc etiam turbis tunc innuit quod non esset Deo contrarius, sed Deum invocaret. Dat autem panem discipulis apponendum turbis, ut tractando panem non dubium, sed miraculum videatur. Theophylact: He also looks up to heaven, that He may teach us to seek our food from God, and not from the devil, as they do who unjustly feed on other men's labours. By this also He intimated to the crowd, that He could not be opposed to God, since He called upon God. And He gives the bread to His disciples to set before the multitude, that by handling the bread, they might see that it was an undoubted miracle.
Sequitur et manducaverunt omnes, et saturati sunt. Et sustulerunt reliquias fragmentorum duodecim cophinos. Duodecim cophini superabundant fragmentorum, ut quolibet apostolorum unum cophinum super humerum apportante, ineffabile miraculum videatur. Superabundantis enim virtutis erat non solum tot homines pascere, sed et tantam superabundantiam relinquere fragmentorum: Moyses enim etsi manna dabat, secundum uniuscuiusque necessitatem illud largiebatur, superfluum vero vermibus scaturiebat; Elias etiam viduam pascens, quantum ei erat sufficiens tribuebat; Iesus vero tamquam dominus superabundanter operabatur. It goes on: "And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments." Twelve baskets of fragments remained over and above, that each of the Apostles, carrying a basket on his shoulder, might recognise the unspeakable wonder of the miracle. For it was a proof of overflowing power not only to feed so many men, but also to leave such a superabundance of fragments. Even though Moses gave manna, yet what was given to each was measured by his necessity, and what was over and above was overrun with worms. Elias also fed the woman, but gave her just what was enough for her; but Jesus, being the Lord, makes His gifts with superabundant profusion.
Beda: Mystice autem die declinata turbas esurientes salvator reficit: quia vel fine saeculorum propinquante, vel cum sol iustitiae pro nobis occubuit, a spiritualis inediae sumus tabe salvati. Provocat apostolos ad fractionem panis, insinuans quod quotidie per eos ieiuna sunt corda nostra pascenda, eorum scilicet litteris et exemplis. Per quinque panes, quinque Mosaicae legis libri; per duos pisces, Psalmi sunt et prophetae figurati. Bede: Again, in a mystical sense, the Saviour refreshes the hungry crowds at the day's decline, because, either now that the end of the world approaches, or now that the Son of justice has set in death for us, we are saved from wasting away in spiritual hunger. He calls the Apostles to Him at the breaking of bread, intimating that daily by them our hungry souls are fed, that is, by their letters and examples. By the five loaves are figured the Five Books of Moses, by the two fishes, the Psalms and Prophets.
Theophylactus: Vel duo pisces sunt piscatorum sermones, scilicet epistolae et Evangelium. Theophylact: Or the two fishes are the discourses of fishermen, that is, their Epistles and Gospel.
Beda: Quia vero quinque sunt exterioris hominis sensus, quinque millia viri dominum secuti designant eos qui in saeculari adhuc habitu positi exterioribus bene uti noverunt. Bede: [ed. note: The same application to the five senses is found in Origen in Matt. 14, 17, and St. Ambrose in Luc., 6, 80. The latter, probably, was the source from which Bede borrowed it, as in both it forms a portion of a comparison between this miracle and that of the four thousand being fed with seven loaves, in which the latter are said to be a type of the Christian, who has given up external things. Origen, Hom. 3 in Leviticus lays it down as a principle, that the number five is almost always taken for the five sense in Scripture.] There are five senses in the outward man [p. 124] which shews that by the five thousand men are meant those who, living in the world, know how to make a good use of external things.
Gregorius Moralium: Diversi convivantium discubitus distinctiones Ecclesiarum, quae unam Catholicam faciunt, designant. Iubilaei autem requies quinquagenarii numeri mysterio continetur; et quinquagenarius bis ducitur, ut ad centenarium perveniatur. Quia ergo prius a malo quiescitur opere, ut post anima plenius quiescat in cognitione, alii quinquagenarii, alii centeni discumbunt. Greg., Mor. 16, 55: The different ranks in which those who ate lie down, mark out the divers churches which make up the one Catholic. [ed. note: The number fifty is connected with rest from sin, or remission, with an allusion to the Jubilee and to Pentecost by Origen in Matt. Tom. xi. 3, and by St. Ambrose Ap. David 8. On number a hundred, as the recognized symbol of perfection, see Benedictine Note] But the Jubilee rest is contained in the mystery of the number fifty, and fifty must be doubled before it reaches up to a hundred. As then the first step is to rest from doing evil, that afterwards the soul may rest more fully from evil thoughts, some lie down in parties of fifty, others of a hundred.
Beda: Super faenum autem discumbentes dominicis pascuntur alimentis, qui per continentiam calcatis concupiscentiis, audiendis implendisque Dei verbis operam impendunt. Salvator autem non nova creat cibaria: quia veniens in carne non alia quam quae praedicata sunt praedicat; sed legis, et prophetarum scripta quam gravida sint mysteriis gratiae demonstrat. Intuetur in caelum, ut ibi lucem doceat esse quaerendam. Frangit, et ante turbas ponenda distribuit discipulis: quia sacramenta prophetiae sanctis doctoribus, qui haec toto orbe praedicent, patefecit. Quod turbis superest, a discipulis tollitur: quia secretiora mysteria, quae a rudibus capi nequeunt, non negligenter omittenda, sed sunt inquirenda perfectis. Nam per cophinos duodecim apostoli, et sequentes doctores figurantur, foris quidem hominibus despecti, sed intus salutaris cibi reliquiis cumulati. Constat enim cophinis opera servilia geri solere. Bede: Again, those men lie down on grass and are fed by the food of the Lord, who have trodden under foot their concupiscences by continence, and apply themselves diligently to hear and fulfil the words of God. [ed. note: see Aurea Catena in Matthew, p. 537] The Saviour, however, does not create a new sort of food; for when He came in the flesh He preached no other things than were predicted, but shewed how pregnant with mysteries of grace were the writings of the Law and the Prophets. He looks up to heaven, that He may teach us that there we must look for grace. He breaks and distributes to the disciples that they may place the bread before the multitudes, because He has opened the mysteries of prophecy to holy doctors, who are to preach them to the whole world. What is left by the crowd is taken up by the disciples, because the more sacred mysteries, which cannot be received by the foolish, are not to be passed by with negligence, but to be inquired into by the perfect. For by the twelve baskets, the Apostles and the following Doctors are typified, externally indeed despised by men, but inwardly full of healthful food. For all know that carrying baskets is a part of the work of slaves.
Hieronymus: Vel duodecim cophini pleni fragmentis colliguntur, cum sedent super thronos iudicantes duodecim tribus Israel, qui sunt fragmenta Abraham, Isaac et Iacob, quando ex Israel reliquiae salvae fient. Pseudo-Jerome: Or, in the gathering of the twelve baskets full of fragments, is signified the time, when they shall sit on thrones, judging all who are left of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the twelve tribes of Israel, when the remnant of Israel shall be saved. [p. 125]

Lectio 7
44 καὶ ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες [τοὺς ἄρτους] πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες. 45 καὶ εὐθὺς ἠνάγκασεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐμβῆναι εἰς τὸ πλοῖον καὶ προάγειν εἰς τὸ πέραν πρὸς βηθσαϊδάν, ἕως αὐτὸς ἀπολύει τὸν ὄχλον. 46 καὶ ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸ ὄρος προσεύξασθαι. 47 καὶ ὀψίας γενομένης ἦν τὸ πλοῖον ἐν μέσῳ τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ αὐτὸς μόνος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 48 καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτοὺς βασανιζομένους ἐν τῷ ἐλαύνειν, ἦν γὰρ ὁ ἄνεμος ἐναντίος αὐτοῖς, περὶ τετάρτην φυλακὴν τῆς νυκτὸς ἔρχεται πρὸς αὐτοὺς περιπατῶν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης: καὶ ἤθελεν παρελθεῖν αὐτούς. 49 οἱ δὲ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης περιπατοῦντα ἔδοξαν ὅτι φάντασμά ἐστιν, καὶ ἀνέκραξαν: 50 πάντες γὰρ αὐτὸν εἶδον καὶ ἐταράχθησαν. ὁ δὲ εὐθὺς ἐλάλησεν μετ' αὐτῶν, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, θαρσεῖτε, ἐγώ εἰμι: μὴ φοβεῖσθε. 51 καὶ ἀνέβη πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ ἄνεμος. καὶ λίαν [ἐκ περισσοῦ] ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἐξίσταντο, 52 οὐ γὰρ συνῆκαν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄρτοις, ἀλλ' ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη.
45. And straightway He constrained His disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while He sent away the people. 46. And when He had sent them away, He departed into a mountain to pray. 47. And when even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and He alone on the land. 48. And He saw them toiling in rowing; for the wind was contrary unto them: and about the fourth watch of the night He cometh unto them, walking upon the sea, and would have passed by them. 49. But when they saw Him walking upon the sea, they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out: 50. For they all saw Him, and were troubled. And immediately He talked with them, and saith unto them, "Be of good cheer: it is I; be not afraid." 51. And He went up unto them into the ship; and the wind ceased: and they were sore amazed in themselves beyond measure, and wondered. 52. For they considered not the miracle of the loaves: for their heart was hardened.

Glossa: Dominus quidem in miraculo panum, quod esset conditor rerum ostendit, nunc autem ambulando super undas, quod haberet corpus ab omnium peccatorum gravedine liberum edocuit; et in placando ventos, undarumque rabiem sedando, quod elementis dominaretur monstravit; unde dicitur et statim coegit discipulos suos ascendere navim, ut praecederent eum trans fretum ad Bethsaidam, dum ipse dimitteret populum. Gloss.: The Lord indeed by the miracle of the loaves shewed that He is the Creator of the world: but now by walking on the waves He proved that He had a body free from the weight of all sin, and by appeasing the winds and by calming the rage of the waves, He declared Himself to be the Master of the elements. Wherefore it is said, "And straightway He constrained His disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while He sent away the people."
Chrysostomus: Dimittit quidem populum in benedictione, et aliquibus curationibus. Coegit autem discipulos, quia non de facili ab eo poterant separari; et hoc quidem tum propter nimium affectum quem ad eum habebant, tum quia sollicitabantur qualiter ad eos veniret. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He dismisses indeed the people with His blessing and with some cures. But He constrained His disciples, because they could not without pain separate themselves from Him, and that, not only on account of the very great affection which they had for Him, but also because they were at a loss how He would join them.
Beda: Merito autem movet quomodo Marcus dicat, peracto miraculo panum, discipulos venisse trans fretum ad Bethsaidam, cum videatur Lucas dicere, quod in locis Bethsaidae factum fuerit miraculum illud; nisi forte intelligamus, quod Lucas ait in desertum locum, qui est Bethsaida, non ipsius intima civitatis, sed loca deserti ad eam pertinentis esse designata. Marcus autem dicit ut praecederent eum ad Bethsaidam; ubi ipsa civitas notatur. Bede, in Marc., 2, 27: But it [p. 126] is with reason that we wonder how Mark says, that after the miracle of the loaves the disciples crossed the sea of Bethsaida, when Luke relates that the miracle was done in the parts of Bethsaida [Luke 9:10], unless we understand that Luke means by the desert which is Bethsaida not the country immediately around the town, but the desert places belonging to it. But when Mark says that they should "go before unto Bethsaida," the town itself is meant.
Sequitur et cum dimisisset eos, abiit in montem orare. It goes on: "And when He had sent them away, He departed into a mountain to pray."
Chrysostomus: Quod decet intelligere de Christo secundum quod est homo: hoc etiam fecit instruens nos assiduos esse in oratione. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: This we must understand of Christ, in that He is man; He does it also to teach us to be constant in prayer.
Theophylactus: Dimissa autem turba, ascendit orare: requiem enim et silentium oratio exigit. Theophylact: But when He had dismissed the crowd, He goes up to pray, for prayer requires rest and silence.
Beda: Non omnis autem qui orat, ascendit in montem; sed qui bene orat, qui Deum orando quaerit; qui vero de divitiis aut honore saeculi, aut de inimici morte obsecrat, ipse in infimis iacens viles ad Deum preces mittit. Quare autem dominus dimisso populo in montem oraturus abierit, Ioannes declarat dicens: Iesus ergo, cum cognovisset quia venturi essent ut raperent eum, et facerent eum regem, fugit iterum in montem ipse solus. Bede, in Marc., 2, 28: Not every man, however, who prays goes up into a mountain, but he alone prays well, who seeks God in prayer. But he who prays for riches or worldly labour, or for the death of his enemy, sends up from the lowest depths his vile prayers to God. John says, "When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take Him by force and make Him a king, He departed against into a mountain Himself, alone." [John 6:15]
Sequitur et cum sero esset, erat navis in medio mari, et ipse solus in terra. It goes on: "And when even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and He alone on the land."
Theophylactus: Permisit autem dominus periclitari discipulos, ut patientes fierent: unde non statim eis astitit, sed per totam noctem periclitari permisit, ut doceret eos patienter expectare, et non a principio sperare in tribulationibus subsidium; Theophylact: Now the Lord permitted His disciples to be in danger, that they might learn patience; wherefore He did not immediately come to their aid, but allowed them to remain in danger all night, that He might teach them to wait patiently, and not to hope at once for help in tribulations.
Sequitur enim et videns eos laborantes in remigando (erat enim ventus contrarius eis) et circa quartam vigiliam noctis venit ad eos ambulans supra mare. For there follows: "And He saw them toiling in rowing, for the wind was contrary unto them: and about the fourth watch of the night, He cometh unto them walking upon the sea."
Chrysostomus: Quatuor vigilias noctis dicit sacra Scriptura, unamquamque dividens in tres horas: unde quartam vigiliam dicit quae est post horam nonam, scilicet in hora decima, vel posteriori hora. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Holy Scripture reckons four watches in the night, making each division three hours; wherefore by the fourth watch it means that which is after the ninth hour, that is, in the tenth or some following hour.
Sequitur et volebat praeterire eos. There follows: "And would have passed them."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Quomodo autem hoc intelligere potuerunt, nisi quia in diversum ibat, eos volens praeterire tamquam alienos, a quibus ita non agnoscebatur ut phantasma putaretur? Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 47: But how could they understand this, except from His going a different way, wishing to pass them as strangers; for they were so far from recognizing Him, as to take Him for a spirit.
Sequitur enim at illi ut viderunt eum ambulantem supra mare, putaverunt phantasma esse, et exclamaverunt: omnes enim viderunt eum, et conturbati sunt. For it goes on: "But when they saw Him walking upon the sea, they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out."
Theophylactus: Vide autem quoniam cum Christus debebat eorum pericula compescere, tunc maiorem eis incutit timorem; sed statim per vocem confortavit eos; sequitur enim et statim locutus est cum eis, et dixit eis: confidite, ego sum; nolite timere. Theophylact: See again how Christ, though He was about to put and end to [p. 127] their dangers, puts them in greater fear. But He immediately reassured them by His voice, for it continues, "And immediately He talked with them, and said unto them, It is I, be not afraid."
Chrysostomus: Statim autem in voce cognoverunt eum, et timor solutus est. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 50: As soon then as they knew Him by His voice, their fear left them.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Quomodo ergo eos volebat praeterire quos paventes ita confirmat, nisi quia illa voluntas praetereundi ad eliciendum illum clamorem valebat cui subveniri oportebat? Augustine: How then could He wish to pass them, whose fears He so reassures, if it were not that His wish to pass them would wring from them that cry, which called for His help?
Beda: Scripsit autem Theodotus, Pharanitanus quondam episcopus, corporale pondus non habuisse dominum secundum carnem, sed absque pondere super mare ambulasse; sed fides Catholica pondus secundum carnem habere eum praedicat. Nam Dionysius egregius inter ecclesiasticos scriptores, in opusculo de divinis nominibus hoc modo loquitur. Ignoramus qualiter non infusis pedibus corporale pondus habentibus, et materiale onus, deambulabat in humidam et instabilem substantiam? Bede: [ed. note: This opinion with which Theodorus is charged was one held by the Phantasiasts, a sect of the Monophysites. The denial of the human body to our Lord, was a natural consequence of denying Him a human soul, for how could a human body inclose, so to speak, His Divinity? Theodoras was Bishop of Pharan, in Arabia, and was condemned as the author of the Monothelite heresy in the Lateran Council under Pope Martin I, AD 649. The passage from Dionysius is quoted in Actio 3 of the Council, and occurs de Div. Nom, c. 1] But Theodorus, who was Bishop of Phanara, wrote that the Lord had no bodily weight in His flesh, and walked on the sea without weight; but the Catholic faith declares that He had weight according to the flesh. For Dionysius says, We know not how without plunging in His feet, which had bodily weight and the gravity of matter, He could walk on the wet and unstable substance.
Theophylactus: Deinde per introitum in naviculam dominus compescuit tempestatem; Theophylact: Then by entering into the ship, the Lord restrained the tempest.
Sequitur enim et ascendit ad illos in navim, et cessavit ventus. Magnum quidem miraculum est quod ambulat dominus super mare; sed tempestas et venti contrarietas apposita fuerunt propter maius miraculum. Apostoli enim ex miraculo quinque panum non intelligentes Christi potentiam, nunc ex maris miraculo plenius cognoverunt; unde For it continues, "And He went up unto them into the ship, and the wind ceased." Great indeed is the miracle of our Lord's walking on the sea, but the tempest and the contrary wind were there as well, to make the miracle greater. For the Apostles, not understanding from the miracle of the five loaves the power of Christ, now more fully knew it from the miracle of the sea.
Sequitur et plus magis intra se stupebant: non enim intellexerant de panibus. Wherefore it goes on, "And they were sore amazed in themselves." For they understood not concerning the loaves.
Beda: Stupebant quidem carnales adhuc discipuli virtutum magnitudinem, nedum tamen in eo veritatem divinae maiestatis cognoscere valebant; unde sequitur erat enim cor eorum obcaecatum. Mystice autem labor discipulorum in remigando et ventus contrarius, labores sanctae Ecclesiae designat, quae inter undas saeculi adversantes, et immundorum flatus spirituum, ad quietem patriae caelestis pervenire conatur. Bene autem dicitur, quia navis erat in medio maris, et ipse solus in terra: quia nonnunquam Ecclesia tantis gentilium pressuris afflicta est, ut redemptor ipsius eam prorsus deseruisse videretur. Sed videt dominus suos laborantes in mari: quia eos ne in tribulationibus deficiant, suae respectu pietatis corroborat, et aliquando manifesto adiutorio liberat. Quarta autem vigilia venit ad eos diluculo appropinquante: quia homo mentem cum ad superni lumen praesidii erexerit, aderit dominus, et tentationum pericula sopientur. Bede: The disciples indeed, who were still carnal, were amazed at the greatness of His virtue, they could not yet however recognise in Him the truth of the Divine Majesty. Wherefore it goes on, "For their hearts were hardened." But mystically, the toil of the disciples in rowing, and the contrary wind, mark out the labours of the Holy Church, who amidst the beating waves of the world, and the blasts of unclean spirits, strives to reach the repose of her celestial country. And well is it said that the ship was in the midst of the sea, and He alone on land, for sometimes the Church is afflicted by a pressure from the [p. 128] Gentiles so overwhelming, that her Redeemer seems to have entirely deserted her. But the Lord sees His own, toiling on the sea, for, lest they faint in tribulations, He strengthens them by the look of His love, and sometimes frees them by a visible assistance. Further, in the fourth watch He came to them as daylight approached, for when man lifts up his mind to the light of guidance from on high, the Lord will be with him, and the dangers of temptations will be laid asleep.
Chrysostomus: Vel prima vigilia est usque ad diluvium, secunda usque ad Moysen, tertia usque ad adventum domini, in quarta venit dominus, et discipulis locutus est. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else, the first watch means the time up to the deluge; the second, up to Moses; the third, up to the coming of the Lord; in the fourth the Lord came and spoke to His disciples.
Beda: Saepe autem fideles in tribulatione positos superna pietas deseruisse visa est, ut quasi laborantes in mari discipulos praeterire Iesus voluisse putaretur. Adhuc autem haeretici putant phantasma fuisse dominum, nec veram assumpsisse carnem de virgine. Bede: Often then does the love of heaven seem to have deserted the faithful in tribulation, so that it may be thought that Jesus wishes to pass by His disciples, as it were, toiling in the sea. And still do heretics suppose that the Lord was a phantom, and did not take upon Him real flesh from the Virgin.
Hieronymus: Dicit autem eis confidite: ego sum: quia videbimus eum sicuti est. Cessavit autem ventus, et procella, Iesu sedente, idest regnante, in navi, quae est universa Ecclesia. Pseudo-Jerome: And He says to them, "Be of good cheer, it is I," because we shall see Him as He is. But the wind and the storm ceased when Jesus sat down, that is, reigned in the ship, which is the Catholic Church.
Beda: In quocumque etiam corde per gratiam sui adest amoris, mox universa vitiorum et adversantis mundi, sive spirituum malignorum bella compressa quiescunt. Bede: In whatsoever heart, also, He is present by the grace of His love, there soon all the strivings of vices, and of the adverse world, or of evil spirits, are kept under and put to rest.

Lectio 8
53 καὶ διαπεράσαντες ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἦλθον εἰς γεννησαρὲτ καὶ προσωρμίσθησαν. 54 καὶ ἐξελθόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου εὐθὺς ἐπιγνόντες αὐτὸν 55 περιέδραμον ὅλην τὴν χώραν ἐκείνην καὶ ἤρξαντο ἐπὶ τοῖς κραβάττοις τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας περιφέρειν ὅπου ἤκουον ὅτι ἐστίν. 56 καὶ ὅπου ἂν εἰσεπορεύετο εἰς κώμας ἢ εἰς πόλεις ἢ εἰς ἀγροὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς ἐτίθεσαν τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας, καὶ παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν ἵνα κἂν τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ ἅψωνται: καὶ ὅσοι ἂν ἥψαντο αὐτοῦ ἐσῴζοντο.
53. And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore. 54. And when they were come out of the ship, straightway they knew Him, 55. And ran through that whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard He was. 56. And whithersoever He entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought Him that they might touch if it were but the border of His garment: and as many as touched Him were made whole.

Glossa: Quia Evangelista exposuerat periculum quod discipuli in navigando sustinuerant, et quomodo fuerant liberati, nunc ostendit quo navigando pervenerint, dicens et cum transfretassent pervenerunt in terram Genezareth, et applicuerunt. Gloss.: The Evangelist, having shewn the danger which [p. 129] the disciples had sustained in their passage, and their deliverance from it, now shews the place to which they sailed, saying, "And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore."
Theophylactus: Post magnum autem spatium temporis ad praedictum locum dominus transfretavit; et ideo Evangelista subdit cumque egressi essent de navi, continuo cognoverunt eum, scilicet incolae. Theophylact: The Lord remained at the above-mentioned place for some time. Therefore the Evangelist subjoins, "And when they had come out of the ship, straightway they knew Him," That is, the inhabitants of the country.
Beda: Cognoverunt autem eum rumore, non facie; vel prae signorum magnitudine, et vultu plurimis notus erat. Vide autem quanta fides sit hominum terrae Genezareth, ut non praesentium tantum salute contenti sint, sed mittant ad alias per circuitum civitates, quo omnes currant ad medicum; unde sequitur et percurrentes universam regionem illam, coeperunt in grabatis illos qui se male habebant, circumferre, ubi audiebant eum esse. Bede: But they knew Him by report, not by His features; or through the greatness of His miracles, even His person was known to some. See too how great was the faith of the men of the land of Gennesaret, so that they were not content with the healing of those who were present, but sent to other towns round about, that all might hasten to the Physician; wherefore there follows, "And ran through the whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard He was."
Theophylactus: Non enim ad domos invitabant eum ut curaret, sed magis ipsi male habentes afferebant ad eum; unde etiam sequitur et quocumque introibat in vicos, aut in villas, aut in civitates, in plateis ponebant infirmos, et deprecabantur eum, ut vel fimbriam vestimenti eius tangerent. Miraculum enim quod circa mulierem haemorrhoissam contigerat, ad aures multorum devenerat, et multam fidem eis dabat, ex qua sanabantur; sequitur enim et quotquot tangebant eum, salvi fiebant. Wherefore it also follows: "And whithersoever He entered into villages, or cities, or country, &c." For the miracle which had been wrought on the woman with an issue of blood, had reached the ears of many, and caused in them that great faith, by which they were healed.
Sequitur enim et quotquot tangebant eum, salvi fiebant. It goes on: "And as many as touched Him were made whole."
Beda: Mystice autem fimbriam vestimenti eius minimum mandatum intellige; quod quicumque transgressus fuerit, minimus vocabitur in regno caelorum: vel assumptionem carnis, per quam venimus ad verbum Dei, et illius postea fruimur maiestate. Again, in a mystical sense, do thou understand by the hem of His garment the slightest of His commandments, for whosoever shall transgress it "shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven," [Matt. 5:19] or else His assumption of our flesh, by which we have come to the Word of God, and afterwards, shall have the enjoyment of His majesty.
Hieronymus: Quod autem dicitur et quotquot tangebant eum, salvi fiebant, implebitur quando fugiet dolor, et gemitus. Pseudo-Jerome: Furthermore that which is said, "And as many as touched Him were made whole," shall be fulfilled, when grief and mourning shall fly away.

Caput 7Gospel of Mark, Chapter 7[p. 130]
Lectio 1
7 1 καὶ συνάγονται πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ φαρισαῖοι καί τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐλθόντες ἀπὸ ἱεροσολύμων 2 καὶ ἰδόντες τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὅτι κοιναῖς χερσίν, τοῦτ' ἔστιν ἀνίπτοις, ἐσθίουσιν τοὺς ἄρτους 3 — οἱ γὰρ φαρισαῖοι καὶ πάντες οἱ ἰουδαῖοι ἐὰν μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, 4 καὶ ἀπ' ἀγορᾶς ἐὰν μὴ βαπτίσωνται οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἄλλα πολλά ἐστιν ἃ παρέλαβον κρατεῖν, βαπτισμοὺς ποτηρίων καὶ ξεστῶν καὶ χαλκίων [καὶ κλινῶν] — 5 καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς, διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 6 ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν ἠσαΐας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται [ὅτι] οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ' ἐμοῦ: 7 μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων. 8 ἀφέντες τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κρατεῖτε τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 9 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν στήσητε. 10 μωϋσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν, τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί, ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω: 11 ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε, ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, κορβᾶν, ὅ ἐστιν, δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 12 οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 13 ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε: καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε.
1. Then came together unto Him the Pharisees, and certain of the Scribes, which came from Jerusalem. 2. And when they saw some of His disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, the unwashen, hands, they found fault. 3. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders. 4. And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables. 5. Then the Pharisees and Scribes asked Him, "Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?" 6. He answered and said unto them, "Well hath Esaias [Isaiah] prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written: 'This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. 7. Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.' 8. For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do. [p. 131] 9. And He said unto them, "Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition. 10. For Moses said, 'Honour thy father and thy mother;' and, 'Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death:' 11. But ye say, 'If a man shall say to his father or mother - It is Corban - that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free.' 12. And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother; 13. Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye."

Beda: Homines terrae Genezareth, qui minus docti videbantur, non solum ipsi veniunt, sed et suos infirmos adducunt ad dominum, ut vel fimbriam eius mereantur contingere. At vero Pharisaei et Scribae, qui doctores esse populi debuerant, non ad quaerendam medelam, sed ad movendas quaestionum pugnas ad dominum concurrunt; unde dicitur et convenerunt ad eum Pharisaei, et quidam de Scribis venientes ab Ierosolymis; et cum vidissent quosdam ex discipulis eius communibus manibus, idest non lotis, manducare panes, vituperaverunt. Bede, in Marc., 2, 29: The people of the land of Gennesareth, who seemed to be unlearned men, not only come themselves, but also bring their sick to the Lord, that they may but succeed in touching the hem of His garment. But the Pharisees and Scribes, who ought to have been the teachers of the people, run together to the Lord, not to seek for healing, but to move captious questions.
Theophylactus: Discipuli namque domini instructi ea quae virtutis tantum sunt operari, non lotis manibus simpliciter comedebant. Pharisaei autem volentes occasionem invenire, hoc acceperunt; et non utique vituperabant eos, ut legis transgressores, sed quia traditiones seniorum transgrediebantur; unde Wherefore it is said, "Then there came together unto Him the Pharisees and certain of the Scribes, coming from Jerusalem; and when they saw some of His disciples eat bread with common, that is, with unwashen hands, they found fault." Theophylact: For the disciples of the Lord, who were taught only the practice of virtue, used to eat in a simple way, without washing their hands; but the Pharisees, wishing to find an occasion of blame against them, took it up; they did not indeed blame them as transgressors of the law, but for transgressing the traditions of the elders.
Sequitur Pharisaei enim, et omnes Iudaei, nisi crebro laverint manus, non manducant, tenentes traditionem seniorum. Wherefore it goes on: "For the Pharisees and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders."
Beda in Marc: Spiritualia enim prophetarum verba carnaliter accipientes, quae illi de cordis et operis castigatione praecipiebant dicentes: lavamini et mundi estote; et: mundamini qui fertis vasa domini, isti de corpore solo lavando servabant. Superstitiosa ergo est hominum traditio, semel lotos ob manducandum panem crebrius lavare, et a foro, nisi baptizentur, non comedere. Sed necessarium est eos qui panem de caelo descendentem participare desiderant, crebro eleemosynis, lacrimis et aliis iustitiae fructibus sua opera purgare. Necessarium etiam est inquinamenta, quae ex temporalibus negotiorum curis quisquam contraxerit, subsequenti bonarum cogitationum, et actuum permundet instantia. Frustra autem Iudaei lavant manus, et a foro baptizantur, quamdiu contemnunt fonte ablui salvatoris: in vanum Baptisma servant vasorum qui corporum suorum et cordium negligunt abluere sordes. Bede: For taking the spiritual words of the Prophets in a carnal sense, they observed, by washing the body alone, commandments which concerned the chastening of the heart and deeds, saying, "Wash [p. 132] you, make you clean;" [Isa 1:16] and again, "Be ye clean that bear the vessels of the Lord." [Isa 52.11] It is therefore a superstitious human tradition, that men who are clean already, should wash oftener because they eat bread, and that they should not eat on leaving the market, without washing. But it is necessary for those who desire to partake of the bread which comes down from heaven, often to cleanse their evil deeds by alms, by tears, and the other fruits of righteousness. It is also necessary for a man to wash thoroughly away the pollutions which he has contracted from the cares of temporal business, by being afterwards intent on good thoughts and works. In vain, however, do the Jews wash their hands, and cleanse themselves after the market, so long as they refuse to be washed in the font of the Saviour; in vain do they observe the washing of their vessels, who neglect to wash away the filthy sins of their bodies and of their hearts.
Sequitur et interrogabant eum Pharisaei et Scribae: quare discipuli tui non ambulant iuxta traditionem seniorum, sed communibus manibus manducant panem? Hieronymus super Matth. It goes on: "Then the Scribes and Pharisees asked Him, Why walk not thy disciples after the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with common hands?"
Hieronymus: Mira Pharisaeorum Scribarumque stultitia. Dei filium arguunt quare traditiones hominum et praecepta non servet. Commune autem hic pro immundo ponitur: populus enim Iudaeorum, partem Dei se esse iactitans, communes cibos vocat quibus omnes utuntur. Jerome, Hier. in Matt., 15: Wonderful is the folly of the Pharisees and Scribes; they accuse the Son of God, because He keeps not the traditions and precepts of men. But "common" is here put for unclean; for the people of the Jews, boasting that they were the portion of God, called those meats common, which all made use of.
Hieronymus: Pharisaeorum autem superfluum latratum furca rationis obtundit, idest Moysi et Isaiae interpretatione, ut nos adversantes haereticos verbo Scripturae vincamus; unde sequitur at ille respondens ait: bene prophetavit Isaias de vobis, hypocritae, sicut scriptum est: populus hic labiis me honorat; cor autem eorum longe est a me. Pseudo-Jerome: He beats back the vain words of the Pharisees with His arguments, as men drive back dogs with weapons, by interpreting Moses and Isaiah, that we too by the word of Scripture may conquer the heretics, who oppose us. Wherefore it goes on: "Well hath Esaia prophesied of you hypocrites; as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me." [Isa 29:13]
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quia enim non de legis transgressione, sed seniorum, discipulos accusabant, iniuriose ipsos confundit, hypocritas vocans, quasi commendantes cum reverentia quadam id quod non conveniebat. Superaddit autem Isaiae prophetae verbum, quasi de eis dictum; ac si diceret: sicut hi de quibus dicitur, quod Deum labiis honorant, cor autem eorum ab eo longe est, in vanum pietatem custodire se dicunt, doctrinas hominum honorantes; ita et vos qui derelinquitis id quod interius curabile est, et iustitiam colentes accusatis. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: For since they unjustly accused the disciples not of trangressing the law, but the commands of the elders, He sharply confounds them, calling them hypocrites, as looking with reverence upon what was not worthy of it. He adds, however, the words of Isaiah the prophet, as spoken to them; as though He would say, As those men, of whom it is said, "that they honour God with their lips, whilst their heart is far from Him," in vain pretend to observe the dictates of piety, whilst they honour the doctrines of men, so ye also neglect your soul, of which you [p. 133] should take care, and blame those who live justly.
Hieronymus: Traditio autem pharisaica in mensis et vasis abscindenda est et radenda: saepe enim traditionibus hominum mandata Dei cedunt; unde sequitur derelinquentes mandata Dei, tenetis traditiones hominum, Baptismata urceorum. Pseudo-Jerome: But Pharisaical tradition, as to tables and vessels, is to be cut off, and cast away. For they often make the commands of God yield to the traditions of men. Wherefore it continues, "For laying aside the commandments of God, ye hold to the traditions of men, as the washing of pots and cups."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Ut autem eos arguat tamquam Dei reverentiam non servantes, propter traditionem a senioribus factam, divinis Scripturis oppositam, subiungit Moyses enim dixit: honora patrem et matrem tuam; et: qui maledixerit patri vel matri, morte moriatur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Moreover, to convict them of neglecting the reverence due to God, for the sake of the tradition of the elders, which was opposed to the Holy Scriptures, He subjoins, "For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death."
Beda: Honor in Scripturis non tantum in salutatione et officiis deferendis, quantum in eleemosyna ac munerum collatione sentitur: honora, inquit apostolus, viduas quae vere viduae sunt. Bede: The sense of the word honour in Scripture is not so much the saluting and paying court to men, as alms-giving, and bestowing gifts; "honour," says the Apostle, "widows who are widows indeed." [1 Tim 5:3]
Chrysostomus: Tali autem existente divina lege, ac talibus ministris transgredientibus illatis, vos de levi divinum transgredimini praeceptum, observantes seniorum traditiones; unde sequitur vos autem dicitis: si dixerit homo patri aut matri: corban, quod est donum, quodcumque ex me tibi proderit; supple: liber erit ab observatione praemissi mandati; unde sequitur et ultra non dimittitis eum quicquam facere patri suo aut matri. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Notwithstanding the existence of such a divine law, and the threats against such as break it, ye lightly transgress the commandment of God, observing the traditions of the Elders. Wherefore there follows: "But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;" understand, he will be freed from the observation of the foregoing command. Wherefore it continues, "And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother."
Theophylactus: Volentes enim Pharisaei quae offerebantur comedere, instruebant filios, quod cum peculia aliqua habebant, et parentes haec peterent, responderent illis; corban, hoc est donum, quod a me petis, iam obtuli domino; et ita haec non exquirerent, quasi domino oblata, idest ad salutem parentum proficua: et sic decipiebant filios, ut parentes non honorarent, et ipsi oblata devorarent. Hoc ergo dominus exprobrat eis, quia propter lucrum legem divinam transgrediebantur; unde sequitur rescindentes verbum Dei per traditionem vestram quam tradidistis. Et multa similia huiusmodi facitis, scilicet transgredientes praecepta Dei, ut observetis hominum traditiones. Theophylact: For the Pharisees, wishing to devour the offerings, instructed sons, when their parents asked for some of their property, to answer them, what thou hast asked of me is corban, that is, a gift, I have already offered it up to the Lord; thus the parents would not require it, as being offered up to the Lord, (and in that way profitable for their own salvation). [ed. note: the words in the parenthesis are not in Theophylact] Thus they deceived the sons into neglecting their parents, whilst they themselves devoured the offerings; with this therefore the Lord reproaches them, as transgressing the law of God for the sake of gain. Wherefore it goes on, "Making the word of God of none effect through your traditions, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye;" transgressing, that is, the commands of God, that ye may observe the traditions of men.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Vel potest dici, quod Pharisaei iuvenes docebant, quod si quis pro iniuria patri aut matri illata munus offerret Deo, erat immunis, quasi Deo dans munera quae patri debentur; et hoc dicentes parentes honorari non permittebant. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else it may be said, that the Pharisees taught young persons, that if a man offered a gift in expiation of the injury done to his [p. 134] father or mother, he was free from sin, as having given to God the gifts which are owed to a parent; and in saying this, they did not allow parents to be honoured.
Beda: Potest autem et hunc breviter habere sensum: munus quod ex me est, tibi proderit. Compellitis, inquit, filios ut dicant parentibus suis: quodcumque donum oblaturus eram Deo, in tuos consumo cibos, tibique prodest, o pater et mater; quasi dicant: non prodest; ut sic illi timentes accipere quod Deo videbant mancipatum, inopem magis vellent vitam ducere, quam edere de consecratis. Bede: The passage may in a few words have this sense, Every gift which I have to make, will go to do you good; for ye compel children, it is meant, to say to their parents, that gift which I was going to offer to God, I expend on feeding you, and does you good, oh father and mother, speaking this ironically. Thus they would be afraid to accept what had been given into the hands of God, and might prefer a life of poverty to living on consecrated property.
Hieronymus: Mystice autem discipulos non lotis manibus manducare, futuram gentium communionem significat. Munditia et Baptisma pharisaicum sterile est: communicatio non lota apostolica extendit palmites suos usque ad mare. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, again, the disciples eating with unwashed hands signifies the future fellowship of the Gentiles with the Apostles. The cleaning and washing of the Pharisees is barren; but the fellowship of the Apostles, though without washing, has stretched out its branches as far as the sea.

Lectio 2
14 καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος πάλιν τὸν ὄχλον ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ἀκούσατέ μου πάντες καὶ σύνετε. 15 οὐδέν ἐστιν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς αὐτὸν ὃ δύναται κοινῶσαι αὐτόν: ἀλλὰ τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενά ἐστιν τὰ κοινοῦντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 16 17 καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς οἶκον ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου, ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ τὴν παραβολήν. 18 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀσύνετοί ἐστε; οὐ νοεῖτε ὅτι πᾶν τὸ ἔξωθεν εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς τὸν ἄνθρωπον οὐ δύναται αὐτὸν κοινῶσαι, 19 ὅτι οὐκ εἰσπορεύεται αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν καρδίαν ἀλλ' εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν, καὶ εἰς τὸν ἀφεδρῶνα ἐκπορεύεται; — καθαρίζων πάντα τὰ βρώματα. 20 ἔλεγεν δὲ ὅτι τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκεῖνο κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον: 21 ἔσωθεν γὰρ ἐκ τῆς καρδίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ διαλογισμοὶ οἱ κακοὶ ἐκπορεύονται, πορνεῖαι, κλοπαί, φόνοι, 22 μοιχεῖαι, πλεονεξίαι, πονηρίαι, δόλος, ἀσέλγεια, ὀφθαλμὸς πονηρός, βλασφημία, ὑπερηφανία, ἀφροσύνη: 23 πάντα ταῦτα τὰ πονηρὰ ἔσωθεν ἐκπορεύεται καὶ κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον.
14. And when he had called all the people unto Him, He said unto them, "Hearken unto Me every one of you, and understand: 15. There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him; but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man. 16. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." 17. And when He was entered into the house from the people, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable. 18. And He saith unto them, "Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him; 19. Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats?" 20. And He said, "That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man. [p. 135] 21. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, 22. Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: 23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man."

Chrysostomus: Iudaeis considerantibus corporalem munditiam legis, et de hac murmurantibus, dominus contrarium vult introducere; unde dicitur et advocans iterum turbam, dicebat illis: audite me omnes, et intelligite. Nihil est extra hominem introiens in eum quod possit eum coinquinare; sed quae de homine procedunt, illa sunt quae coinquinant hominem; idest immundum faciunt. Ea enim quae Christi sunt, intra hominem considerantur; ea vero quae legis sunt, magis cernuntur extra hominem; quibus quasi corporalibus crux Christi finem in brevi dare debebat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The Jews regard and murmur about only the bodily purification of the law; our Lord wishes to bring in the contrary. Wherefore it is said, "And when He had called all the people unto Him, He said unto them, Hearken unto Me every one, and understand: there is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him, but the things which come out of a man, those are they which defile a man;" that is, which make him unclean. The things of Christ have relation to the inner man, but those which are of the law are visible and external, to which, as being bodily, the cross of Christ was shortly to put an end.
Theophylactus: Hoc autem dominus dicit, volens instruere homines, quod observationes escarum, quas lex commemorat, non oportet corporaliter intelligere; et ex hoc intentionem legis eis manifestare incepit. Theophylact: But the intention of the Lord in saying this was to teach men, that the observing of meats, which the law commands, should not be taken in a carnal sense, and from this He began to unfold to them the intent of the law.
Chrysostomus: Subiungit autem si quis habet aures audiendi, audiat. Non enim manifeste aperuerat quae essent illa quae de homine procedebant, et hominem coinquinant, et propter hoc verbum apostoli crediderunt quod aliud profundum praedictus domini sermo innueret; unde sequitur et cum introisset in domum a turba, interrogabant eum discipuli eius parabolam. Parabolam autem immanifestum sermonem vocabant. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Again He subjoins, "If any man have ears to hear, let him hear." For He had not clearly shewn them, what those things are which proceed out of a man, and defile a man; and on account of this saying, the Apostles thought that the foregoing discourse of the Lord implied some other deep thing. Wherefore there follows: "And when He was entered into the house from the people, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable;" they called it parable, because it was not clear.
Theophylactus: Dominus autem prius increpat; unde sequitur et ait illis: sic et vos imprudentes estis? Theophylact: The Lord begins by chiding them, wherefore there follows, "Are ye so without understanding also?"
Beda: Vitiosus enim est auditor qui obscura manifeste, aut manifeste dicta obscure vult intelligere. Bede: For that man is a faulty hearer who considers what is obscure to be a clear speech, or what is clear to be obscurely spoken.
Theophylactus: Deinde dominus manifestat id quod erat occultum, dicens: non intelligitis quia omne extrinsecus introiens in hominem non potest eum coinquinare? Theophylact: Then the Lord shews them what was hidden, saying, "Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot make him common?"
Beda: Iudaei enim se partem Dei iactantes, communes cibos vocant quibus omnes homines utuntur, ut ostrea, lepores, et huiusmodi animalia. Nec etiam idolothytum, inquantum cibus, et Dei creatura est, sed Daemonum invocatio hoc facit immundum. Et causam subdit, dicens quia non intrat in cor eius. Animae locus principalis, iuxta Platonem, in cerebro; sed, iuxta Christum, in corde est. Bede: [p. 136] For the Jews, boasting themselves to be the portion of God, call common those meals which all men use, as shellfish, hares, and animals of that sort. Not even however what is offered to idols is unclean, in as far as it is food and God's creature; it is the invocation of devils which makes it unclean; and He adds the cause of it, saying, "Because it entereth not into his heart." The principal seat of the soul according to Plato is the brain, but according to Christ, it is in the heart.
Glossa: Dicitur ergo in cor eius, idest in mentem, quae est principalis pars animae, ex qua tota hominis vita dependet; unde secundum eam necesse est hominem mundum, vel immundum aestimari; et sic ea quae ad mentem non perveniunt, non possunt homini immunditiam afferre. Cibi ergo quia ad mentem non perveniunt, secundum suam naturam hominem inquinare non possunt; sed inordinatus ciborum usus, qui ex inordinatione provenit mentis, ad hominis immunditiam pertinet. Quod autem cibi ad mentem non perveniant, ostendit per id quod subdit, dicens sed in ventrem vadit, et in secessum exit, purgans omnes escas. Hoc autem dicit, ne intelligatur quod inde ex cibis in corpore maneat. Manet enim quod est necessarium ad corporis nutrimentum et augmentum; egreditur autem quod est superfluum, quasi purgatio quaedam interius remanentis nutrimenti. Augustinus in Lib. 83 quaest. Gloss [ed. note: It is probable that most, if not all the Glosses which cannot be found, are from St. Thomas himself, and this one is especially like his language, as may be seen by referring to Summa, 2, 2, Q148, Art 1, and 1, Q119, Art 1, in both of which places also he quotes the passages in St. Matthew parallel to this part of St. Mark.] It says therefore into his heart, that is, into his mind, which is the principal part of his soul, on which his whole life depends; wherefore it is necessary, that according to the state of his heart a man should be called clean or unclean, and thus whatsoever does not reach the soul, cannot bring pollution to the man. Meats therefore, since they do not reach the soul, cannot in their own nature defile a man; but an inordinate use of meats, which proceeds from a want of order in the mind, makes men unclean. But that meats cannot reach the mind, He shews by that which He adds, saying, "But into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats." This however He says, without referring to what remains from the food in the body, for that which is necessary for the nourishment and growth of the body remains. But that which is superfluous goes out, and thus as it were purges the nourishment, which remains.
Hieronymus: Quaedam enim sic accedunt ut etiam mutent, et mutentur; sicut et ipse cibus amittens speciem suam, in corpus nostrum vertitur, et nos refecti in robur commutamur. Sed et tenuissimus humor, cum in venis, et aliis arteriis cocta fuerit esca et digesta, per occultos meatus, quos Graeci poros vocant, dilabitur, et in secessum vadit. Augustine: For some things are joined to others in such a way as both to change and be changed, just as food, losing its former appearance, is both itself turned into our body, and we too are changed, and our strength is refreshed by it. [ed. note: The last words of this comment are not in St. Augustine, but in Bede, who took them originally from St. Jerome's Commentary on Matthew, from whence most of Bede's remarks on this passage are taken word for word. As the sentence marked Bede is not found in him, it probably belongs to the Gloss, and his name has been transferred from the former sentence.] Further, a most subtle liquid, after the food has been prepared and digested in our veins, and other arteries, by some hidden channels, called from a Greek word, pores, passes through us, and goes into the draught.
Beda: Sic ergo cibi non faciunt homines immundos, sed malitia, quae operatur passiones ab interioribus procedentes; unde sequitur dicebat autem, quoniam quae de homine exeunt, illa coinquinant hominem. Bede: Thus then it is not meat that makes men unclean, but wickedness, which works in us [p. 137] the passions which come from within. Wherefore it goes on: "And He said, That which cometh out of a man, that defileth a man."
Glossa: Cuius rationem significat cum subdit ab intus enim de corde hominis cogitationes malae procedunt. Et sic patet quod malae cogitationes ad mentem pertinent, quae hic cor nominantur; secundum quam homo dicitur bonus vel malus, mundus vel immundus. Gloss.: The meaning of which He points out, when He subjoins, "for from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts." And thus it appears that evil thoughts belong to the mind, which is here called the heart, and according to which a man is called good or bad, clean or unclean.
Beda: Hinc autem arguuntur qui cogitationes a Diabolo immitti putant, non ex propria nasci voluntate. Diabolus incentor, et auditor malarum cogitationum esse potest: auctor esse non potest. Bede: From this passage are condemned those men who suppose that thoughts are put into them by the devil, and do not arise from their own evil will. The devil may excite and help on evil thoughts, he cannot be their author.
Glossa: Ex malis autem cogitationibus ulterius mali actus procedunt; de quibus subditur adulteria, quae in violatione alieni tori consistunt; fornicationes, quae sunt illiciti coitus personarum matrimonio solutarum; homicidia, quibus in personas proximorum nocumentum infertur; furta, quibus res subtrahuntur; avaritiae, inquantum aliqua iniuste retinentur; nequitiae, quae consistunt in proximorum calumniis; dolus, in eorum deceptione; impudicitiae, quantum ad quamlibet corruptionem mentis, vel corporis. Gloss.: From evil thoughts, however, evil actions proceed to greater lengths, concerning which it is added, adulteries, that is, acts which consist in the violation of another man's bed; fornications, which are unlawful connexions between persons, not bound by marriage; murders, by which hurt is inflicted on the person of one's neighbour; thefts, by which his goods are taken from him; covetousness, by which things are unjustly kept; wickedness, which consists in calumniating others; deceit, in overreaching them; lasciviousness, to which belongs any corruption of mind or body.
Theophylactus: Oculus malus, idest odium, et adulatio: nam qui odit, oculum malum et invidum habet ad eum quem odit; et adulator non recto oculo videns quae sunt proximi, ad malum ipsum deducit; blasphemiae, idest iniuriae in Deum; superbia, idest Dei contemptus, dum scilicet quis bonum quod operatur, non Deo, sed suae virtuti ascribit; stultitia, idest iniuria in proximum. Theophylact: An evil eye, that is, hatred and flattery, for he who hates turns an evil and envious eye on him whom he hates, and a flatterer, looking askance at his neighbour's goods, leads him into evil; blasphemies, that is, faults committed against God; pride, that is, contempt of God, when a man ascribes the good, which he does, not to God, but to his own virtue; foolishness, that is, an injury against one's neighbour.
Glossa: Vel stultitia est cum non recte de Deo sentitur: contrariatur enim sapientiae, quae est divinarum rerum cognitio. Sequitur omnia haec mala ab intus procedunt et coinquinant hominem. Hoc enim in culpam homini imputatur quod in sua potestate existit. Talia autem sunt quae procedunt ab interiori voluntate, per quam homo est suorum actuum dominus. Gloss. [ed. note: see Summa 2, 2, Q46, 1, and 1, 2, Q1, 1]: Or, foolishness consists in wrong thoughts concerning God; for it is opposed to wisdom, which is the knowledge of divine things. It goes on: "All these evil things come from within, and defile the man." For whatsoever is in the power of a man, is imputed to him as a fault, because all such things proceed from the interior will, by which man is master of his own actions.

Lectio 3
24 ἐκεῖθεν δὲ ἀναστὰς ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὰ ὅρια τύρου. καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς οἰκίαν οὐδένα ἤθελεν γνῶναι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνήθη λαθεῖν: 25 ἀλλ' εὐθὺς ἀκούσασα γυνὴ περὶ αὐτοῦ, ἧς εἶχεν τὸ θυγάτριον αὐτῆς πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον, ἐλθοῦσα προσέπεσεν πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ: 26 ἡ δὲ γυνὴ ἦν ἑλληνίς, συροφοινίκισσα τῷ γένει: καὶ ἠρώτα αὐτὸν ἵνα τὸ δαιμόνιον ἐκβάλῃ ἐκ τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτῆς. 27 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτῇ, ἄφες πρῶτον χορτασθῆναι τὰ τέκνα, οὐ γάρ ἐστιν καλὸν λαβεῖν τὸν ἄρτον τῶν τέκνων καὶ τοῖς κυναρίοις βαλεῖν. 28 ἡ δὲ ἀπεκρίθη καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, κύριε, καὶ τὰ κυνάρια ὑποκάτω τῆς τραπέζης ἐσθίουσιν ἀπὸ τῶν ψιχίων τῶν παιδίων. 29 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, διὰ τοῦτον τὸν λόγον ὕπαγε, ἐξελήλυθεν ἐκ τῆς θυγατρός σου τὸ δαιμόνιον. 30 καὶ ἀπελθοῦσα εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτῆς εὗρεν τὸ παιδίον βεβλημένον ἐπὶ τὴν κλίνην καὶ τὸ δαιμόνιον ἐξεληλυθός.
24. And from thence He arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into an house, and would have no man know it; but He could not be hid. [p. 138] 25. For a certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of Him, and came and fell at His feet: 26. The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought Him that He would cast forth the devil out of her daughter. 27. But Jesus said unto her, "Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it unto the dogs." 28. And she answered and said unto Him, "Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs." 29. And He said unto her, "For this saying go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter." 30. And when she was come to her house, she found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon the bed.

Theophylactus: Postquam de escis dominus docuerat, videns incredulos esse Iudaeos, fines ingreditur gentium: Iudaeis enim infidelibus existentibus, salus ad gentes convertitur; unde dicitur et inde surgens abiit in fines Tyri et Sidonis. Theophylact: After that the Lord had finished His teaching concerning food, seeing that the Jews were incredulous, He enters into the country of the Gentiles, for the Jews being unfaithful, salvation turns itself to the Gentiles. Wherefore it is said, "And from thence He arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon."
Chrysostomus: Tyrus et Sidon loca Chananaeorum erant. Venit igitur ad eos dominus, non tamquam ad propinquos, sed tamquam ad eos quibus nihil est commune ad patres, quibus promissio facta est: et ideo sic venit, ut adventus suus Tyriis et Sidoniis non appareret; unde sequitur et ingressus domum neminem voluit scire: nondum enim tempus advenerat ut cum gentibus habitaret, et eas ad fidem adduceret: huius enim tempus debitum erat post crucem et resurrectionem. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Tyre and Sidon were places of the Canaanites, therefore the Lord comes to them, not as to His own, but as to men, who had nothing in common with the fathers to whom the promise was made. And therefore He comes in such a way, that His coming should not be known to the Tyrians and Sidonians. Wherefore it continues: "and entered into a house, and would have no man know it." For the time had not come for His dwelling with the Gentiles and bringing them to the faith, for this was not to be, till after His cross and resurrection.
Theophylactus: Vel ideo clam ingreditur, ne occasionem Iudaei sumerent contra eum, tamquam ad immundas gentes transisset. Theophylact: Or else, His reason for coming in secret was that the Jews should not find occasion of blame against Him, as if He had passed over to the unclean Gentiles.
Sequitur et non potuit latere. It goes on: "But He could not be hid."
Augustinus de quaest. Nov. et Vet. Testam: Si autem voluit, et non potuit, infirma voluntas eius esse videtur. Impossibile est autem ut salvatoris voluntas non impleatur, nec potest velle quod scit fieri non debere; idcirco quod factum est, hoc voluisse dicendus est. Advertendum est autem, quod istud in finibus gestum est gentilium, quibus adhuc tempus praedicandi non erat; ultro tamen venientes ad fidem non suscipere invidiae erat. Sic ergo factum est ut salvator a discipulis proditus non esset, ab aliis tamen qui ingredientem domum viderant, proditus est, et incepit sciri quod esset in domo. A suis ergo noluit praedicari; requiri autem se voluit; et ita factum est. Pseudo-Augustine, Quaest e Vet. et N. Test. 77: But if He wished to do so and could not, it appears [p. 139] as if His will was impotent; it is not possible however that our Saviour's will should not be fulfilled, nor can He will a thing, which He knows ought not be. Therefore when a thing has taken place, it may be asserted that He has willed it. But we should observe that this happened amongst the Gentiles, to whom it was not time to preach; nevertheless not to receive them, when they came to the faith of their own accord, would have been to grudge them the faith. So then it came to pass that the Lord was not made known by His disciples; others, however, who had seen Him entering the house, recognized Him, and it began to be known that He was there. His will therefore was that He should not be proclaimed by His own disciples, but that others should come to seek Him, and so it took place.
Beda: Ingressus etiam domum praecepit discipulis ne se cuiquam in regione ignota quis esset aperirent, ut exemplo eius discerent, quibus sanandi infirmos gratiam conferret, in exhibitione miraculorum humani favoris gloriam quantum possent declinare, nec tamen a pio virtutis opere cessare, quando hoc fieri vel fides bonorum iuste mereretur, vel infidelitas pravorum necessario cogeret. Ipse enim suum illo introitum gentili feminae, et quibuscumque voluit publicavit. Bede, in Marc., 2, 30: Having entered also into the house, He commanded His disciples not to betray who He was to anyone in this unknown region, that they, on whom He had bestowed the grace of healing, might learn by His example, as far as they could, to shrink from the glory of human praise in the shewing forth of their miracles; yet they were not to cease from the pious work of virtue, when either the faith of the good justly deserved that miracles should be done, or the unfaithfulness of the wicked might necessarily compel them. For He Himself made known His entry into that place to the Gentile woman, and to whomsoever He would.
Augustinus: Denique mulier Chananaea audiens de illo intravit ad eum; quae nisi prius subiecisset se Deo, Iudaeorum beneficium consecuta non esset; de qua sequitur mulier enim statim ut audivit de eo, cuius filia habebat spiritum immundum, intravit, et procidit ad pedes eius. Pseudo-Aug.: Lastly, the Canaanitish woman came in to Him, on hearing of Him; if she had not first submitted herself to the God of the Jews, she would not have obtained their benefit. Concerning her it continues: "For a woman, whose daughter had an unclean spirit, as soon as she had heard of Him, came in and fell at His feet."
Chrysostomus: Per hoc autem voluit dominus discipulis ostendere quod etiam gentibus aperuit ostium salutis; unde et mulieris genus describitur cum subditur erat enim mulier gentilis Syrophoenissa genere, idest de Syria Phoenicis. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Now by this the Lord wished to shew His disciples that He opened the door of faith even to the Gentiles, wherefore also the nation of the woman is described when it is added, "The woman was a Gentile, a Syrophenician by nation," that is, from Syria and Phaenice.
Sequitur et rogabat eum ut Daemonium eiceret de filia eius. It goes on: "and she besought Him that He would cast forth the devil out of her daughter."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Videtur autem afferre aliquam repugnantiae quaestionem, quia dicit in domo fuisse dominum, cum ad illum venit mulier pro filia sua rogans. Sed quoniam Matthaeus dicit discipulos domino ita suggessisse: dimitte illam, quoniam clamat post nos, nihil aliud videtur significare quam post ambulantem dominum mulierem illam deprecatorias voces emisisse. Quomodo ergo in domo, nisi quia intelligendum est dixisse quidem Marcum, quod intraverit ubi erat Iesus, cum eum praedixisset fuisse in domo? Sed quia Matthaeus ait: non respondit ei verbum, dedit agnoscere in eo silentio egressum fuisse Iesum de domo illa; atque ita cetera contexuntur quae iam in nullo discordant. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 49: It appears however that some question about a discrepancy may be raised, because it is said that the Lord was in the house when the woman came, asking about her daughter. When, however, Matthew says that His disciples had suggested to Him, [p. 140] "Send her away, for she crieth after us," [Matt 15:23] He appears to imply nothing less than that the woman uttered supplicating cries after the Lord, as He walked. How then do we infer that she was in the house, except by gathering it from Mark, who says that she came in to Jesus, after having before said that He was in the house? But Matthew in that he says, "He answered her not a word," gave us to understand that He went out, during that silence, from the house; thus too the other events are connected together, so that they now in no way disagree.
Sequitur qui dixit illi: sine prius saturari filios. It continues: "But He said unto her, Let the children be first filled."
Beda: Quasi dicat: futurum est ut etiam vos, qui de gentibus estis, salutem consequamini; sed prius oportet Iudaeos, qui merito antiquae dilectionis, filiorum Dei solent nomine censeri, pane caelesti refici; et sic tandem gentibus vitae pabula ministrari. Bede: The time will come when even you who are Gentiles will obtain salvation; but it is right that first the Jews who deservedly are wont to be called by the name of children of God's ancient election, should be refreshed with heavenly bread, and that so at length, the food of life should be ministered to the Gentiles.
Sequitur non est bonum sumere panem filiorum et mittere canibus. There follows: "For it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to the dogs."
Chrysostomus: Hoc autem verbum dixit: non quod in eo sit defectus virtutis ad benefaciendum omnibus, sed quia beneficium eius distributum Iudaeis et gentibus, communionem inter se non habentibus, provocationem magis operaretur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: These words He uttered not that there is in Him a deficiency of virtue, to prevent His ministering to all, but because His benefit, if ministered to both Jews and Gentiles who had no communication with each other, might be a cause of jealousy.
Theophylactus: Canes vocat gentiles, tamquam a Iudaeis sceleratos reputatos; panem vero dicit beneficium, quod filiis, idest Iudaeis, dominus promisit. Est ergo sensus, quod non decet gentiles beneficii primo esse participes, quod Iudaeis principaliter promissum est. Ideo autem dominus non statim exaudit, sed gratiam differt, ut etiam ostendat mulieris fidem constantem, et ut discamus non statim deficere cum oramus, sed ut insistamus donec recipiamus. Theophylact: He calls the Gentiles dogs, as being thought wicked by the Jews; and He means by bread, the benefit which the Lord promised to the children, that is, to the Jews. The sense therefore is, that it is not right for the Gentiles first to be partakers of the benefit, promised principally to the Jews. The reason, therefore, why the Lord does not immediately hear, but delays His grace, is, that He may also shew that the faith of the woman was firm, and that we may learn not at once to grow weary in prayer, but to continue earnest till we obtain.
Chrysostomus: Similiter etiam ut Iudaeis ostenderet, quod non aequaliter eis dabat, et alienigenis sanitatem, et ut patefacta mulieris fide, magis patefieret infidelitas Iudaeorum. Mulier enim non graviter tulit, sed vocem domini cum multa reverentia confirmavit; unde sequitur at illa respondit, et dixit ei: utique, domine: nam et catelli comedunt sub mensa de micis puerorum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: In like manner also to shew the Jews that He did not confer healing on foreigners in the same degree as to them, and that by the discovery of the woman's faith, the unfaithfulness of the Jews might be the more laid bare. For the woman did not take it ill, but with much reverence assented to what the Lord had said. Wherefore it goes on, "And she answered and said unto Him, Truth, Lord, but the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs."
Theophylactus: Quasi dicat: Iudaei panem totum habent, scilicet descendentem de caelo, et tua etiam beneficia; ego micas postulo, scilicet modicam beneficii partem. Theophylact: As if she had said, The Jews have the whole of that bread which comes down from heaven, [p. 141] and Thy benefits also; I ask for the crumbs, that is, a small portion of the benefit.
Chrysostomus: Quod ergo in ordine canum se reputat, reverentiae est; quasi dicat: pro gratia habeo etiam in numero canum esse, et non ab aliena, sed a propria mensa comedere dominantis. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Her placing herself therefore in the rank of dogs is a mark of her reverence; as if she said, I hold it as a favour to be even in the position of a dog, and to eat not from another table, but from that of the Master himself.
Theophylactus: Quia ergo mulier sapientissime respondebat, obtinuit quod optabat; unde sequitur et ait illi, et cetera. Non dixit: virtus mea te salvam fecit; sed propter hunc sermonem, idest propter fidem tuam, quae hoc de sermone demonstratur, vade; exiit Daemonium a filia tua. Theophylact: Because therefore the woman answered with much wisdom, she obtained what she wanted; wherefore there follows, "And He said unto her, &c." He said not, My virtue hath made thee whole, but for this saying, that is, for thy faith, which is shewn by this saying, "go thy way, the devil is gone out of thy daughter."
Sequitur et cum abiisset in domum suam invenit puellam iacentem supra lectum, et Daemonium exiisse. It goes on: "And when she was come into her house, she found her daughter laid upon the bed, and the devil gone out."
Beda: Propter humilem enim matris, fidelemque sermonem filiam deseruit Daemonium: ubi datur exemplum catechizandi et baptizandi infantes: quia videlicet per fidem et confessionem parentum in Baptismo liberantur a Diabolo parvuli, qui necdum per se sapere, vel aliquid agere boni possunt vel mali. Bede: On account then of the humble and faithful saying of her mother, the devil left the daughter; here is given a precedent for catechising and baptizing infants, seeing that by the faith and the confession of the parents, infants are freed in baptism from the devil, though they can neither have knowledge in themselves, or do either good or evil.
Hieronymus: Mystice autem mulier gentilis quae pro filia rogat, est mater nostra Romana Ecclesia. Nata eius daemoniaca barbarica est Occidentalis natio; cuius fides fecit de cane ovem. Micas autem spiritualis intellectus, non panem infractum litterae sumere cupit. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically however the Gentile woman, who prays for her daughter, is our mother the Church of Rome. Her daughter afflicted with a devil, is the barbarian western race, which by faith hath been turned from a dog into a sheep. She desires to take the crumbs of spiritual understanding, not the unbroken bread of the letter.
Theophylactus: Unusquisque etiam nostrum cum peccat, mulier est anima eius. Infirmam vero filiam habet haec anima actus pravos; quae filia Daemonium habet: nam actus pravi Daemonum sunt. Peccatores autem existentes, nuncupantur catuli impleti immunditiis. Propter quod non sumus digni panem Dei recipere, aut participes fieri immaculatorum mysteriorum Dei. Si vero cognoscentes nosmetipsos per humilitatem esse catulos, confiteamur peccata nostra, tunc sanabitur filia, scilicet operatio prava. Theophylact: The soul of each of us also, when he falls into sin, becomes a woman; and this soul has a daughter who is sick, that is, evil actions; this daughter again has a devil, for evil actions arise from devils. Again, sinners are called dogs, being filled with uncleanness. For which reason we are not worthy to receive the bread of God, or to be made partakers of the immaculate mysteries of God; if however in humility, knowing ourselves to be dogs, we confess our sins, then the daughter, that is, our evil life, shall be healed.

Lectio 4
31 καὶ πάλιν ἐξελθὼν ἐκ τῶν ὁρίων τύρου ἦλθεν διὰ σιδῶνος εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς γαλιλαίας ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ὁρίων δεκαπόλεως. 32 καὶ φέρουσιν αὐτῷ κωφὸν καὶ μογιλάλον, καὶ παρακαλοῦσιν αὐτὸν ἵνα ἐπιθῇ αὐτῷ τὴν χεῖρα. 33 καὶ ἀπολαβόμενος αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου κατ' ἰδίαν ἔβαλεν τοὺς δακτύλους αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰ ὦτα αὐτοῦ καὶ πτύσας ἥψατο τῆς γλώσσης αὐτοῦ, 34 καὶ ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἐστέναξεν, καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, εφφαθα, ὅ ἐστιν, διανοίχθητι. 35 καὶ [εὐθέως] ἠνοίγησαν αὐτοῦ αἱ ἀκοαί, καὶ ἐλύθη ὁ δεσμὸς τῆς γλώσσης αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐλάλει ὀρθῶς. 36 καὶ διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν: ὅσον δὲ αὐτοῖς διεστέλλετο, αὐτοὶ μᾶλλον περισσότερον ἐκήρυσσον. 37 καὶ ὑπερπερισσῶς ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες, καλῶς πάντα πεποίηκεν: καὶ τοὺς κωφοὺς ποιεῖ ἀκούειν καὶ [τοὺς] ἀλάλους λαλεῖν.
31. And again, departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, He came unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis. 32. And they bring unto Him one that was deaf, [p. 142] and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put His hand upon him. 33. And He took him aside from the multitude, and put His fingers into his ears, and He spit, and touched His tongue; 34. And looking up to heaven, He sighed, and saith unto him, "Ephphatha," that is, "Be opened." 35. And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain. 36. And He charged them that they should tell no man: but the more He charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it; 37. And were beyond measure astonished, saying, "He hath done all things well: he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak."

Theophylactus: In gentilium locis moram dominus facere non volebat, ne occasionem Iudaeis daret ut transgressorem legis eum aestimarent, quod se gentibus admiscebat; et ideo confestim revertitur; unde dicitur et iterum exiens de finibus Tyri, venit per Sidonem ad mare Galilaeae inter medios fines Decapoleos. Theophylact: The Lord did not wish to stay in the parts of the Gentiles, lest He should give the Jews occasion to say, that they esteemed Him a transgressor of the law, because He held communion with the Gentiles, and therefore He immediately returns. Wherefore it is said, "And again departing from the coasts of Tyre, He came through Sidon, to the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the borders of Decapolis."
Beda: Decapolis est regio decem urbium trans Iordanem ad orientem contra Galilaeam. Quod ergo dicitur quod dominus venit ad mare Galilaeae inter medios fines Decapoleos, non ipsos fines Decapolis intrasse significat, neque enim mare navigasse dicitur; sed potius ad mare usque venisse atque ad ipsum pervenisse locum qui medios fines Decapolis longe trans mare positos respiciebat. Bede, in Marc., 2, 31: Decapolis is a region of ten cities, across the Jordan, to the east, over against Galilee [ed. note: It appears, however, from Reland, Pales. v.1, p198, that a portion of Decapolis, including its metropolis, Scythopolis, was on this side Jordan, and therefore this text of St. Mark may be taken literally.] When therefore it is said that the Lord came to the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the borders of Decapolis, it does not mean that He entered the confines of Decapolis themselves; for He is not said to have crossed the sea, but rather to have come to the borders of the sea, and to have reached quite up to the place, which was opposite to the midst of the coasts of Decapolis, which were situated at a distance across the sea.
Sequitur et adducunt ei surdum et mutum, et deprecabantur eum ut imponat illi manum. It goes on, "And they bring Him one that was deaf and dumb, and they besought Him to lay hands upon him."
Theophylactus: Quod recte post daemoniaci liberationem ponitur: ex Daemonio enim talis passio erat. Theophylact: Which is rightly placed after the deliverance of one possessed with a [p. 143] devil, for such an instance of suffering came from the devil.
Sequitur et apprehendens eum de turba seorsum, misit digitos suos in auriculam eius. There follows, "And He took him aside from the multitude, and put His fingers into his ears."
Chrysostomus: Seorsum a turba oblatum surdum et mutum apprehendit, ut divina miracula non faceret manifeste, instruens nos vanam gloriam eicere, et tumorem: nihil enim est ex quo aliquis sic miracula operetur, sicut si humilitatem colat, et modestiam sequatur. Misit vero digitos in auriculam, potens verbo sanare, ut ostenderet quod divina virtute ditatum erat corpus divinitati unitum, et operatio eius. Quia enim propter transgressionem Adae, natura humana multam incurrerat passionem, ac membrorum, et sensuum laesionem, veniens Christus in seipso perfectionem demonstravit humanae naturae; et propter hoc digitis aures aperuit, et sputo loquelam dedit; unde sequitur et expuens tetigit linguam eius. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He takes the deaf and dumb man who was brought to Him apart from the crowd, that He might not do His divine miracles openly; teaching us to cast away vain glory and swelling of heart, for no one can work miracles as he can, who loves humility and is lowly in his conduct. But He puts His fingers into his ears, when He might have cured him with a word, to shew that His body, being united to Deity, was consecrated by Divine virtue, with all that He did. For since on account of the transgression of Adam, human nature had incurred much suffering and hurt in its members and senses, Christ coming into the world shewed the perfection of human nature in Himself, and on this account opened ears, with His fingers, and gave the power of speech by His spittle. Wherefore it goes on, "And spit, and touched his tongue."
Theophylactus: Ut scilicet ostenderet quod omnia membra sacri corporis eius divina existunt et sancta; sicut et sputum, quod vinculum linguae dissolvit. Etenim omne sputum superfluitas est; sed in domino omnia divina fuerunt. Theophylact: That He might shew that all the members of His sacred body are divine and holy, even the spittle which loosed the string of the tongue. For the spittle is only the superflous moisture of the body, but in the Lord, all things are divine.
Sequitur et suspiciens in caelum ingemuit, et ait: ephphetha, quod est adaperire. It goes on, "And looking up to heaven, He groaned, and saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened."
Beda: Suspexit quidem in caelum, ut inde mutis loquelam, inde auditum surdis, inde cunctis infirmantibus medelam doceret esse quaerendam. Ingemuit autem, non quia ipsi opus esset cum gemitu aliquid petere a patre, qui cuncta petentibus donat cum patre; sed ut nobis gemendi daret exempla, cum vel pro nostri, vel pro nostrorum erratibus proximorum supernae pietatis praesidia invocamus. Bede: He looked up to heaven, that He might teach us that thence is to be procured speech for the dumb, hearing for the deaf, health for all who are sick. And He sighed, not that it was necessary for Him to be any thing from His Father with groaning, for He, together with the Father, gives all things to them who ask, but that He might give us an example of sighing, when for our own errors and those of our neighbours, we invoke the guardianship of the Divine mercy.
Chrysostomus: Simul etiam ingemuit, nostram causam suscipiens in seipso, et naturae misertus humanae, videns miseriam in quam humanum genus inciderat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He at the same time also groaned, as taking our cause upon Himself and pitying human nature, seeing the misery into which it had fallen.
Beda: Quod ait ephphetha, idest adaperire, ad aures proprie pertinet: aures enim ad audiendum aperiendae, lingua vero, ut loqui posset, a retinaculis erat suae tarditatis solvenda; unde sequitur et statim apertae sunt aures eius, et solutum est vinculum linguae eius, et loquebatur recte: ubi utraque natura unius et eiusdem Christi manifeste distincta est. Suspiciens quidem in caelum, quasi homo Deum deprecatus ingemuit; sed mox uno sermone quasi potens divina maiestate curavit. Bede: But that which He says, "Ephphatha, that is, Be opened," belong properly to the ears, for the ears are to be opened for hearing, but the tongue to be loosed from the bonds of its impediment, that is may be able to speak. Wherefore it goes on, "And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain." Where each nature of one and the same Christ [p. 144] is manifestly distinct, looking up indeed into Heaven as man, praying unto God, He groaned, but presently with one word, as being strong in the Divine Majesty, He healed.
Sequitur et praecepit illis ne cui dicerent. It goes on, "And He charged them that they should tell no man."
Hieronymus: Per quod non in virtutibus gloriandum esse docuit; sed in cruce et humiliatione. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: By which He has taught us not to boast in our powers, but in the cross and humiliation.
Chrysostomus: Praecepit etiam miraculum occultare, ne ante tempus accenderet Iudaeos ad homicidium per invidiam perpetrandum. He also bade them conceal the miracle, lest He should excite the Jews by envy to kill Him before the time.
Hieronymus: Civitas autem in monte posita, undique circumspecta abscondi non potest, et humilitas semper praecedit gloriam; unde sequitur quanto autem eis praecipiebat, tanto magis plus praedicabant. Pseudo-Jerome: A city, however, placed on a hill cannot be hid, and lowliness always comes before glory. Wherefore it goes on, "but the more He charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it."
Theophylactus: Docemur autem ex hoc cum alicui beneficia elargimur, minime applausus, et laudes petere; cum vero accepimus beneficia, benefactores praedicare et laudare, quamvis nolint. Theophylact: By this we are taught, when we confer benefits on any, by no means to seek for applause and praise; but when we have received benefits, to proclaim and praise our benefactors, even though they be unwilling.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Si autem sciebat eos (sicut ille qui notas habebat et praesentes et futuras hominum voluntates) tanto magis praedicaturos, quanto magis ne praedicarent eis praecipiebat; ut quid hoc praecipiebat, nisi pigris volebat ostendere quanto gaudiosius, quanto ferventius eum praedicare debeant, quibus iubet ut praedicent, quando illi qui prohibebantur, tacere non poterant? Augustine: If however He, as one Who knew the present and the future wills of men, knew that they would proclaim Him the more in proportion as He forbade them, why did He give them this command? If it were not that He wished to prove to men who are idle, how much more joyfully, with how much greater obedience, they whom He commands to proclaim Him should preach, when they who were forbidden could not hold their peace.
Glossa: Ex praedicatione autem salvatorum a Christo, crescebat admiratio turbarum, et confessio beneficiorum Christi; unde Gloss.: From the preaching however of those who were healed by Christ, the wonder of the multitude, and their praise of the benefits of Christ, increased.
Sequitur et eo amplius admirabantur dicentes: bene omnia fecit; hoc scilicet, surdos fecit audire, et mutos loqui. Wherefore it goes on, "And they were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well; he maketh the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak."
Hieronymus: Mystice autem Tyrus interpretatur angustia, et significat Iudaeam, cui dominus dicit: coangustatum est stratum, a qua transfert se ad gentes alias. Sidon venatio interpretatur. Fera autem indomita nostra natio est, et mare, quod fluctuosa volubilitas est. Inter medios autem fines Decapoleos, quod interpretatur Decalogi mandata, salvator ad salvandas gentes venit. Genus autem humanum per multa membra, quasi unus homo varia peste absumptus, enumeratur in protoplasto: caecatur dum male videt, surdus fit cum audit, obmutescit cum loquitur. Deprecantur autem eum, ut imponat illi manum, quia incarnatum fore dominum multi iusti et patriarchae cupiebant et optabant. Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, Tyre is interpreted, narrowness, and signifies Judaea, to which the Lord said, "For the bed is grown too narrow," [Isa 28:20] and from which He turns Himself to the Gentiles. Sidon means, hunting, for our race is like an untamed beast, and "sea", which means a wavering inconstancy. Again, the Saviour comes to save the Gentiles in the midst of the coasts of Decapolis, which may be interpreted, as the commands of the Decalogue. Further, the human race throughout its many members is reckoned as one man, eaten up by varying pestilence, in the first created man; it is blinded, that is, its eye is evil; it becomes deaf, when it listens to, and dumb when it speaks, evil. And they prayed Him to lay His hand upon him, because many just men, and [p. 145] patriarchs, wished and longed for the time when the Lord should come in the flesh.
Beda: Vel surdus et mutus est qui nec aures audiendi verba Dei habet, nec os aperit pro loquendis; quales necesse est ut hi qui loqui iam, et audire divina eloquia didicerunt, domino sanandos offerant. Bede: Or he is deaf and dumb, who neither has ears to hear the words of God, nor opens his mouth to speak them, and such must be presented to the Lord for healing, by men who have already learned to hear and speak the divine oracles.
Hieronymus: Seorsum autem semper a turbulentis cogitationibus, et actibus inordinatis, sermonibusque incompositis educitur qui sanari meretur. Digiti autem, qui in aures mittuntur, verba, vel dona spiritus sunt, de quo dicitur: digitus Dei est hic. Sputum autem divina sapientia est, quae solvit vinculum labiorum humani generis, ut dicat: credo in Deum patrem omnipotentem, et reliqua. Suspiciens autem in caelum ingemuit, idest gemere nos docuit, et in caelum thesauros nostri cordis erigere: quia per gemitum compunctionis intimae frivola laetitia carnis purgatur. Apertae sunt autem aures ad hymnos et cantica et Psalmos. Solvit linguam, ut eructet verbum bonum, quod non possunt nec verbera cohibere. Pseudo-Jerome: Further, he who obtains healing is always drawn aside from turbulent thoughts, disorderly actions, and incoherent speeches. And the fingers which are put into the ears are the words and the gifts of the Holy Ghost, of whom it is said, "This is the finger of God." [Ex 8:19; Luke 11:20] The spittle is heavenly wisdom, which loosens the sealed lips of the human race, so that it can say, I believe in God, the Father Almighty, and the rest of the Creed. "And looking up to heaven, he groaned," that is, He taught us to groan, and to raise up the treasures of our hearts to the heavens; because by the groaning of hearty compunction, the silly joy of the flesh is purged away. But the ears are opened to hymns, and songs, and psalms; and He looses the tongue, that it may pour forth the good word, which neither threats nor stripes can restrain.

Caput 8Gospel of Mark, Chapter 8[p. 146]
Lectio 1
1 ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις πάλιν πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος καὶ μὴ ἐχόντων τί φάγωσιν, προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς λέγει αὐτοῖς, 2 σπλαγχνίζομαι ἐπὶ τὸν ὄχλον ὅτι ἤδη ἡμέραι τρεῖς προσμένουσίν μοι καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν: 3 καὶ ἐὰν ἀπολύσω αὐτοὺς νήστεις εἰς οἶκον αὐτῶν, ἐκλυθήσονται ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ: καί τινες αὐτῶν ἀπὸ μακρόθεν ἥκασιν. 4 καὶ ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι πόθεν τούτους δυνήσεταί τις ὧδε χορτάσαι ἄρτων ἐπ' ἐρημίας; 5 καὶ ἠρώτα αὐτούς, πόσους ἔχετε ἄρτους; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, ἑπτά. 6 καὶ παραγγέλλει τῷ ὄχλῳ ἀναπεσεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς: καὶ λαβὼν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἄρτους εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα παρατιθῶσιν καὶ παρέθηκαν τῷ ὄχλῳ. 7 καὶ εἶχον ἰχθύδια ὀλίγα: καὶ εὐλογήσας αὐτὰ εἶπεν καὶ ταῦτα παρατιθέναι. 8 καὶ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν, καὶ ἦραν περισσεύματα κλασμάτων ἑπτὰ σπυρίδας. 9 ἦσαν δὲ ὡς τετρακισχίλιοι. καὶ ἀπέλυσεν αὐτούς.
1. In those days the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called His disciples unto Him, and saith unto them, 2. "I have compassion on the multitude, because they have now been with Me three days, and have nothing to eat: 3. And if I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by the way: for divers of them came from far." 4. And His disciples answered Him, "From whence can a man satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness." 5. And He asked them, "How many loaves have ye?" And they said, "Seven." 6. And He commanded the people to sit down on the ground: and He took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to His disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people. 7. And they had a few small fishes: and He blessed, and commanded to set them also before them. 8. So they did eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets. 9. And they that had eaten were about four thousand: and He sent them away.

Theophylactus: Postquam dominus superius miraculum de multiplicatione panum perpetrasset, nunc iterum occasione habita congruenti, adducit simile miraculum operari; unde dicitur in diebus illis iterum cum turba esset cum Iesu, nec haberent quod manducarent, convocatis discipulis ait illis: misereor super turbam, quia ecce iam triduo sustinent me, nec habent quod manducent. Non enim semper circa alimenta miracula faciebat, ne propter cibum ipsum sequerentur. Et nunc igitur hoc miraculum non fecisset, nisi quia videbat turbis periculum imminere: unde Theophylact: After the Lord had performed the former miracle concerning the multiplication of the loaves, now again, a fitting occasion presents itself, and He takes the opportunity of working a similar miracle. Wherefore it is said, [p. 147] "In those days, the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called His disciples unto Him, and saith unto them, I have compassion on the multitude, because they have now been with Me three days, and have nothing to eat." For He did not always work miracles concerning the feeding of the multitude, lest they should follow Him for the sake of food; now therefore He would not have performed this miracle, if He had not seen that the multitude was in danger.
Sequitur et si dimisero eos ieiunos in domum suam, deficient in via: quidam enim ex eis de longe venerunt. Wherefore it goes on: "And if I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by the way: for divers of them came from far."
Beda: Quare triduo sustinent de longe venientes? Matthaeus plenius dicit sic: et ascendens in montem sedebat; et accesserunt ad eum turbae multae, habentes multos infirmos, et proiecerunt eos ad pedes eius, et curavit eos. Bede, in Marc., 2, 32: Why they who came from afar hold out for three days, Matthew says more fully: "And He went up into a mountain, and sat down there, and great multitudes came unto Him, having with them many sick persons, and cast them down at Jesus' feet, and He healed them." [Matt. 15:29-30]
Theophylactus: Discipuli adhuc non intelligebant, nec virtuti eius propter priora miracula credebant; unde sequitur et responderunt ei discipuli sui: unde istos quis poterit hic saturare panibus in solitudine? Ipse autem dominus non eos vituperat, ex hoc instruens nos quod non debemus ignorantibus et non intelligentibus graviter irasci, sed eorum ignorantiae compati; unde aequitur et interrogavit eos: quot panes habetis? Qui dixerunt: septem. Theophylact: The disciples did not yet understand, nor did they believe in His virtue, notwithstanding former miracles; wherefore it continues, "And His disciples said unto Him, From whence can a man satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness?" But the Lord Himself does not blame them, teaching us that we should not be grievously angry with ignorant men and those who do not understand, but bear with their ignorance. After this it continues, "And He asked them, How many loaves have ye? and they answered, Seven.
Remigius super Matth: Non ideo interrogavit, quia ignoraret quot haberent; sed ut dum illi respondent septem, quo pauciores essent, eo magis miraculum diffamaretur, et notius fieret. Remig.: Ignorance was not His reason for asking them, but that from their answering, "seven," the miracle might be noised abroad, and become more known in proportion to the smallness of the number.
Sequitur et praecepit turbae discumbere super terram. In superiori refectione supra foenum discubuisse dicuntur, hic vero super terram. It goes on: "And He commanded the people to sit down on the ground." In the former feeding they lay down on grass, in this one on the ground.
Sequitur et accipiens septem panes, gratias agens fregit. In eo quod gratias egit, nobis reliquit exemplum ut de omnibus donis nobis caelitus collatis illi gratias referamus. Et notandum, quia dominus panes non dedit turbae, sed discipulis, discipuli autem dederunt turbis; sequitur enim et dedit discipulis suis ut apponerent; et apposuerunt turbae. Non solum panes, sed et pisciculos benedicens iussit apponi; sequitur enim et habebant pisciculos paucos, et ipsos benedixit, et iussit apponi. Et manducaverunt, et saturati sunt. It continues, "And He took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake." In giving thanks, He has left us an example, that for all gifts conferred on us from heaven we should return thanks to Him. And it is to be remarked, that our Lord did not give the bread to the people, but to His disciples, and the disciples to the people. For it goes on, "and gave to His disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people." And not only the bread, but the fish also He blessed, and ordered to be set before them. For there comes after, "And they had a few small fishes: [p. 148] and He blessed, and commanded to set them also before them."
Beda: In hac ergo lectione consideranda est in uno eodemque redemptore nostro distincta operatio divinitatis et humanitatis, atque Eutychetis error, qui unam tantum in Christo operationem dogmatizare praesumit, procul a Christianis finibus expellendus. Quis enim non videat hoc, quod super turbam miseretur dominus, affectum esse, et compassionem humanae fragilitatis? Quod autem septem panibus et pisciculis paucis quatuor millia hominum satiavit, divinae opus est virtutis. Bede: In this passage then we should notice, in one and the same, our Redeemer, a distinct operation of Divinity and of Manhood; thus the error of Eutyches [ed. note: i.e. the Monothelites], who presumes to lay down the doctrine of one only operation in Christ, is to be cast out far from the Christian pale. For who does not here see that the pity of our Lord for the multitude is the feeling and sympathy of humanity; and that at the same time His satisfying four thousand men with seven loaves and a few fishes, is a work of Divine virtue?
Sequitur et sustulerunt quod superaverat de fragmentis septem sportas. It goes on, "And they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets."
Theophylactus: Turbae comedentes et saturatae non secum tollunt panum reliquias, sed ipsas discipuli sustulerunt, sicut et superius cophinos: in quo secundum historiam discimus quoniam oportet nos his quae sufficiunt esse contentos, et non quaerere ultra. Deinde numerus manducantium describitur cum dicitur erant autem qui manducaverant quasi quatuor millia: et dimisit eos. Ubi considerandum est, quod Christus neminem ieiunum dimittit: omnes enim vult sua gratia enutriri. Theophylact: The multitudes who ate and were filled did not take with them the remains of the loaves, but the disciples took them up, and they did before the baskets. In which we learn according to the narration, that we should be content with what is sufficient, and not look for any thing beyond. The number of those who ate is put down, when it is said, "And they that had eaten were about four thousand: and He sent them away;" where we may see that Christ sends no one away fasting, for He wishes all to be nourished by His grace.
Beda: Hoc vero typice inter hanc refectionem et illam quinque panum, ac duorum piscium distat, quod ibi littera veteris testamenti spirituali gratia plena significata est; hic autem veritas, et gratia novi testamenti fidelibus ministranda monstrata est. Turba autem triduo dominum sustinet propter sanationem infirmorum, ut Matthaeus narrat, cum electi in fide sanctae Trinitatis pro peccatis perseveranti instantia supplicant. Vel quia ad dominum se opere, locutione, atque cogitatione convertunt. Bede: The typical difference between this feeding and the other of the five loaves and two fishes, is, that there the letter of the Old Testament, full of spiritual grace, is signified, but here the truth and grace of the New Testament, which is to be ministered to all the faithful, is pointed out. Now the multitude remains three days, waiting for the Lord to heal their sick, as Matthew relates, when the elect, in the faith of the Holy Trinity, supplicate for sins, with persevering earnestness; or because they turn themselves to the Lord in deed, in word, and in thought.
Theophylactus: Vel per eos qui per triduum expectant, significat baptizatos. Baptismus enim illuminatio dicitur, et trina submersione perficitur. Theophylact: Or by those who wait for three days, He means the baptized; for baptism is called illumination, and is performed by true immersion.
Gregorius Moralium: Non vult autem eos ieiunos dimittere, ne deficiant in via: oportet enim quod in praedicatione verbum consolationis accipiant, ne a veritatis pabulo ieiuni remanentes in huius vitae labore succumbant. Greg., Mor. 1, 19: He does not however wish to dismiss them fasting, lest they should faint by the way; for it is necessary that men should find in what is preached the word of consolation, lest hungering through want of the food of truth, they sink under the toil of this life.
Ambrosius super Lucam: Bonus quidem dominus studia exigit, vires ministrat, non vult ieiunos dimittere, ne deficiant in via; hoc est vel in istius cursu vitae, vel antequam ad caput vitae perveniant, scilicet ad patrem, et intelligant quod ex patre Christus est: ne forte cum acceperint, quod natus ex virgine est, incipiant non Dei virtutem, sed hominis aestimare. Dividit ergo escas dominus Iesus, et ille quidem vult dare omnibus, negat nemini, dispensator est omnium; sed cum ille panes frangat, ut det discipulis, si tu manus tuas non extendas ut accipias tibi escas, deficies in via, nec poteris in eum culpam referre qui miseretur, et dividit. Ambrose, in Luc., 6, 73: The good Lord indeed whilst He requires diligence, gives strength; nor will He dismiss them fasting, "lest they faint by the way," that is, either in the course of this life, or before they have reached the fountainhead [p. 149] of life, that is, the Father, and have learnt that Christ is of the Father, lest haply, after receiving that He is born of a virgin, they begin to esteem His virtue not that of God, but of a man. Therefore the Lord Jesus divides the food, and His will indeed is to give to all, to deny none; He is the Dispenser of all things, but if thou refusest to stretch forth thy hand to receive the food, thou wilt faint by the way; nor canst thou find fault with Him, who pities and divides.
Beda Qui vero post carnis flagitia, post furta, violentias et homicidia ad poenitentiam redeunt, ad dominum de longinquo veniunt. Quanto enim quisque plus in pravo opere erravit, tanto ab omnipotente Deo longius recessit; et credentes de gentibus de longe venerunt ad Christum; Iudaei vero de prope, qui legis et prophetarum erant litteris edocti ex illo. Supra autem in refectione quinque panum turbae super faenum viride discumbebant, hic autem super terram: quia per Scripturam legis desideria carnis comprimere iubemur; in novo autem testamento ipsam quoque terram, ac facultates temporales relinquere praecipimur. Bede: But they who return to repentance after the crimes of the flesh, after thefts, violence, and murders, come to the Lord from afar; for in proportion as a man has wandered farther in evil working, so he has wandered farther from Almighty God. The believers amongst the Gentiles came from afar to Christ, but the Jews from near, for they had been taught concerning Him by the letter of the law and the prophets. In the former case, however, of the feeding with five loaves, the multitude lay upon the green grass: here, however, upon the ground, because by the writing of the law, we are ordered to keep under the desires of the flesh, but in the New Testament we are ordered to leave even the earth itself and our temporal goods.
Theophylactus: Septem autem panes sunt spirituales sermones: nam septenarius numerus spiritus sancti significativus est, qui perficit omnia: in septenario enim numero dierum nostra vita perficitur. Theophylact: Further, the seven loaves are spiritual discourses, for seven is the number, which points out the Holy Ghost, who perfects all things; for our life is perfected in the number of seven days. [ed. note: The number seven seems to be taken in the Fathers to mean a whole, from the world having been completed in seven days; and St. Ambrose lays it down as a principle of interpretation, in Luc. 7, 95. Theophylact here alludes to the seven ages of man's life; a very similar passage is found in St. Ambrose's 44th Letter, where the whole subject is discussed.]
Hieronymus: Vel septem panes dona sunt spiritus sancti, fragmenta panum mystici intellectus sunt huius septimanae. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, the seven loaves are the gifts of the Holy Spirit, the fragments of the loaves are the mystical understanding of the first week.
Beda: Quod enim dominus panes fregit, apertionem significat sacramentorum; quod gratias egit, ostendit quantum de salute humani generis congaudeat; quod panes discipulis dedit ut turbae apponerent, significat quia spiritualis dona scientiae tribuit apostolis, et per eorum ministerium voluit Ecclesiae suae vitae, cibaria distribui. Bede: For our Lord's breaking the bread means the opening of mysteries; His giving of thanks shews how great a joy He feels in the salvation of the human race; His giving the loaves to His disciples that they might set them before the people, signifies that He assigns the spiritual gifts of knowledge to the Apostles, and that it was His will that by their ministry the food of life should be distributed to the Church.
Hieronymus: Pisciculi benedicti, libri sunt novi testamenti: quoniam piscis assi partem dominus resurgens postulat: vel in pisciculis sanctos accipimus, quorum Scriptura novi testamenti fidem, vitam et passiones continet: qui e turbulentis huius saeculi fluctibus erepti, refectionem nobis internam exemplo suo praebuerunt. Pseudo-Jerome: The small fishes blessed are the books of the New Testament, for our Lord when risen asks for a piece of broiled fish. Or else, in these [p. 150] little fishes, we receive the saints, seeing that in the Scriptures of the New Testament are contained the faith, life, and sufferings of them who, snatched away from the troubled waves of this world, have given us by their example spiritual refreshment.
Beda: Quod autem turbis saturatis supererat, apostoli tollunt: quia altiora perfectionis praecepta, quae turba nequit attingere, ad illos pertinent qui generalem populi Dei conversationem transcendunt; et tamen turba saturata esse memoratur: quia etsi sua relinquere nequeant, neque explere, quod de virginibus dicitur; tamen audiendo mandata legis Dei ad vitam perveniunt aeternam. Bede: Again, what was over and above, after the multitude was refreshed, the Apostles take up, because the higher precepts of perfection, to which the multitude cannot attain, belong to those whose life transcends that of the generality of the people of God; nevertheless, the multitude is said to have been satisfied, because though they cannot leave all that they possess, nor come up to that which is spoken of virgins, yet by listening to the commands of the law of God, they attain to everlasting life.
Hieronymus: Septem autem sportae, septem Ecclesiae. Quatuor millia, annus est novi testamenti, cum quatuor temporibus. Bene etiam quatuor millia sunt, ut in ipso numero docerent evangelicis se pastos esse cibariis. Pseudo-Jerome: Again, the seven baskets are the seven Churches. By the four thousand is meant the year of the new dispensation, with its four seasons. Fitly also are there four thousand, that in the number itself it might be taught us that they were filled with the food of the Gospel.
Theophylactus: Vel quatuor millia sunt, idest quatuor virtutibus perfecti; et propter hoc veluti fortiores plura comedentes, pauciora reliquerunt. In isto enim miraculo septem sportae remanent; in miraculo autem quinque panum duodecim cophini: quia quinque millia erant, idest quinque sensibus servientes, et propter hoc non potuerunt comedere, sed paucis contenti fuerunt; unde multae superabundant reliquiae fragmentorum. Theophylact: Or there are four thousand, that is, men perfect in the four virtues; and for this reason, as being more advanced, they ate more, and left fewer fragments. For in this miracle, seven baskets full remain, but in the miracle of the five loaves, twelve, for there were five thousand men, which means men enslaved to the five senses, and for this reason they could not eat, but were satisfied with little, and many remains of the fragments were over and above.

Lectio 2
10 καὶ εὐθὺς ἐμβὰς εἰς τὸ πλοῖον μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ἦλθεν εἰς τὰ μέρη δαλμανουθά. 11 καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ φαρισαῖοι καὶ ἤρξαντο συζητεῖν αὐτῷ, ζητοῦντες παρ' αὐτοῦ σημεῖον ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, πειράζοντες αὐτόν. 12 καὶ ἀναστενάξας τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ λέγει, τί ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη ζητεῖ σημεῖον; ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ δοθήσεται τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ σημεῖον. 13 καὶ ἀφεὶς αὐτοὺς πάλιν ἐμβὰς ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸ πέραν. 14 καὶ ἐπελάθοντο λαβεῖν ἄρτους, καὶ εἰ μὴ ἕνα ἄρτον οὐκ εἶχον μεθ' ἑαυτῶν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ. 15 καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς λέγων, ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν φαρισαίων καὶ τῆς ζύμης ἡρῴδου. 16 καὶ διελογίζοντο πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχουσιν. 17 καὶ γνοὺς λέγει αὐτοῖς, τί διαλογίζεσθε ὅτι ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχετε; οὔπω νοεῖτε οὐδὲ συνίετε; πεπωρωμένην ἔχετε τὴν καρδίαν ὑμῶν; 18 ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες οὐ βλέπετε καὶ ὦτα ἔχοντες οὐκ ἀκούετε; καὶ οὐ μνημονεύετε, 19 ὅτε τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους ἔκλασα εἰς τοὺς πεντακισχιλίους, πόσους κοφίνους κλασμάτων πλήρεις ἤρατε; λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, δώδεκα. 20 ὅτε τοὺς ἑπτὰ εἰς τοὺς τετρακισχιλίους, πόσων σπυρίδων πληρώματα κλασμάτων ἤρατε; καὶ λέγουσιν [αὐτῷ], ἑπτά. 21 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, οὔπω συνίετε; 22 καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς βηθσαϊδάν. καὶ φέρουσιν αὐτῷ τυφλὸν καὶ παρακαλοῦσιν αὐτὸν ἵνα αὐτοῦ ἅψηται.
10. And straightway He entered into a ship with His disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha. 11. And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with Him, seeking of Him a sign from heaven, tempting Him. 12. And He sighed deeply in His spirit, and saith, "Why doth this generation seek after a sign? Verily, I say unto you, there shall be no sign given unto this generation." 13. And He left them, and entering into the ship again departed to the other side. 14. Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, [p. 151] neither had they in the ship with them more than one loaf. 15. And He charged them, saying, "Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod." 16. And they reasoned among themselves, saying, "It is because we have no bread." 17. And when Jesus knew it, He saith unto them, "Why reason ye, because ye have no bread? perceive ye not yet, neither understand? have ye your heart yet hardened? 18. Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember? 19. When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up?" They say unto Him, "Twelve." 20. "And when the seven among four thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up?" And they said, "Seven." 21. And He said unto them, "How is it that ye do not understand?"

Theophylactus: Postquam dominus operatus est miraculum panum, statim in alium secedit locum, ne propter miraculum, ipsum turbae caperent, ut facerent regem; unde dicitur et statim ascendens navim cum discipulis suis, venit in partes Dalmanutha. Theophylact: After that our Lord had worked the miracle of the loaves, He immediately retires into another spot, lest on account of the miracle, the multitudes should take Him to make Him a king. Wherefore it is said, "And straightway He entered into a ship with His disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: In Matthaeo autem legitur, quod venit in fines Magedam. Non autem dubitandum est eumdem locum esse sub utroque nomine: nam plerique codices non habent, etiam secundum Marcum, nisi Magedam. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 2, 51: Now in Matthew we read that He entered into the parts of Magdala [ed. note: Magedam]. But we cannot doubt that it is the same place under another name; for several manuscripts even of St. Mark have only Magdala.
Sequitur et exierunt Pharisaei, et coeperunt conquirere cum eo, quaerentes ab illo signum de caelo, tentantes eum. It goes on, "And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with Him, seeking of Him a sign from heaven, tempting Him."
Beda: Pharisaei siquidem signum quaerunt de caelo, ut qui multa hominum millia secundo de paucis panibus saturavit, nunc in exemplo Moysi, manna caelitus misso, et per omnia passim disperso, populum omnem in ultimo tempore reficiat: quod in Evangelio Ioannis quaerunt dicentes: quod signum facis, ut videamus et credamus tibi? Patres nostri manducaverunt manna in deserto, sicut scriptum est: panem de caelis dedit manducare. Bede, in Marc., 2, 33: The Pharisees, then, seek a sign from heaven, that He, Who had for the second time fed many thousands of men with a few loaves of bread, should now, after the example of Moses, refresh the whole nation in the last time with manna [p. 152] sent down from heaven, and dispersed amongst them all.
Theophylactus: Vel quaerunt signum de caelo, scilicet ut solem et lunam sisteret, grandinem peteret et aerem immutaret. Credebant enim quod de caelo signa facere non poterat, sed quod in Beelzebub solum poterat facere signum in terra. Theophylact: Or they seek for a sign from heaven, that is, they wish Him to make the sun and moon stand still, to bring down hail, and change the atmosphere; for they thought that He could not perform miracles from heaven, but could only in Beelzebub perform a sign on earth.
Beda: Sicut autem turbam supra credentem refecturus gratias agebat, ita nunc ob stultam Pharisaeorum petitionem gemit: quia humanae naturae circumferens affectus, sicut de hominum salute laetatur, ita super eorum dolet erroribus: unde Bede: When, as related above, He was about to refresh the believing multitude, He gave thanks, so now, on account of the foolish petition of the Pharisees, He groans; because, bearing about with Him the feelings of human nature, as He rejoices over the salvation of men, so He grieves over their errors.
Sequitur et ingemiscens spiritu ait: quid generatio ista signum quaerit? Amen dico vobis, si dabitur generationi isti signum; idest, non dabitur, iuxta illud: semel iuravi in sancto meo, si David mentiar; idest, non mentiar David. Wherefore it goes on, "And He groaned in spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? Verily I say unto you, If a sign shall be given to this generation." That is, no sign shall be given; as it is written in the Psalms, "I have sworn once by my holiness, if I shall fail David," [Ps 80:36] that is, I will not fail David.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Non autem moveat quod Marcus non dicit responsum esse quaerentibus signum de caelo idem quod Matthaeus de Iona; sed ait dominum respondisse: signum non dabitur ei; intelligendum est enim quale petebant, hoc est de caelo. Praetermisit autem dicere de Iona, quod Matthaeus commemoravit. Augustine: Let no one, however, be perplexed that the answer which Mark says was given to them, when they sought a sign from heaven, is not the same as that which Matthew relates, namely, that concerning Jonah. He says that the Lord's answer was, that no sign should be given to it; by which we must understand such an one as they asked for, that is, one from heaven; but he has omitted to say, what Matthew has related.
Theophylactus: Ideo autem eos dominus non exaudit, quia aliud est tempus signorum caelestium, scilicet tempus adventus secundi, cum virtutes caelorum commovebuntur, et luna non dabit lumen suum. Tempore autem primi adventus non fiunt talia, sed omnia mansuetudine plena. Theophylact: Now, the reason why the Lord did not listen to them was, that the time of signs from heaven had not arrived, that is, the time of the second Advent, when the powers of the heaven shall be shaken, and the moon shall not give her light. But in the time of the first Advent, all things are full of mercy, and such things do not take place.
Beda: Non etiam dandum erat caeleste signum generationi tentantium dominum. Ceterum generationi quaerentium dominum signum de caelo ostendit, quando cernentibus apostolis ascendit in caelum. Bede: For a sign from heaven was not to be given to a generation of men, who tempted the Lord; but to a generation of men seeking the Lord, He shews a sign from heaven, when in the sight of the Apostles He ascended into heaven.
Sequitur et dimittens eos, ascendit iterum navim, et abiit trans fretum. It goes on, "And He left them, and entering into a ship again, He departed to the other side."
Theophylactus: Dimittit quidem dominus Pharisaeos quasi incorrectos: nam ubi spes est correctionis, ibi morandum est; ubi vero malum incorrigibile est, inde recedendum. Theophylact: The Lord indeed quits the Pharisees, as men uncorrected; for where there is a hope of correction, there it is right to remain; but where the evil is incorrigible, we should go away.
Sequitur et obliti sunt panes sumere, et nisi unum panem non habebant secum in navi. There follows: "Now they had forgotten to take bread, neither had they in the ship with them more than one loaf."
Beda: Quaerit autem aliquis: quomodo panes non habebant qui statim impletis septem sportis ascenderunt in naviculam? Sed Scriptura testatur, quod obliti sunt eos secum tollere; quod indicium est quam modicam carnis curam haberent in reliquis, quibus ipsa reficiendi corporis necessitas intentione dominici comitatus mente excesserat. Bede: [p. 153] Some may ask, how they had no bread, when they had filled seven baskets just before they embarked in the ship. But Scripture relates that they had forgotten to take them with them, which is a proof how little care they had for the flesh in other things, since in their eagerness to follow the Lord, even the necessity of refreshing their bodies had escaped from their mind.
Theophylactus: Dispensative etiam panes sumere discipuli sunt obliti, ut reprehensi a Christo fierent meliores et ad virtutis Christi notitiam pervenirent; Theophylact: By a special providence also the disciples forgot to take bread, that they might be blamed by Christ, and thus become better, and arrive at a knowledge of Christ's power.
Sequitur enim et praecipiebat eis, dicens: videte, et cavete a fermento Pharisaeorum, et fermento Herodis. For it goes on, "And He charged them, saying, Take heed, and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the leaven of Herod."
Chrysostomus: Matthaeus dicit: a fermento Pharisaeorum et Sadducaeorum; Lucas vero Pharisaeorum solum. Tres ergo Pharisaeos nominant, quasi principales; Matthaeus vero et Marcus sibi secundarios diviserunt. Congrue autem Marcus posuit Herodis, quasi relictis a Matthaeo Herodianis in supplementum narrationis ipsius. Hoc autem dicens, paulatim inducit discipulos ad sensum et fidem. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Matthew says, "of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees;" Luke, however, of the Pharisees only. All three, therefore, name the Pharisees, as being the most important of them, but Matthew and Mark have each mentioned one of the secondary sects; and fitly has Mark added "of Herod," as a supplement to Matthew's narrative, in which they were left out. But in saying this, He by degrees brings the disciples to understanding and faith.
Theophylactus: Fermentum Pharisaeorum et Herodianorum vocat doctrinam eorum, quasi damnosam et corruptivam et malitia veteri plenam. Herodiani enim doctores erant, qui Herodem Christum esse dicebant. Theophylact: He means by leaven their hurtful and corrupt doctrine, full of the old malice, for the Herodians were the teachers, who said that Herod was the Christ.
Beda: Vel fermentum Pharisaeorum est decreta legis divinae traditionibus hominum postponere; legem verbis praedicare, et factis impugnare; dominum tentare, doctrinae eius, aut operibus non credere. Fermentum autem Herodis est adulterium, homicidium, temeritas iurandi, simulatio religionis, et odium in Christum et praecursorem eius. Bede: Or, the leaven of the Pharisees is making the decrees of the divine law inferior to the traditions of men, preaching the law in word, attacking it in deed, tempting the Lord, and disbelieving His doctrine and His works; but the leaven of Herod is adultery, murder, rash swearing, a pretence of religion, hatred to Christ and His forerunner.
Theophylactus: Ipsi autem discipuli de fermento panum dixisse dominum putaverunt; unde sequitur et cogitabant ad alterutrum, dicentes: quia panes non habemus. Hoc autem dicebant, quasi non intelligentes Christi virtutem, quod poterat panes facere ex non ente; unde dominus eos reprehendit: sequitur enim quo cognito Iesus ait illis: quid cogitatis, quia panes non habetis? Theophylact: But the disciples themselves thought that the Lord spoke of the leaven of bread. Wherefore it goes on, "And they reasoned amongst themselves, saying, it is because we have no bread;" and this they said, as not understanding the power of Christ, who could make bread out of nothing; wherefore the Lord reproves them. For there follows: "And when Jesus knew it, He said unto them, Why reason ye because ye have no bread?"
Beda: Per occasionem autem praecepti quod salvator iusserat, dicens cavete a fermento Pharisaeorum et fermento Herodis, docet eos quid significent quinque panes, et septem, de quibus subdit nec recordamini quando quinque panes fregi? et cetera. Si enim fermentum praedictum traditiones perversas significaret, quare cibi quibus nutritus est populus Dei, non veram doctrinam significent? Bede: Taking occasion then from the precept, which He had commanded, saying, "Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the leaven of Herod," our Saviour teaches them what was the meaning of the five and the seven loaves, concerning which He adds, "And do ye not remember, when I brake the five [p. 154] loaves amongst five thousand, and how many baskets full of fragments ye took up?" For if the leaven mentioned above means perverse traditions, of course the food, with which the people of God was nourished, means the true doctrine.

Lectio 3
23 καὶ ἐπιλαβόμενος τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ τυφλοῦ ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτὸν ἔξω τῆς κώμης, καὶ πτύσας εἰς τὰ ὄμματα αὐτοῦ, ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ, ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν, εἴ τι βλέπεις; 24 καὶ ἀναβλέψας ἔλεγεν, βλέπω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ὅτι ὡς δένδρα ὁρῶ περιπατοῦντας. 25 εἶτα πάλιν ἐπέθηκεν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ, καὶ διέβλεψεν, καὶ ἀπεκατέστη, καὶ ἐνέβλεπεν τηλαυγῶς ἅπαντα. 26 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν εἰς οἶκον αὐτοῦ λέγων, μηδὲ εἰς τὴν κώμην εἰσέλθῃς.
22. And He cometh to Bethsaida; and they bring a blind man unto Him, and besought Him to touch him. 23. And He took the blind man by the hand, and led him out of the town; and when He had spit on his eyes, and put His hands upon him, He asked him if he saw ought. 24. And he looked up and said, "I see men as trees, walking." 25. After that He put His hands again upon his eyes, and made him look up: and he was restored, and saw every man clearly. 26. And He sent him away to his house, saying, "Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in the town."

Glossa: Post refectionem turbarum Evangelista de illuminatione caeci subiungit, dicens et veniunt Bethsaidam, et adducunt ei caecum, et rogabant eum ut illum tangeret. Gloss.: After the feeding of the multitude, the Evangelist proceeds to the giving sight to the blind, saying, "And they came to Bethsaida, and they bring a blind man to Him, and besought Him to touch him."
Beda: Scientes quia tactus domini sicut leprosum mundare, ita caecum illuminare valeret. Bede, in Marc., 2, 34: Knowing that the touch of the Lord could give sight to a blind man as well as cleanse a leper.
Sequitur et apprehensa manu caeci eduxit eum extra vicum. It goes on, "And He took the blind man by the hand, and led him out of the town."
Theophylactus: Videtur namque Bethsaida multa infidelitate fuisse infecta: unde dominus exprobrat ei: vae tibi, Bethsaida: quia si in Tyro et Sidone factae essent virtutes quae factae sunt in vobis, olim in Cilicio et cinere poenitentiam egissent. In hac ergo adductum caecum extra vicum educit: non enim erat vera adducentium fides. Theophylact: For Bethsaida appears to have been infected with much infidelity, wherefore the Lord reproaches it, "Woe to thee, Bethsaida, for if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes." [Matt. 11, 21] He then takes out of the town the blind man, who had been brought to Him, for the faith of those who brought him was not true faith.
Sequitur et expuens in oculos eius, impositis manibus suis, interrogavit eum si aliquid videret. It goes on, "And when He had spit in his eyes, and put His hands upon him, He asked him if he saw ought."
Chrysostomus: Spuit quidem, et manus imponit caeco, volens ostendere quod verbum divinum operationi adiunctum mirabiliter proficit. Manus enim operationis est ostensiva, sputum vero sermonis ex ore prolati. Interrogat autem si aliquid videret; quod in aliis sanatis non fecit, significans propter imperfectam adducentium fidem, ac ipsius caeci, oculos eius non esse omnino apertos; unde sequitur et aspiciens ait: video homines velut arbores ambulantes. Quia enim in infidelitate adhuc detinebatur, obscure se videre homines declarabat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He spat indeed, and put His hand [p. 155] upon the blind man, because He wished to shew that wonderful are the effects of the Divine word added to action; for the hand is the symbol of working, but the spittle, of the word proceeding out of the mouth. Again He asked him whether he could see any thing, which He had not done in the case of any whom He had healed, thus shewing that by the weak faith of those who brought him, and of the blind man himself, his eyes could not altogether be opened. Wherefore there follows: "And He looked up, and said, I see men as trees walking;" because he was still under the influence of unfaithfulness, he said that he saw men obscurely.
Beda: Formam quidem corporum inter umbras aspiciens, sed nulla membrorum lineamenta, visu adhuc caligante, discernere valens, quales condensae arbores a longe spectantibus, vel in luce nocturna solent apparere; ita ut non facile arbor, an homo sit, possit dinosci. Bede: Seeing indeed the shapes of bodies amongst the shadows, but unable to distinguish the outlines of the limbs, from the continued darkness of his sight; just as trees standing thick together are wont to appear to men who see them from afar, or by the dim light of the night, so that it cannot easily be known whether they be trees or men.
Theophylactus: Ideo autem non statim eum perfecte facit videre, sed in parte, quia non perfectam fidem habebat: nam secundum fidem datur medela. Theophylact: But the reason why he did not see at once perfectly, but in part, was, that he had not perfect faith; for healing is bestowed in proportion to faith.
Chrysostomus: Deducit autem eum ab initio sensus redditi in fidei apprehensionem; et sic fecit eum perfecte videre; unde sequitur deinde iterum imposuit manus super oculos eius et coepit videre. Et postea subiungit et restitutus est, ita ut clare videret omnia; sensu scilicet, et intellectu perfecte curatus. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: From the commencement, however, of the return of his senses, He leads him to apprehend things by faith, and thus makes him see perfectly; wherefore it goes on, "After that, He put His hands again upon his eyes, and he began to see," and afterwards he adds, "And he was restored, and saw all things clearly," that is, being perfectly healed in his senses and his intellect.
Sequitur misit eum in domum suam, dicens: vade in domum tuam; et si in vicum introieris, nemini dixeris. It goes on, "And He sent him away to his house, saying, Go into thy home, and if thou enter into the town, tell it not to any one."
Theophylactus: Hoc quidem praecepit ei, quia infideles erant, ut dictum est, ne forte ab eis in anima laederetur, et ipsi non credentes gravius crimen incurrant. Theophylact: These precepts He gave him, because they were unfaithful, as has been said, lest perchance he should receive hurt in his soul from them, and they by their unbelief should run into a more grievous crime.
Beda super Lucam: Vel exemplum suis tribuit ne de his quae faciunt mirandis, favorem vulgi requirant.

Mystice autem Bethsaida domus vallis interpretatur, idest mundus, qui est vallis lacrymarum. Adducunt autem ad dominum caecum; idest, qui non videt quid fuit, quid est, et quid erit. Rogant illum, ut eum tangeret. Quis enim est qui tangitur nisi qui compungitur?

Bede: Or else, He leaves an example to His disciples that they should not seek for popular favour by the miracles which they did.

Pseudo-Jerome: Mystically, however, Bethsaida is interpreted, 'the house of the valley', that is, the world, which is the vale of tears. Again, they bring to the Lord a blind man, that is, one who neither sees what he has been, what he is, nor what he is to be. They ask Him to touch him, for what is being touched, but feeling compunction?

Beda: Tangit enim nos dominus cum mentem afflatu sui spiritus illustrat, atque ad agnitionem nos propriae infirmitatis, studiumque bonae actionis accendit. Apprehendit manum caeci, ut eum ad executionem bonae operationis confortaret. Bede: For the Lord touches us, when He [p. 156] enlightens our minds with the breath of His Spirit, and He stirs us up that we may recognise our own infirmity, and be diligent in good actions. He takes the hand of the blind man, that He may strengthen him to the practice of good woks.
Hieronymus: Et eduxit eum extra vicum, idest vicinitatem malorum. Expuit autem in oculos eius, ut videat voluntatem domini per flatum spiritus sancti. Impositis autem manibus interrogat eum si videret: quia per opera domini videtur maiestas eius. Pseudo-Jerome: And He brings him out of the town, that is, out of the neighborhood of the wicked; and He puts spittle into his eyes, that he may see the will of God, by the breath of the Holy Ghost; and putting His hands upon him, He asked him if he could see, because by the works of the Lord His majesty is seen.
Beda: Vel expuens in oculos caeci imponit manus suas ut videat: quia caecitatem humani generis et per invisibilia dona, et per sacramenta assumptae humanitatis extersit. Sputum etiam, quod de capite hominis procedit, gratiam spiritus sancti designat. Sed quem uno verbo totum simul curare poterat, paulatim curat, ut magnitudinem humanae caecitatis ostendat, quae vix et quasi per gradus ad lucem redeat: et gratiam suam nobis indicat, per quam singula perfectionis incrementa adiuvat. Quisquis autem ita longi temporis obscuritate depressus est, ut inter bonum et malum discernere nesciat, quasi ambulantes homines instar arborum cernit, quia facta multitudinis absque luce discretionis videt. Bede: Or else, putting spittle into the eyes of the blind man, He lays His hands upon him that he may see, because He has wiped away the blindness of the human race both by invisible gifts, and by the Sacrament of His assumed humanity; for the spittle, proceeding from the Head, points out the grace of the Holy Ghost. But though by one word He could cure the man wholly and all at once, still He cures him by degrees, that He may shew the greatness of the blindness of man, which can hardly, and only as it were step by step, be restored to light; and He exhibits to us His grace, by which He furthers each step towards perfection. Again, whoever is weighed down by a blindness of such long continuance, that he is unable to distinguish between good and evil, sees as it were men like trees walking, because he sees the deeds of the multitude without the light of discretion.
Hieronymus: Vel videt homines velut arbores, quia omnes homines existimat se superiores. Iterum autem manus posuit super oculos eius, ut videret clare omnia; idest, per opera visibilia intelligeret et quae oculus non vidit, et clarum animae suae statum post rubiginem peccati, mundi cordis oculo contueretur. Misit eum in domum suam, idest in cor suum, ut videret in se quod ante non vidit. Non enim putat homo desperans de salute omnino posse quod illuminatus facile potest perficere. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, he sees men as trees, because he thinks all men higher than himself. But He put His hands again upon his eyes, that he might see all things clearly, that is, understand invisible things by visible, and with the eye of a pure mind contemplate, what the eye hath not seen, the glorious state of his own soul after the rust of sin. He sent him to his home, that is, to his heart; that he might see in himself things which he had not seen before; for a man despairing of salvation does not think that he can do at all what, when enlightened, he can easily accomplish.
Theophylactus: Vel postquam sanavit, mittit in domum: nam domus uniuscuiusque nostrum, caelum est, et mansiones quae sunt in eo. Theophylact: Or else, after He has healed him, He sends him to his home; for the home of every one of us is heaven, and the mansions which are there.
Hieronymus: Dicit autem ei et si in vicum introieris, nemini dixeris; idest, vicinis caecitatem tuam semper enarra, non virtutem. Pseudo-Jerome: And He says to him, "If thou enter into the town, tell it not to any one," that is, relate continually to thy neighbours thy blindness, but never tell them of thy virtue. [p. 157]

Lectio 4
27 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς κώμας καισαρείας τῆς φιλίππου: καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἐπηρώτα τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγων αὐτοῖς, τίνα με λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι; 28 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες [ὅτι] ἰωάννην τὸν βαπτιστήν, καὶ ἄλλοι, ἠλίαν, ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι εἷς τῶν προφητῶν. 29 καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς, ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ πέτρος λέγει αὐτῷ, σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστός. 30 καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν περὶ αὐτοῦ. 31 καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς ὅτι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἀναστῆναι: 32 καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει. καὶ προσλαβόμενος ὁ πέτρος αὐτὸν ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ. 33 ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐπετίμησεν πέτρῳ καὶ λέγει, ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, σατανᾶ, ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.
27. And Jesus went out, and His disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi: and by the way He asked His disciples, saying unto them, "Whom do me say that I am?" 28. And they answered, "John the Baptist: but some say, 'Elias;' and others, 'One of the prophets.' " 29. And He saith unto them, "But whom say ye that I am?" And Peter answereth and saith unto Him, "Thou art the Christ." 30. And He charged them that they should tell no man of Him. 31. And He began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 32. And He spake that saying openly. And Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him. 33. But when He had turned about and looked on His disciples, He rebuked Peter, saying, "Get thee behind Me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men."

Theophylactus: Postquam eduxit longe a Iudaeis discipulos suos, tunc de seipso interrogat, ut non timentes Iudaeos respondeant veritatem; unde dicitur et ingressus est Iesus, et discipuli eius in castellum Caesareae Philippi. Theophylact: After taking His disciples afar from the Jews, He then asks them concerning Himself, that they might speak the truth without fear of the Jews. Wherefore it is said, "And Jesus entered, and His disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi."
Hieronymus super Matth: Philippus iste fuit frater Herodis, de quo supra diximus, qui in honorem Tiberii Caesaris Caesaream Philippi, quae nunc Paneas dicitur, appellavit. Bede, in Marc., 2, 35: Philip was that brother of Herod, of whom we spoke above, who in honour of Tiberius Caesar called that town, which is now called Paneas, Caesarea Philippi.
Sequitur et in via interrogabat discipulos suos, dicens eis: quem me dicunt esse homines? It goes on, "And by the way He asked His disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am?"
Chrysostomus: Sciens quidem interrogat, quia decebat ut discipuli quandoque eum melius laudarent quam turbae. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He asks the question with a purpose, for it was right that His disciples should praise Him better than the crowd.
Beda: Unde primum hominum sententiam interrogat, discipulorum fidem exploraturus, ne illorum confessio vulgi videretur opinione firmata. Bede: Wherefore He first asks what is the opinion of men, in order to try the faith of the disciples, lest their confession should appear to be founded on the common opinion.
Sequitur qui responderunt illi, dicentes: alii Ioannem Baptistam, alii Eliam, alii vero quasi unum de prophetis. It goes on, "And they answered, saying, 'Some [p. 158] say John the Baptist, some Elias, and others, One of the prophets."
Theophylactus: Multi namque putabant quod Ioannes a mortuis resurrexisset, sicut et Herodes credebat, et post resurrectionem suam miracula perpetrasset. Postquam vero ab eis sciscitatus est aliorum suspicionem, ipsos interrogat quid de hoc in eorum mente consistat; unde sequitur tunc dicit illis: vos vero quem me esse dicitis? Theophylact: For many thought that John had risen from the dead, as even Herod believed, and that he had performed miracles after his resurrection. After however having enquired into the opinion of others, He asks them what was the belief of their own minds on this point. Wherefore it continues, "And He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?"
Chrysostomus in Matth: Ex ipso autem interrogationis modo, in maiorem eos reducit sensum ad maius aliquid aestimandum de eo, ne cum turbis conveniant. Quid vero vertex discipulorum, os apostolorum, interrogatis omnibus, responderit, manifestatur cum subditur respondens Petrus ait ei: tu es Christus. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 54: From the manner, however, itself of the question, He leads them to a higher feeling, and to higher thoughts, concerning Him, that they might not agree with the multitude. But the next words shew what the head of the disciples, the mouth of the Apostles, answered; when all were asked, "Peter answereth and saith unto Him, Thou art the Christ."
Theophylactus: Confitetur quidem illum esse Christum a prophetis denuntiatum. Sed quid ad confessionem Petri responderit dominus, et qualiter ipsum beatificavit, Marcus Evangelista pertransit, ne huiusmodi narrando, Petro suo magistro gratiam praestare videretur; Matthaeus autem hoc plane pertractat. Theophylact: He confesses indeed that He is the Christ announced by the Prophets; but the Evangelist Mark passes over what the Lord answered to his confession, and how He blessed him, lest by this way of relating it, he should seem to be favouring his master Peter; Matthew plainly goes through the whole of it.
Origenes super Matth: Vel quia Marcus et Lucas scripserunt Petrum respondentem tu es Christus, non adicientes quod positum est in Matthaeo: filius Dei vivi; propterea non scripserunt ad confessionem relatam beatitudinem. Origen, in Matt. Tom., 12, 15: Or else, Mark and Luke, as they wrote that Peter answered, "Thou art the Christ," without adding what is put down in Matthew, "the Son of the living God," so they omitted to relate the blessing which was conferred on this confession.
Sequitur et comminatus est eis, ne cui dicerent de illo. It goes on, "And He charged them that they should tell no man of Him."
Theophylactus: Volebat enim interim suam gloriam occultare, ne multi scandalizarentur de eo, et poenam mererentur maiorem. Theophylact: For He wished in the meantime to hide His glory, lest many should be offended because of Him, and so earn a worse punishment.
Chrysostomus: Vel ut scandalo crucis completo puram infigat fidem in mente eorum: prius enim passione perfecta, circa ascensionem dixit eis: euntes docete omnes gentes. Chrys.: Or else, that He might wait to fix the pure faith in their minds, till the Crucifixion, which was an offence to them, was over, for after it was once perfected, about the time of His ascension, He said unto the Apostles, "Go ye and teach all nations."
Theophylactus: Postquam autem dominus confessionem discipulorum acceptavit dicentium verum Deum, tunc ipsis revelat crucis mysterium; unde sequitur et coepit docere eos quoniam oportet filium hominis multa pati, et reprobari a senioribus, et a summis sacerdotibus, et Scribis, et occidi, et post tres dies resurgere; et palam verbum loquebatur, scilicet de futura passione. Non autem intelligebant discipuli ordinem veritatis, neque resurrectionem comprehendere poterant; sed putabant esse melius quod non pateretur. Theophylact: But after the Lord had accepted the confession of the disciples, who called Him the true God, He then reveals to them the mystery of the Cross. Wherefore it goes on, "And He began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and of the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again; and He spake that saying openly," that is, concerning His future passion. But His disciples did not understand the order of the truth, neither could they [p. 159] comprehend His resurrection, but thought it better that He should not suffer.
Chrysostomus: Praedixerat tamen hoc eis dominus hac occasione, ut ostenderet quod oportet post crucem et resurrectionem Christum a testibus praedicari. Rursus Petrus existens fervidus, solus de his sumit audaciam disputandi; unde sequitur et apprehendens eum Petrus, coepit increpare eum: domine, propitius esto tibi: nam hoc non erit. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The reason, however, why the Lord told them this, was to shew, that after His cross and resurrection, Christ must be preached by His witnesses. Again, Peter alone, from the fervour of his disposition, had the boldness to dispute about these things. Wherefore it goes on, "And Peter took Him up, and began to rebuke Him."
Beda: Hoc autem amantis affectu et optantis dixit; quasi diceret: hoc non potest fieri, nec recipiunt aures meae ut Dei filius occidendus sit. Bede: This, however, he speaks with the feelings of a man who loves and desires; as if he said, This cannot be, neither can mind ears receive that the Son of God is to be slain.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quid est autem hoc quod Petrus qui revelatione patris potitus erat, sic velociter cecidit et instabilis est effectus? Sed dicimus non esse mirum si hoc ignoravit qui de passione revelationem non accepit. Quod enim Christus filius Dei vivi esset, revelatione didicerat; mysterium vero crucis et resurrectionis nondum ei fuerat revelatum. Ipse vero ostendens quod oporteret eum ad passionem venire, Petrum increpavit; unde sequitur qui conversus, et videns discipulos suos, comminatus est Petro, dicens: vade retro me, Satana. Chrys.: But how is this, that Peter, gifted with a revelation from the Father, has so soon fallen, and become unstable? Surely, however, it was not wonderful that one who had received no revelation concerning the Passion should be ignorant of this. For that He was the Christ, the Son of the living God, he had learnt by revelation; but the mystery of His cross and resurrection had not yet been revealed to him. He Himself, however, shewing that He must come to His Passion, rebuked Peter. Wherefore there follows, "And when He had turned about and looked on His disciples, He rebuked Peter, &c."
Theophylactus: Dominus namque volens ostendere quod propter salutem hominum debebat eius passio fieri, et quod solus Satanas Christum pati nolebat, ut genus non salvaretur humanum, Petrum Satanam nominavit, eo quod saperet quae sunt Satanae, nolens Christum pati, sed adversans eidem; Satanas enim adversarius interpretatur. Theophylact: For the Lord, wishing to shew that His Passion was to take place on account of the salvation of men, and that Satan alone was unwilling that Christ should suffer, and the race of man be saved, called Peter Satan, because he savoured the things that were of Satan, and, from unwillingness that Christ should suffer, became His adversary; for Satan is interpreted 'the adversary.'
Chrysostomus: Daemoni autem ipsum tentanti non ait: vade post me; sed Petro dicit: vade retro me; idest sequere me, et voluntario meae passionis consilio non resistas. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But He saith not to the devil, when tempting Him, "Get thee behind me," but to Peter He saith, "Get thee behind me," that is, follow Me, and resist not the design of My voluntary Passion.
Sequitur quoniam non sapis ea quae Dei sunt, sed quae hominum. There follows, "For thou savourest not the things which be of God, but which be of men." [It follows that "You do not savor the things that be of God, but the things that be of men."]
Theophylactus: Quae hominum sunt dicit Petrum sapere, secundum quod affectiones carnales quodammodo sapiebat: volebat enim Petrus quod sibi Christus praestaret requiem, et non crucifigeretur. Theophylact: He says that Peter savours the things which be of men, in that he in some way savoured carnal affections, for Peter wished that Christ should spare Himself and not be crucified.

Lectio 5
34 καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τὸν ὄχλον σὺν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι. 35 ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι ἀπολέσει αὐτήν: ὃς δ' ἂν ἀπολέσει τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ καὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου σώσει αὐτήν. 36 τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον κερδῆσαι τὸν κόσμον ὅλον καὶ ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ; 37 τί γὰρ δοῖ ἄνθρωπος ἀντάλλαγμα τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ; 38 ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν ἐπαισχυνθῇ με καὶ τοὺς ἐμοὺς λόγους ἐν τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ τῇ μοιχαλίδι καὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ, καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπαισχυνθήσεται αὐτὸν ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων τῶν ἁγίων.
34. And when He had called the people unto Him with His disciples also, He said unto them, "Whosoever will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. [p. 160] 35. For whosoever will save his life shall lost it; but whosoever shall lose his life for My sake and the Gospel's, the same shall save it. 36. For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lost his own soul? 37. Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? 38. Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of Me and of My words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when He cometh in the glory of His Father with the holy angels."

Beda: Postquam discipulis mysterium suae passionis et resurrectionis ostendit, hortatur eos una cum turba ad sequendum suae passionis exemplum; unde sequitur et convocata turba cum discipulis suis, dixit eis: si quis vult me sequi, deneget semetipsum. Bede: After shewing to His disciples the mystery of His passion and resurrection, He exorts them, as well as the multitude, to follow the example of His passion. Wherefore it goes on, "And when He had called the people unto Him with His disciples also, He said unto them, Whosoever wishes to come after Me, let him deny himself."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quasi diceret ad Petrum: tu quidem increpas me passionem sustinere volentem; ego autem dico tibi, quod non solum prohibere me pati nocivum est; sed neque salvari poteris, nisi ipse moriaris. Dicit autem si quis vult me sequi, quasi dicat: ad bona voco, quae quis velle debet; non ad mala et gravia, ut cogaris. Qui enim infert violentiam frequenter impedit; qui vero auditorem in libertatem dimittit, magis attrahit ipsum. Aliquis autem abnegat semetipsum, cum nullam sui corporis curam habet, ut sive flagelletur, sive aliquid simile patiatur, sustineat patienter. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 55: As is He would say to Peter, Thou indeed dost rebuke Me, who am willing to undergo My passion, but I tell thee, that not only is it wrong to prevent Me from suffering, but neither canst thou be saved unless thou thyself diest. Again He says, "Whosoever wishes to come after Me;" as if He said, I call you to those good things which a man should wish for, I do not force you to evil and burdensome things; for he who does violence to his hearer, often stands in his way; but he who leaves him free, rather draws him to himself. And a man denies himself when he cares not for his body, so that whether it be scourged, or whatever of like nature it may suffer, he bears it patiently.
Theophylactus: Nam sicut qui abnegat alterum, videlicet fratrem, aut patrem, quamvis ille vulneretur, et moriatur, non compatitur, neque condolet ei: sic et nos debemus spernere corpus nostrum, ut si vulnerari contingat, vel aliquid simile pati, non curemus. Theophylact: For a man who denies another, be it brother or father, does not sympathize with him, nor grieve at his fate, though he be wounded and die; thus we ought to despise our body, so that if it should be wounded or hurt in any way, we should not mind its suffering.
Chrysostomus: Non autem ait, quod parcat sibi ipsi, sed, quod amplius est, quod abneget semetipsum, quasi nihil commune ad se habeat, sed periculis exponat, et circa ea sic disponatur, ac si alius pateretur; et hoc est sibi ipsi parcere: quia patres tunc liberis suis ignoscunt, cum tradentes eos doctoribus, illis iubent non parci. Usquequo autem oporteat seipsum abnegare, ostendit cum subdit et tollat crucem suam; quasi dicat: usque ad mortem exprobrabilissimam. Chrys.: But He says not, a man should not spare himself, but what is more, that he should deny himself, as if he had nothing in common with himself, but face danger, and look upon such things as if another were suffering; and this is [p. 161] really to spare himself; for parents then most truly act kindly to their children, when they give them up to their masters, with an injunction not to spare them. Again, He shews the degree to which a man should deny himself, when He says, "And take up his cross," by which He means, even to the most shameful death.
Theophylactus: Nam tunc crux exprobrabilis videbatur, quia in ea malefici figebantur. Theophylact: For at that time the cross appeared shameful, because malefactors were fixed to it.
Hieronymus: Vel aliter. Sicut gubernator peritus tempestatem in tranquillitate praecavens, nautas suos vult esse paratos, ita et dominus dicit si quis vult me sequi, deneget semetipsum; id est, alter ex altero fiat. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, as a skilful pilot, foreseeing a storm in a calm, wishes his sailors to be prepared; so also the Lord says, "If any one will follow me, &c."
Beda: Tunc enim nos ipsos abnegamus cum vitamus quod per vetustatem fuimus, et ad hoc nitimur quod per novitatem vocamur. Crux autem tollitur cum aut per abstinentiam afficitur corpus, aut per compassionem proximi affligitur animus. Bede: For we deny ourselves, when we avoid what we were of old, and strive to reach that point, whither we are newly called. And the cross is taken up by us, when either our body is pained by abstinence, or our soul afflicted by fellow-feeling for our neighbour.
Theophylactus: Quia vero post crucem virtutem aliam nos habere oportet, adiecit et sequatur me. Theophylact: But because after the cross we must have a new strength, He adds, "and follow me."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Hoc autem dicit, quia contingit aliquem patientem non sequi Christum, cum scilicet aliquis non patitur propter Christum: Sequitur enim Christum qui post eum ambulat, qui morti eius se conformat, principes etiam et potestates contemnens, sub quibus ante Christi adventum peccabat. Chrys.: And this He says, because it may happen that a man may suffer and yet not follow Christ, that is, when he does not suffer for Christ's sake; for he follows Christ, who walks after Him, and conforms himself to His death, despising those principalities and powers under whose power, before the coming of Christ, he committed sin.
Sequitur qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet eam; qui autem perdiderit animam suam propter me et Evangelium, salvam faciet eam, quasi dicat: haec vobis mando quasi vobis parcens: etenim qui filio suo parcit, perdit eum; qui vero non parcit, salvat. Oportet ergo nos esse ad mortem continue praeparatos. Si enim in materialibus praeliis qui paratus est ad mortem melior est aliis, nullo post mortem eum resuscitare valente, multo magis in spiritualibus praeliis, cum spes tanta resurrectionis existat, quod qui ponit animam suam in mortem, salvam facit eam. Then there follows, "For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for My sake and the Gospel's, the same shall save it." I give you these commands, as it were to spare you; for whosoever spares his son, brings him to destruction, but whosoever does not spare him, saves him. It is therefore right to be always prepared for death; for if in the battles of this world, he who is prepared for death fights better than others, though none can restore him to life after death, much more is this the case in spiritual battle, when so great a hope of resurrection is set before him, since he who gives up his soul unto death saves it.
Remigius: Anima autem hoc loco intelligenda est vita praesens, non autem ipsa substantia animae. Remig.: And life is to be taken in this place for the present life, and not for the substance itself of the soul.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quia ergo dixerat qui voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet eam, ne quis perditionem hanc, et salutem illam aestimet aequalem, subiungit quid enim proderit homini, si lucretur totum mundum, et detrimentum faciat animae suae? Aut quam commutationem dabit homo pro anima sua? Quasi dicat: ne dicas quoniam animam suam salvavit qui crucis effugit pericula: quando enim cum anima sua, idest vita ista, lucratur aliquis orbem terrae, quid amplius erit ei, anima pereunte? Numquid aliam habet animam pro anima dare? Pretium enim pro domo potest aliquis commutare; animam vero perdens, aliam animam dare non potest. Caute autem dicit aut quam commutationem dabit homo? Deus enim propter nostram salutem dedit commutationem pretiosum sanguinem Iesu Christi. Chrys.: And therefore He had said, "For whomsoever will save his life shall lose it," lest any one should suppose this loss to be equivalent to that salvation, He adds, "For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul, &c." As if He said, Think not that he has saved his soul, who has shunned the perils [p. 162] of the cross; for when a man, at the cost of his soul, that is, his life, gains the whole world, what has he besides, now that his soul is perishing? Has he another soul to give for his soul? For a man can give the price of his house in exchange for the house; but in losing his soul, he has not another soul to give. And it is with a purpose that He says, "Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?" for God, in exchange for our salvation, has given the precious blood of Jesus Christ.
Beda: Vel hoc dicit, quia persecutionis tempore ponenda est anima; pacis autem tempore frangenda sunt desideria terrena: quod significat cum dicit quid enim proderit homini? et cetera. Plerumque autem verecundiae usu praepedimur, ut rectitudinem quam servamus in mente, non exprimere valeamus in voce; et ideo subditur qui enim me confessus fuerit, et verba mea in generatione ista adultera et peccatrice, et filius hominis confitebitur eum, cum venerit in gloria patris sui cum Angelis sanctis. Bede, in Marc. 2, 36: Or else He says this, because in time of persecution, our life is to be laid aside, but in time of peace, our earthly desires are to be broken, which He implies when He says, "For what shall it profit a man, &c." But we are often hindered by a habit of shamefacedness, from expressing with our voice the rectitude which we preserve in our hearts; and therefore it is added, "For whosoever shall confess Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, him also shall the Son of man confess, when He cometh in the glory of His Father with the holy angels."
Theophylactus: Non enim est sufficiens fides quae solum in mente consistit, sed oris confessionem dominus requirit: sanctificata enim per fidem anima debet et corpus per confessionem sanctificari. Theophylact: For that faith which only remains in the mind is not sufficient, but the Lord requires also the confession of the mouth; for when the soul is sanctified by faith, the body ought also to be sanctified by confession.
Chrysostomus: Qui autem hoc didicit subiecit se cum desiderio ad hoc quod sine confusione Christum confiteatur. Dicitur autem adultera generatio, quae Deum verum animae sponsum dereliquit, et non est secuta Christi doctrinam; sed Daemonibus prostrata, semina impietatis suscepit, propter quod et peccatrix dicitur. Qui ergo inter hos Christi dominationem negaverit, et verba Dei in Evangelio revelata, dignam impietatis poenam suscipiet, audiens in secundo adventu: non novi vos. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He then who has learned this, is bound zealously to confess Christ without shame. And this generation is called adulterous, because it has left God the true Bridegroom of the soul, and has refused to follow the doctrine of Christ, but has prostrated itself to the devil and taken up the seeds of impiety, for which reason also it is called sinful. Whosoever therefore amongst them has denied the kingdom of Christ, and the words of God revealed in the Gospel, shall receive a reward befitting His impiety, when He hears in the second advent, "I know you not." [Matt 7:23]
Theophylactus: Qui ergo confessus fuerit crucifixum esse suum Deum, et ipse confitebitur illum, non hic ubi Christus reputatur pauper, et miser, sed in gloria et cum multitudine Angelorum. Theophylact: Him then who shall leave confessed that his God was crucified, Christ Himself also shall confess, not here, where He is esteemed poor and wretched, but in His glory and with a multitude of Angels.
Gregorius in Evang: Sunt autem nonnulli qui Christum ideo confitentur, quia cunctos Christianos esse conspiciunt. Non ergo ad probationem fidei vox sufficit, quam defendit a verecundia professio generalitatis. Pacis ergo tempore est aliud, ubi ostendamur vobis. Veremur saepe a proximis despici, dedignamur iniurias verbi tolerare. Si contigerit iurgium fortasse cum proximo, erubescimus priores satisfacere: cor quippe carnale dum huius vitae gloriam quaerit, humilitatem respuit. Greg., Hom. in 32, in Evang.: There are however some, who confess Christ, because they see that all men are Christians; for if the name of Christ were not at this day in such great glory, the Holy Church would not have so many professors. The voice of the profession therefore is not sufficient for a trial of faith [p. 163] whilst the profession of the generality defends it from shame. In the time of peace therefore there is another way, by which we may be known to ourselves. We are ever fearful of being despised by our neighbours, we think it shame to bear injurious words; if perchance we have quarrelled with our neighbour, we blush to be the first to give satisfaction; for our carnal heart, in seeking the glory of this life, disdains humility.
Theophylactus: Quia vero de sua gloria dixerat, volens ostendere quod non inania promittebat, subditur et dicebat illis: amen dico vobis, quia sunt de hic stantibus qui non gustabunt mortem, donec videant regnum Dei veniens in virtute; ac si diceret: quidam, idest Petrus et Iacobus et Ioannes, non gustabunt mortem, donec eis ostendam in transfiguratione cum qua gloria venturus sim in secundo adventu: non enim erat aliud transfiguratio, nisi secundi adventus praenuntiatio, in quo et ipse Christus, et sancti lucebunt. Theophylact: But because He had spoken of His glory, in order to shew that His promises were not vain, He subjoins, "Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here who shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power." As if He said, Some, that is, Peter, James, and John, shall not taste of death, until I shew them, in my transfiguration, with what glory I am to come in my second advent; for the transfiguration was nothing else, but an announcement of the second coming of Christ, in which also Christ Himself and the Saints will shine.
Beda: Pia vero provisione factum est ut, contemplatione semper manentis gaudii ad breve momentum delibata, fortius adversa tolerarent. Bede, in Marc., 3, 36: Truly it was done with a loving foresight, in order that they, having tasted for a brief moment the contemplation of everlasting joy, might with the greater strength bear up under adversity.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Non autem eorum qui ascensuri erant nomina declaravit, ne reliqui discipuli aliquid paterentur humanum; praedicit autem, ut dociliores circa huiusmodi contemplationem fiant. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 56: And He did not declare the names of those who were about to go up, lest the other disciples should feel some touch of human frailty, and He tells it to them beforehand, that they might come with minds better prepared to be taught all that concerned that vision.
Beda: Vel regnum Dei praesens Ecclesia vocatur. Aliqui autem ex discipulis usque adeo in corpore victuri erant ut Ecclesiam constructam conspicerent, et contra mundi gloriam erectam. Discipulis enim rudibus de praesenti vita aliquid promittendum fuit, ut possent robustius in futuro solidari. Bede: Or else the present Church is called the kingdom of God; and some of the disciples were to live in the body until they should see the Church built up, and raised against the glory of the world; for it was right to make some promises concerning this life to the disciples who were uninstructed, that they might be built up with greater strength for the time to come.
Chrysostomus: Mystice autem vita Christus est, mors vero Diabolus. Gustavit autem mortem, qui peccatis immoratur: adhuc omnis homo habens dogmata bona aut prava, mortis aut vitae panem degustat. Et quidem minus malum est videre mortem; malum autem est eam gustare; sed adhuc peius eam sequi; pessimum autem ei supponi. Pseudo-Chrys., Orig. in Matt. tom., 12, 33, 35: But in a mystical sense, Christ is life, and the devil is death, and he tastes of death, who dwells in sin; even now every one, according as he has good or evil doctrines, tastes the bread either of life or of death. And indeed, it is a less evil to see death, a greater to taste of it, still worse to follow it, worst of all to be subject to it.

Caput 9Gospel of Mark, Chapter 9[p. 164]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι εἰσίν τινες ὧδε τῶν ἑστηκότων οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐληλυθυῖαν ἐν δυνάμει. 2 καὶ μετὰ ἡμέρας ἓξ παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν πέτρον καὶ τὸν ἰάκωβον καὶ τὸν ἰωάννην, καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατ' ἰδίαν μόνους. καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν, 3 καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο στίλβοντα λευκὰ λίαν οἷα γναφεὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς οὐ δύναται οὕτως λευκᾶναι. 4 καὶ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς ἠλίας σὺν μωϋσεῖ, καὶ ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ. 5 καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ, ῥαββί, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ μωϋσεῖ μίαν καὶ ἠλίᾳ μίαν. 6 οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει τί ἀποκριθῇ, ἔκφοβοι γὰρ ἐγένοντο. 7 καὶ ἐγένετο νεφέλη ἐπισκιάζουσα αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης, οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἀκούετε αὐτοῦ. 8 καὶ ἐξάπινα περιβλεψάμενοι οὐκέτι οὐδένα εἶδον ἀλλὰ τὸν Ἰησοῦν μόνον μεθ' ἑαυτῶν.
1. And He said unto them, "Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power." 2. And after six days Jesus taketh with Him, Peter and James and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and He was transfigured before them. 3. And His raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them. 4. And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus. 5. And Peter answered and said to Jesus, "Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for Thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias." 6. For he wist not what to say; for they were sore afraid. 7. And there was a cloud that overshadowed them; and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is My beloved Son: hear Him." 8. And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves.

Hieronymus: Post consummationem crucis, gloria resurrectionis ostenditur, ut non timerent opprobria crucis qui oculis suis visuri erant gloriam resurrectionis futurae; unde dicitur et post dies sex assumpsit Iesus Petrum, et Iacobum, et Ioannem, et duxit illos in montem excelsum seorsum solos, et transfiguratus est coram ipsis. Pseudo-Jerome: After the consummation of the cross, the glory of the resurrection is shewn, that they, who were to see with their own eyes the glory of the resurrection to come, might not fear the shame of the cross. Wherefore it is said, "And after six days Jesus taketh with Him, Peter and James and John, and led them up into an high mountain apart by themselves, and He was transfigured before them."
Chrysostomus in Marc. et in Matth: Quod autem Lucas dicit post octo dies, non contrariatur huic: Lucas enim et diem quo Christus praedicta locutus fuerat, et diem in quo eos assumpsit, numeravit. Ideo autem post sex dies eos assumpsit, ut vehementiori repleti desiderio in horum dierum spatio vigilanti et sollicita mente, ea quae videbant attenderent. Chrys., Hom. in Matt. 65: Luke in saying [p. 165], "After eight days," does not contradict this; for he reckoned in both the day on which Christ had spoken what goes before, and the day on which He took them up. And the reason that He took them up after six days, was that they might be filled with a more eager desire during the space of these days, and with a watchful and anxious mind attend to what they saw.
Theophylactus: Assumpsit autem tres vertices apostolorum: Petrum tamquam confitentem et diligentem, Ioannem tamquam dilectum, Iacobum vero tamquam altivocum et theologum. Intantum enim gravis erat Iudaeis ut Herodes volens Iudaeis placere ipsum occiderit. Theophylact: And He takes with Him the three chief of the Apostles, Peter, as confessing and loving Him, John, as the beloved one, James, as being sublime in speech and as a divine; for so displeasing was he to the Jews, that Herod wishing to please the Jews slew him.
Chrysostomus: Non autem in domo suam gloriam demonstrat, sed in montem excelsum illos assumit: quoniam montis sublimitas conveniens erat ad gloriae sublimitatem ostendendam. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: He does not however shew His glory in a house, but He takes them up into a high mountain, for the loftiness of the mountain was adapted to shewing forth the loftiness of His glory.
Theophylactus: Seorsum autem eos ducit, quia debebat eis mysteria revelare. Transfigurationem autem oportet intelligere non figurae immutationem, sed quia, manente ut prius erat figura, appositio facta est cuiusdam inenarrabilis claritatis. Theophylact: And He took them apart, because He was about to reveal mysteries to them. We must also understand by transfiguration not the change of His features, but that, whilst His features remained as before, there was added unto Him a certain ineffable brightness.
Chrysostomus: Neque ergo decet aliquam figurae transformationem in regno Dei esse futuram aut circa ipsum salvatorem, aut circa eos qui assimilabuntur, sed appositionem claritatis. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: It is not therefore fitting that in the kingdom of God any change of feature should take place, either in the Saviour Himself, or in those who are to be made like unto Him, but only an addition of brightness.
Beda: Transfiguratus igitur salvator, non substantiam verae carnis amisit, sed gloriam futurae, vel suae, vel nostrae resurrectionis ostendit: qui qualis tunc apostolis apparuit, talis post iudicium cunctis apparebit electis. Sequitur et vestimenta eius facta sunt splendentia. Bede, 3, 37: Our Saviour then when transfigured did not lose the substance of real flesh, but shewed forth the glory of His own or of our future resurrection; for such as He then appeared to the Apostles, He will after the judgment appear to all His elect. It goes on, "And His raiment became shining."
Gregorius Moralium: Quia in supernae claritatis culmine ei vitae iustitia fulgentes adhaerebunt: vestium enim nomine iustos, quos sibi adiungit insinuat. Greg., Mor. 32: Because, in the height of the brightness of heaven above, they who shine in righteousness of life, will cling to Him; for by the name of garments, He means the just whom He joins to Himself.
Sequitur et apparuit illis Elias cum Moyse, et erant loquentes cum Iesu. There follows, "And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses, and they were talking with Jesus."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Moysen et Eliam in medio introducit: primo quidem quia turbae dicebant Christum Eliam, aut unum prophetarum, apostolis se cum eis ostendit, ut differentiam servorum et domini cernerent; et etiam quia de transgressione legis Iudaei Christum accusabant, et blasphemum eum putabant, tamquam sibi gloriam patris attribuentem, eos qui in utroque fulserunt, in medium ducit: etenim Moyses legem dedit, et Elias gloriae Dei zelator fuit: unde ei non assisterent, si Deo et legi eius contrarius esset. Et ut scirent quod vitae potestatem et mortis habet, propter hoc et Moysen, qui mortuus erat, et Eliam qui nondum mortem passus fuerat, in medium introducit. Item per hoc significavit quod doctrinae legis Christi prophetarum doctrina paedagogus fuit. Significat etiam coniunctionem novi et veteris testamenti, et quoniam in resurrectione cum prophetis apostoli coniungentur, et una erit obviatio regi communi. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 56: He brings Moses and Elias before them; first, indeed, because the multitudes said that Christ was Elias, and one of the Prophets. He shews Himself to the Apostles with them, that they might see the difference between the Lord, and His servants. And again because the Jews accused Christ of transgressing the law, and thought Him a blasphemer, as if He arrogated to Himself the glory of His Father, He brought before them those who shone [p. 166] conspicuous in both ways; for Moses gave the Law, and Elias was zealous for the glory of God; for which reason neither would have stood near Him, if He had been opposed to God and to His law. And that they might know that He holds the power of life and of death, He brings before them both Moses who was dead, and Elias who had not yet suffered death. Furthermore He signified by this that the doctrine of the Prophets was the schoolmaster to the doctrine of Christ. He also signified the junction of the New and Old Testament, and that the Apostles shall be joined in the resurrection with the Prophets, and both together shall go forth to meet their common King.
Sequitur et respondens Petrus ait Iesu: Rabbi, bonum est nos hic esse; et faciamus hic tria tabernacula: tibi unum, Moysi unum, et Eliae unum. It goes on, "And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here; and let us make three tabernacles, one for Thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias."
Beda: Si tantum transfigurata Christi humanitas, duorumque societas sanctorum ad punctum visa delectat, ut eos ne discedant etiam obsequio Petrus sistere velit; quanta erit felicitas visioni deitatis inter Angelorum choros adesse perpetuo? Bede: If the transfigured humanity of Christ and the society of but two saints seen for a moment, could confer delight to such a degree that Peter would, even by serving them, stay their departure, how great a happiness will it be to enjoy the vision of Deity amidst choirs of Angels forever?
Sequitur non enim sciebat quid diceret. Etsi enim Petrus prae stupore humanae fragilitatis nesciat quid dicat; insiti tamen sibi dat affectus indicium: nesciebat enim quid diceret, quia oblitus est regnum sanctis a domino non alicubi terrarum, sed in caelis esse promissum; nec recordatus est se suosque coapostolos mortali adhuc carne circumseptos immortalis vitae statum subire non posse; cui etiam mente excesserat quia in domo patris quae in caelis est, domus manufacta necessaria non sit. Sed et usque nunc imperitiae notatur quisquis legi, prophetis et Evangelio tria tabernacula facere cupit, cum haec ab invicem nullatenus valeant separari. It goes on, "For he wist not what to say;" although, however, Peter from the stupor of human frailty knew not what to say, still he gives a proof of the feelings which were within him; for the cause of his not knowing what to say, was his forgetting that the kingdom was promised to the Saints by the Lord not in any earthly region, but in heaven; he did not remember that he and his fellow Apostles were still hemmed in by mortal flesh and could not bear the state of immortal life, to which his soul had already carried him away, because in our Father's house in heaven, a house made with hands is not needed. But again even up to this time he is pointed at, as an ignorant man, who wishes to make three tabernacles for the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospel, since they in no way can be separated from each other.
Chrysostomus: Non etiam intellexit Petrus quod ad demonstrationem verae gloriae transfigurationem dominus est operatus, neque quod propter doctrinam hominum hoc faciebat; nam plurimi erant relicturi multitudinem, in eremo habitantes. Chrys. [ed. note: This passage is found neither in St. Chrysostom, nor in Possious' Catena, nor in Peitanus' translation of Victor: it is however in the Catena of St. Mark, edited by Dr. Cramer. As it stands in the text, a part of it is so unintelligible, that recourse has been had to the Greek.] Again, Peter neither comprehended that the Lord worked His transfiguration for the shewing forth of His true glory, nor that He did this in order to teach men, nor that it was impossible for them to leave the multitude [p. 167] and dwell in the mountain.
Sequitur erant enim timore exterriti. Erat autem hic timor secundum quem de communi mente in statum elevabantur meliorem: quod enim in exterioribus videbatur, Moyses et Elias erat. Ducebatur autem anima ad quemdam divinum affectum, quasi ex divina visione ab humano sensu abstracta. It goes on, "For they were sore afraid." But this fear of theirs was one by which they were raised from their usual state of mind to one higher, and they recognised that those who appeared to them were Moses and Elias. The soul also was drawn on to a state of heavenly feeling, as though carried away from human sense by the heavenly vision.
Theophylactus: Vel aliter. Petrus timens a monte descendere, quia iam praesenserat quod Christus crucifigi debebat, dixit bonum est nos hic esse; et non illuc descendere, in medium scilicet Iudaeorum. Si autem huc venient furentes contra te, habemus Moysen qui Aegyptios debellavit, habemus et Eliam, qui ignem eduxit de caelo, et quinquagenos destruxit. Theophylact: Or else, Peter, fearing to come down from the mount because he had now a presentiment that Christ must be crucified, said, "It is good for us to be here," and not to go down there, that is, in the midst of the Jews; but if they who are furious against Thee come hither, we have Moses who beat down the Egyptians, we have also Elias, who brought fire down from heaven and destroyed the five hundred.
Origenes super Matth: Marcus autem ex persona sua dicit non enim sciebat quid diceret. Ubi considerandum, ne forte per excessum mentis hoc loquebatur, motus quodam spiritu alieno, ne forte scilicet ille spiritus qui voluit, quantum ad se, Christum scandalizare, ut recederet a passione omnibus hominibus salutari, ipse operans etiam hic seductorie vult evellere Christum sub colore boni, ut non condescendat hominibus, nec veniat ad eos, nec suscipiat mortem pro eis. Origen, in Matt. tom. 12, 40: Mark says in his own person, "For he wist not what to say." Where it is matter for consideration, whether perchance Peter spoke this in the confusion of his mind, by the motion of a spirit not his own; whether perchance that spirit himself who wished, as far as in him lay, to be a stumbling block to Christ, so that He might shrink from that Passion, which was the saving of all men, did not here work as a seducer and wish under the colour of good to prevent Christ from condescending to men, from coming to them, and taking death upon Himself for their sakes.
Beda: Quia vero Petrus materiale quaesivit tabernaculum, nubis accepit umbraculum: ut discat, in resurrectione non tegmine domorum, sed spiritus sancti gloria eos esse protegendos; unde Bede: Now because Peter sought for a material tabernacle, he was covered with the shadow of the cloud, that he might learn that in the resurrection they are to be protected not by the covering of houses, but by the glory of the Holy Ghost.
Sequitur et facta est nubes obumbrans eos. Quia vero imprudenter interrogaverunt, propterea responsionem domini non merentur: sed pater respondet pro filio; unde sequitur et venit vox de nube dicens: hic est filius meus carissimus: ipsum audite. Wherefore it goes on, "There was a cloud that overshadowed them." And the reason why they obtained no answer from the Lord was that they asked unadvisedly; but the Father answered for the Son. Wherefore there follows, "And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
Chrysostomus in Matth: A nube quidem vox emittitur, in qua Deus apparere consuevit, ut crederent quod vox illa ferretur a Deo. In hoc autem quod dicit hic est filius meus carissimus, unam voluntatem patri et filio protestatur, et quod, salva filiatione, quantum ad omnia cum eo qui genuit unum esset. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 56: The voice proceeded from a cloud in which God is wont to appear, that they might believe that the voice was sent forth from God. But in that He says, "This is My beloved Son," He declares that the will of the Father and the Son is one, and that, save in that He is the Son, He is in all things One with Him who begot Him.
Beda: Quem autem Moyses, cum venerit in carne, audiendum ab omni anima quae salvari vellet praedixit, hunc iam venientem in carne, Deus pater audiendum discipulis ostendit. Bede: He then whose preaching, as Moses foretold, every soul that wished to be saved should hear when He came in the [p. 168] flesh, He now come in the flesh is proclaimed by God the Father to the disciples as the one whom they were to hear.
Sequitur et statim circumspicientes, neminem amplius viderunt nisi Iesum tantum secum. Ubi enim coepit filius designari, mox servi discesserunt, ne ad illos paterna vox emissa putaretur. There follows: "And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves;" for as soon as the Son was proclaimed, at once the servants disappeared, lest the voice of the Father should seem to have been sent forth to them.
Theophylactus: Mystice autem post consummationem huius saeculi, quod in sex diebus factum est, assumet nos Iesus, si eius sumus discipuli, in montem excelsum, idest in caelum; et tunc videbimus eius gloriam singularem. Theophylact: Again, mystically; after the end of this world, which was made in six days, Jesus will take us up (if we be His disciples) into an high mountain, that is, into heaven, where we shall see His exceeding glory.
Beda: Vestimenta autem domini recte sancti eius accipiuntur, qui novo candore fulgebunt. Fullo autem intelligendus est cui Psalmista loquitur: amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea, et a delicto meo munda me; qui non potest suis fidelibus dare claritatem in terra, quae eis conservata manet in caelis. Bede: And by the garments of the Lord are meant His saints, who will shine with a new whiteness. By the fuller we must understand Him, to whom the Psalmist says, "Wash me thoroughly from my wickedness, and cleanse me from my sin;" [Ps 51] for He cannot give to His faithful ones upon earth that glory which remains laid up for them in heaven.
Remigius super Matth: Vel per fullonem sancti designantur praedicatores et animarum purgatores; quorum in hac vita nullus ita vivere valet ut alicuius peccati maculis non obfuscetur; in futura autem resurrectione sancti ab omni macula peccati purgabuntur. Tales ergo eos faciet dominus, quales nec ipsi membra sua castigando, nec ullus praedicatorum suo vel exemplo, vel doctrina facere potest. Remig.: Or else, by the fuller are meant holy preachers and purifiers of the soul, none of whom in this life can so live as not to be stained with some spots of sin; but in the coming resurrection all the saints shall be purged from every stain of sin. Therefore the Lord will make them such as neither they themselves by taking vengeance on their own members, nor any preacher by his example and doctrine, can make.
Chrysostomus In Marc: Vel vestimenta alba evangelica sunt et apostolica scripta, omnium clarissima, quibus similia nullus expositorum facere potest. Chrys.: Or else, white garments are the writings of Evangelists and Apostles, the like to which no interpreter can frame.
Origenes super Matth: Vel forsitan fullones super terram possumus moraliter existimare sapientes saeculi huius, qui putantur ornare etiam turpes intellectus, et dogmata falsa fullonicatione ingenii sui; sed illorum ars fullonica potest facere aliquid simile sermoni, qui ostendit spiritualium intellectuum splendorem in dictis Scripturarum imperitis, quae a plurimis contemnuntur. Origen, in Matt. tom. 12, 39: Or else, fullers upon earth may by a moral interpretation be considered to be the wise of this world, who are thought to adorn even their foul understandings and doctrines with a false whitening drawn from their own minds. But their skill as fullers cannot produce any thing like a discourse which shews forth the brightness of spiritual conceptions in the unpolished words of Scripture, which by many are despised.
Beda: Moyses et Elias, quorum unum mortuum et alium in caelis raptum legimus, futuram omnium sanctorum gloriam significant, qui videlicet tempore iudicii vel vivi in carne reperiendi, vel ab olim gustata morte resuscitandi, et pariter sunt regnaturi cum illo. Bede: Moses and Elias, of whom one, as we read, died, the other was carried away to heaven, signify the coming glory of all the Saints, that is, of all who in the judgment time are either to be found alive in the flesh, or to be raised up from that death of which they tasted, and who are all equally to reign with Him.
Theophylactus: Vel hoc significat, quia in gloria videbimus et legem et prophetas cum ipso loquentes; idest, quae per eum fuerunt dicta per Moysen et alios prophetas, tunc videbimus esse consona rebus, et tunc audiemus vocem paternam, revelantem scilicet nobis filium patris, et dicentem, quoniam hic est filius meus, obumbrante nube, idest spiritu sancto qui est sapientiae fons. Theophylact: Or else it means, that we are to see in glory both the Law and the Prophets speaking with Him, that is, we shall then find that all those things which were [p. 169] spoken of Him by Moses and the other prophets agree with the reality; then too we shall hear the voice of the Father, revealing to us the Son of the Father, and saying, "This is My beloved Son," and the cloud, that is, the Holy Ghost, the fount of truth, will overshadow us.
Beda: Et notandum quod sicut, domino in Iordane baptizato, sic et in monte clarificato, totius sanctae Trinitatis mysterium declaratur: quia gloriam eius quam in Baptismo credentes confitemur, in resurrectione videntes collaudabimus. Nec frustra spiritus sanctus hic in lucida nube, illic apparuit in columba: quia qui nunc simplici corde fidem quam percepit servat, tunc luce apertae visionis quod crediderat contemplabitur. Cum autem fieret vox super filium, inventus est ipse solus: quia cum manifestaverit ipsum electis, erit Deus omnia in omnibus; immo cum suis per omnia Christus, caput cum corpore, splendebit. Bede: And we must observe, that, as when the Lord was baptized in Jordan, so on the mountain, covered with brightness, the whole mystery of the Holy Trinity is declared, because we shall see in the resurrection that glory of the Trinity which we believers confess in baptism, and shall praise it all together. Nor is it without reason that the Holy Ghost appeared here in a bright cloud, there in the form of a dove; because he who now with a simple heart keeps the faith which he hath embraced, shall then contemplate what he had believed with the brightness of open vision. But when the voice had been heard over the Son, He was found Himself alone, because when He shall have manifested Himself to His elect, God shall be all in all, yea Christ with His own, as the Head with the body, shall shine through all things. [1 Cor 15:28]

Lectio 2
9 καὶ καταβαινόντων αὐτῶν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ ἃ εἶδον διηγήσωνται, εἰ μὴ ὅταν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ. 10 καὶ τὸν λόγον ἐκράτησαν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς συζητοῦντες τί ἐστιν τὸ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι. 11 καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες, ὅτι λέγουσιν οἱ γραμματεῖς ὅτι ἠλίαν δεῖ ἐλθεῖν πρῶτον; 12 ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτοῖς, ἠλίας μὲν ἐλθὼν πρῶτον ἀποκαθιστάνει πάντα, καὶ πῶς γέγραπται ἐπὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἵνα πολλὰ πάθῃ καὶ ἐξουδενηθῇ; 13 ἀλλὰ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι καὶ ἠλίας ἐλήλυθεν, καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτῷ ὅσα ἤθελον, καθὼς γέγραπται ἐπ' αὐτόν.
9. And as they came down from the mountain, He charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead. 10. And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean. 11. And they asked Him, saying, "Why say the Scribes that Elias must first come?" 12. And He answered and told them, "Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things: and how it is written of the Son of man, that He must suffer many things, and be set at nought. 13. But I say unto you, That Elias is indeed come, and they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him."

Origenes super Matth: Post mysterium ostensum in monte, descendentibus de monte discipulis, praecepit ut eius transfiguratio non manifestetur ante gloriam passionis et resurrectionis ipsius; unde dicitur et descendentibus illis de monte praecepit illis ne cuiquam quae vidissent narrarent, nisi cum filius hominis a mortuis resurrexerit. Origen, in Matt. tom. 12, 43: After the shewing of the mystery on the mount, the Lord commanded His disciples, as they were coming down from [p. 170] the mount, not to reveal His transfiguration, before the glory of His Passion and Resurrection. Wherefore it is said, "And as they came down from the mountain, He charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Ubi non simpliciter silere iubet; sed passionem insinuans, causam insinuat propter quam silere debebunt. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 56: Where He not only orders them to be silent, but mentioning His Passion, He implies the cause why they were to be silent.
Theophylactus: Ne scilicet homines scandalizentur, audientes de Christo tam gloriosa, qui eum crucifixum erant visuri. Non igitur erat congruum talia de Christo dicere antequam pateretur, post resurrectionem vero credibile videbatur. Theophylact: Which He did lest men should be offended, hearing such glorious things of Him Whom they were about to see crucified. It was not therefore fitting to say such things of Christ before He suffered, but after His resurrection they were likely to be believed.
Chrysostomus: Illi vero resurrectionis mysterium ignorantes, verbum quidem retinentes, invicem disputabant; unde Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But they, being ignorant of the mystery of the resurrection, took hold of that saying, and disputed one with another.
Sequitur et verbum continuerunt apud se, conquirentes quid esset, cum a mortuis resurrexerit. Wherefore there follows, "And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean."
Hieronymus: Hoc quod proprie Marci est, id significat quia cum absorpta fuerit mors in victoria, non erunt in memoria priora. Pseudo-Jerome: This, which is peculiar to Mark, means, that when death shall have been swallowed up in victory, we shall have no memory for the former things.
Sequitur et interrogabant eum, dicentes: quid ergo dicunt Pharisaei et Scribae, quia Eliam oportet venire primum? It goes on, "And they asked Him, saying, "Why say the Scribes that Elias must first come?"
Chrysostomus: Intentio quidem discipulorum super hac interrogatione talis mihi esse videtur: nos quidem Eliam tecum vidimus, et prius te vidimus quam Eliam; Scribae vero prius Eliam venire docent: credimus itaque eos mendacium protulisse. Chrys.: The design of the disciples in asking this question seems to me to be this. We indeed have seen Elias with Thee, and have seen Thee before seeing Elias, but the Scribes say that Elias cometh first; we therefore believe that they have lied.
Beda: Vel ita aestimabant discipuli transformationem gloriae hanc esse quam in monte viderant, et dicunt: si iam venisti in gloria, quomodo praecursor tuus apparet? Maxime quia Eliam viderant recessisse. Bede: Or thus; the disciples thought that the change which they had seen in Him in the mount, was His transformation to glory; and they say, If Thou hast already come in glory, wherefore doth not Thy forerunner appear? chiefly because they had seen Elias go away.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quid autem ad hoc Christus responderit, apparet per hoc quod subditur qui respondens ait: Elias cum venerit primo, restituet omnia. In quo ostendit, quod Elias veniet ante secundum adventum. Scripturae enim duos adventus Christi praenuntiant; unum scilicet qui factus est, et alium qui venturus est. Dominus autem secundi adventus Eliam asserit praecursorem. Chrys., Hom. in Matt. 57: But what Christ answered to this, is seen by what follows, "And He answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things;" in which He shews that Elias will come before His second advent. For the Scriptures declare two advents of Christ, namely, one which has taken place, and another which is to come; but the Lord asserts that Elias is the forerunner of the second advent.
Beda: Restituet autem omnia, utique illa quae Malachias ostendit dicens: ecce ego mittam vobis Eliam prophetam, ut convertat cor patrum ad filios, et cor filiorum ad patres eorum. Restituet etiam hoc quod morti debet, ac diu vivendo distulit. Bede: Again, He will restore all things, that is to say, those things which Malachi points out, saying, "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet, and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children [p. 171] to their fathers;" [Mal 4:5-6] he will yield up also to death that debt, which by his prolonged life he has delayed to render.
Theophylactus: Proponit autem haec dominus ad resistendum opinioni Pharisaeorum, qui tenebant quod primi adventus praecursor erat Elias; quasi ad inconveniens ducens; unde subdit et quomodo scriptum est in filium hominis, ut multa patiatur et contemnatur; ac si dicat: Elias Thesbites cum venerit, pacificabit Iudaeos, et ad fidem adducet ipsos, ita ut sit secundi adventus praecursor. Si ergo primi adventus Elias est praecursor, quomodo scriptum est, quod filius hominis debet pati? Ex his ergo duobus unum erit: aut quod non sit primi adventus Elias praecursor, et Scripturae erunt verae; aut quod sit praecursor primi adventus, et Scripturae non erunt verae, quae dicunt, quod oportet Christum pati, cum Elias debeat omnia restituere, et non debeat esse Iudaeus aliquis incredulus; sed omnes credere debeant ad praedicationem eius quicumque audient eum. Theophylact: Now the Lord puts this forward to oppose the notion of the Pharisees, who held that Elias was the forerunner of the first advent, shewing that it led them to a false conclusion; wherefore he subjoins, "And how it is written of the Son of man, that He must suffer many things, and be set at nought." As if He had said, When Elias the Tishbite cometh, he will pacify the Jews, and will bring them to the faith, and thus be the forerunner of the second advent. If then Elias is the forerunner of the first advent, how is it written that the Son of man must suffer? One of these two things therefore will follow; either that Elias is not the forerunner of the first advent, and thus the Scripture will be true; or that he is the forerunner of the first advent, and then the Scripture will not be true, which say that Christ must suffer; for Elias must restore all things, in which case there will not be an unbelieving Jew, but all, whosoever hear him, must believe on his preaching.
Beda: Vel ita: et quomodo scriptum est, idest, quomodo de Christi passione multifarie prophetae multa scripserunt. Sed et Elias cum venerit, multa passurus est, et contemnendus ab impiis. Bede: Or this, "And how it is written;" that is, in the same way as the prophets have written many things in various places concerning the Passion of Christ, Elias also, when he comes, is to suffer many things, and to be despised by the wicked.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Sicut autem dominus secundi adventus Eliam asseruit praecursorem, sic et consequenter asserit Ioannem esse praecursorem primi adventus; unde subdit sed dico vobis, quia et Elias venit. Chrys.: Now as the Lord asserted that Elias was to be the forerunner of the second advent, so consequently He asserted that John was the forerunner of the first. Wherefore He subjoins, "But I say unto you, that Elias is indeed come."
Glossa: Ioannem vocat Eliam, non quia Elias erit in persona, sed quia Eliae ministerium adimplebat: sicut enim ille praecursor erit secundi adventus, sic iste factus est primi. Gloss.: He calls John Elias, not because he was Elias in person, but because he fulfilled the ministry of Elias; for as the latter will be the forerunner of the second advent, so the former has been that of the first.
Theophylactus: Erat etiam Ioannes redargutor, et Zelotes, et eremita ut Elias; non tamen audierunt illum sicut Eliam audient. Nefario vero ludo eum occiderunt, caput illius amputantes; unde sequitur et fecerunt illi quaecumque voluerunt, sicut scriptum est de eo. Theophylact: For again, John rebuked vice, and was a zealous man, and a hermit like Elias; but they heard him not, as they will hear Elias, but killed him in wicked sport, and cut off his head. Wherefore there follows, "And they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him."
Chrysostomus: Vel aliter. Interrogabant discipuli Iesum: quomodo scriptum est pati filium hominis? Ad hoc autem quasi respondens dicit: sicut ad similitudinem Eliae Ioannes venit, et ei mala intulerunt; sic secundum Scripturas oportet filium hominis pati. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else, the disciples asked Jesus, how it was written that the Son of man must suffer? Now in answer to this, He says, As John came in the likeness of Elias, and they evil intreated him, so according to the Scriptures must the Son of man suffer. [p. 172]

Lectio 3
14 καὶ ἐλθόντες πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς εἶδον ὄχλον πολὺν περὶ αὐτοὺς καὶ γραμματεῖς συζητοῦντας πρὸς αὐτούς. 15 καὶ εὐθὺς πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐξεθαμβήθησαν, καὶ προστρέχοντες ἠσπάζοντο αὐτόν. 16 καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτούς, τί συζητεῖτε πρὸς αὐτούς; 17 καὶ ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ εἷς ἐκ τοῦ ὄχλου, διδάσκαλε, ἤνεγκα τὸν υἱόν μου πρὸς σέ, ἔχοντα πνεῦμα ἄλαλον: 18 καὶ ὅπου ἐὰν αὐτὸν καταλάβῃ ῥήσσει αὐτόν, καὶ ἀφρίζει καὶ τρίζει τοὺς ὀδόντας καὶ ξηραίνεται: καὶ εἶπα τοῖς μαθηταῖς σου ἵνα αὐτὸ ἐκβάλωσιν, καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσαν. 19 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτοῖς λέγει, ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστος, ἕως πότε πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἔσομαι; ἕως πότε ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν; φέρετε αὐτὸν πρός με. 20 καὶ ἤνεγκαν αὐτὸν πρὸς αὐτόν. καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα εὐθὺς συνεσπάραξεν αὐτόν, καὶ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐκυλίετο ἀφρίζων. 21 καὶ ἐπηρώτησεν τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ, πόσος χρόνος ἐστὶν ὡς τοῦτο γέγονεν αὐτῷ; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, ἐκ παιδιόθεν: 22 καὶ πολλάκις καὶ εἰς πῦρ αὐτὸν ἔβαλεν καὶ εἰς ὕδατα ἵνα ἀπολέσῃ αὐτόν: ἀλλ' εἴ τι δύνῃ, βοήθησον ἡμῖν σπλαγχνισθεὶς ἐφ' ἡμᾶς. 23 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ, τὸ εἰ δύνῃ — πάντα δυνατὰ τῷ πιστεύοντι. 24 εὐθὺς κράξας ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ παιδίου ἔλεγεν, πιστεύω: βοήθει μου τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ. 25 ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἐπισυντρέχει ὄχλος ἐπετίμησεν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἀκαθάρτῳ λέγων αὐτῷ, τὸ ἄλαλον καὶ κωφὸν πνεῦμα, ἐγὼ ἐπιτάσσω σοι, ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ μηκέτι εἰσέλθῃς εἰς αὐτόν. 26 καὶ κράξας καὶ πολλὰ σπαράξας ἐξῆλθεν: καὶ ἐγένετο ὡσεὶ νεκρός, ὥστε τοὺς πολλοὺς λέγειν ὅτι ἀπέθανεν. 27 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ ἤγειρεν αὐτόν, καὶ ἀνέστη. 28 καὶ εἰσελθόντος αὐτοῦ εἰς οἶκον οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ κατ' ἰδίαν ἐπηρώτων αὐτόν, ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό; 29 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, τοῦτο τὸ γένος ἐν οὐδενὶ δύναται ἐξελθεῖν εἰ μὴ ἐν προσευχῇ.
14. And when He came to His disciples, He saw a great multitude about them, and the Scribes questioning with them. 15. And straightway all the people, when they beheld Him, were greatly amazed, and running to Him saluted Him. 16. And He asked the Scribes, "What question ye with them?" 17. And one of the multitude answered and said, "Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit; 18. And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him out; and they could not." 19. He answereth him, and saith, "O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto Me." 20. And they brought him unto Him: and when He saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming. 21. And He asked his father, "How long is it ago since this came unto him?" And he said, "Of a child. 22. And ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to destroy him: but if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us." 23. Jesus said unto him, "If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth." 24. And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, "Lord, I believe; help Thou mine unbelief." 25. When Jesus saw that the people came running together, He rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, "Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him." [p. 173] 26. And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one dead; insomuch that many said, "He is dead." 27. But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose. 28. And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, "Why could not we cast him out?" 29. And He said unto them, "This kind can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting."

Theophylactus: Postquam gloriam suam tribus discipulis in monte ostenderat, revertitur ad alios discipulos qui cum eo non ascenderant in montem; unde dicitur et veniens ad discipulos suos, vidit turbam magnam circa eos, et Scribas conquirentes cum illis. Pharisaei namque captantes horam, cum praesens non extiterat Christus, accesserunt ut ipsos ad se attraherent. Theophylact: After He had shewn His glory in the mount to the three disciples, He returns to the other disciples, who had not come up with Him into the mount; wherefore it is said, "And when He came to His disciples, He saw a great multitude about them, and the Scribes questioning with them." For the Pharisees, catching the opportunity of the hour when Christ was not present, came up to them, to try to draw them over to themselves.
Hieronymus: Non est autem homini requies sub sole: semper parvulos occidit invidia; magnos percutiunt fulgura montes: alii discentes cum fide, ut turbae; alii invidentes cum fastu, ut Scribae, ad Ecclesiam conveniunt. Pseudo-Jerome: But there is no peace for man under the sun; envy is ever slaying the little ones, and lightnings strike the tops of the great mountains. Of all those who run to the Church, some as the multitudes come in faith to learn, others, as the Scribes, with envy and pride.
Sequitur et confestim omnis populus videns Iesum, stupefactus est, et expaverunt. It goes on, "And straightway all the people, when they beheld Jesus, were greatly amazed, and feared."
Beda: Notanda in omnibus locis distantia mentis Scribarum, et turbae: Scribae enim nihil devotionis, fidei, humilitatis, et reverentiae ei exhibuisse narrantur; sed veniente domino mox omnis turba stupefacta expavit, eumque salutans accurrit; unde sequitur et currens salutavit eum. Bede, in Marc., 3, 38: In all cases, the difference between the mind of the Scribes and of the people ought to be observed; for the Scribes are never said to have shewn any devotion, faith, humility, and reverence, but as soon as the Lord was come, the whole multitude was greatly amazed and feared, and ran up to Him, and saluted Him; wherefore there follows, "And running to Him, saluted Him."
Theophylactus: Affectabant enim turbae eum videre, ita ut eum venientem a longe salutarent. Quidam vero dicunt, quod aspectus eius ex transfiguratione speciosior factus, turbam ad salutationem eius attrahebat. Theophylact: For the multitude was glad to see Him, so that they saluted Him from afar, as He was coming to them; but some suppose that His countenance had become more beautiful from His transfiguration, and that this induced the crowd to salute Him.
Hieronymus: Populus autem videns stupefactus est et expavit, non discipuli; quia non est timor in caritate: timor est servorum, stupescere stultorum. Pseudo-Jerome: Now it was the people, and not the disciples, who on seeing Him were amazed and feared, for there is no fear in love; fear belongs to servants, amazement to fools. [p. 174]
Sequitur et interrogavit eos: quid inter vos conquiritis? Quid scilicet dominus interrogat? Ut confessio pariat salutem, et murmur cordis nostri sermonibus piis solvatur. It goes on: "And He asked them, What question ye with them?" Why does the Lord put this question? That confession may produce salvation, and the murmuring of our hearts may be appeased by religious works.
Beda: Potest vero, nisi fallor, intelligi de hoc quaestionem fuisse motam, quare ipsi, cum essent discipuli salvatoris, sanare daemoniacum qui in medio erat positus, non possent; quod ex sequentibus potest convinci, cum dicitur et respondens unus de turba dixit: magister, attuli filium meum ad te habentem spiritum mutum. Bede: The question, indeed, which was raised may, if I am not deceived, have been this, wherefore they, who were the disciples of the Saviour, were unable to heal the demoniac, who was placed in the midst, which may be gathered from the following words; "And one of the multitude answered and said, "Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit; and wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Hunc hominem Scriptura infirmum in fide ostendit ex hoc quod Christus dicit o generatio incredula, et per hoc quod subdit si potes credere. Sed etsi infidelitas eius occasio extiterit Daemonem non pellendi, incusat tamen discipulos; unde subditur et dixi discipulis tuis ut eicerent illum; et non potuerunt. Vide autem istius insipientiam. Iesum in medio turbarum precatur, discipulos incusans; unde et dominus coram plebe multo magis hoc ei imputat non solum in personam eius accusationem intendens, sed in personam omnium Iudaeorum: probabile enim est multos praesentium scandalizatos, ea quae non conveniebant de discipulis cogitasse; unde equitur qui eis respondens dixit: o generatio incredula, quamdiu vos patiar? In quo ostendit, et mortem se desiderare, et grave ei esse cum illis conversari. Chrys.: The Scriptures declare that this man was weak in faith, for Christ says, "O faithless generation:" and He adds, "If thou canst believe." But although his want of faith was the cause of their not casting out the devil, he nevertheless accuses the disciples. Wherefore it is added, "And I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him out; but they could not." Now observe his folly; in praying to Jesus in the midst of the crowd, he accuses the disciples, wherefore the Lord before the multitude so much the more accuses him, and not only aims the accusation at himself, but also extends it to all the Jews; for it is probable that many of those present had been offended, and had held wrong thoughts concerning His disciples. Wherefore there follows, "He answereth them and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you?" By which He shewed both that He desired death, and that it was a burden to Him to converse with them.
Beda: Intantum autem non est homini iratus, sed vitio, ut statim intulerit afferte illum ad me. Et attulerunt eum. Et cum vidisset eum, statim spiritus conturbavit illum; et elisus in terram volutabatur spumans. Bede: So far, however, is He from being angry with the person, though He reproved the sin, that He immediately added, "Bring him unto Me; and they brought him unto Him. And when He saw him, straightway the spirit tare him, and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Hoc autem dominus permisit propter patrem pueri, ut cum vexantem Daemonem videret, ad fidem futuro miraculo traheretur. Chrys.: But this the Lord permitted for the sake of the father of the boy, that when he saw the devil vexing his child, he might be brought on to believe that the miracle was to be wrought.
Theophylactus: Permittit etiam vexari puerum, ut ex hoc sciremus Daemonis impietatem, qui occidisset eum, nisi fuisset a domino adiutus. Theophylact: He also permits the child to be vexed, that in this way we might know the devil's wickedness, who would have killed him, had he not been [p. 175] assisted by the Lord.
Sequitur et interrogavit patrem eius: quantum temporis est ex quo ei hoc accidit? At ille ait: ab infantia; et frequenter eum in ignem et in aquam misit, ut eum perderet. It goes on: "And He asked his father, How long is it ago since this come unto him? And he said, Of a child; and ofttimes it has cast him into the fire and into the waters to destroy him."
Beda: Erubescat Iulianus, qui dicere audet omnes homines absque peccati contagione nasci in carne, tamquam innocentes per omnia, ut Adam quando creatus est. Quid enim habuit iste puer ut ab infantia Daemonio vexaretur acerbissimo, si nullo originalis peccati vinculo tenebatur, quia constat illum adhuc proprium non habere potuisse peccatum? Bede: Let Julian [ed. note: Julian was bishop of Eclanum in Campania; he was well known to St. Augustine, who before his fall speaks of him with great affection. On refusing however to agree to Pope Zosimus' condemnation of Pelagius, he was deposed, and expelled from Italy. He wrote a great deal against St. Augustine, by whom he was refuted in works now extant. The opinion specially referred to in the text was, that Adam would have died, even though he had remained innocent, and therefore that death and sickness are not the consequences of original sin. He died in Sicily in great poverty, about A.D. 453.] blush, who dares to say that all men are born in the flesh without the infection of sin, as though they were innocent in all respects, just as Adam was when he was created. For what was there in the boy, that he should be troubled from infancy with a cruel devil, if he were not held at all by the chain of original sin? since it is evident that he could not yet have had any sin of his own.
Glossa: Exprimit autem in verbis suae petitionis, fidei defectum; unde subdit sed si quid potes, adiuva nos, misertus nostri. Cum enim dicit si quid potes, manifestat se de eius potentia dubitare: quia viderat filium suum a discipulis Christi curatum non esse. Dicit autem misertus nostri, ut designaret miseriam filii qui patiebatur, et patris qui compatiebatur. Gloss.: Now he expresses in the words of his petition his want of faith; for that is the reason why he adds, "But if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us." For in that he says, "If thou canst do any thing," he shews that he doubts His power, because he had seen that the disciples of Christ had failed in curing him; but he says, "have compassion on us," to shew the misery of the sons, who suffered, and the father, who suffered with him.
Sequitur Iesus autem ait illi: si potes credere, omnia possibilia sunt credenti. It goes on: "Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth."
Hieronymus: Libertatem arbitrii hoc indicat quod dicit si potes. Quae autem sunt omnia quae possibilia sunt credenti, nisi quae in nomine Iesu, idest salutis, postulantur cum lacrymis? Pseudo-Jerome: This saying, "If thou canst," is a proof of the freedom of the will. Again, all things are possible to him that believeth, which evidently means all those things which are prayed for with tears in the name of Jesus, that is, of salvation.
Beda: Aptum autem responsum dominus dedit petenti: ipse enim ait si quid potes, adiuva nos; et dominus: si potes, inquit, credere. At contra leprosus, qui fideliter clamabat: domine, si vis, potes me mundare, congruum suae fidei accepit responsum: volo: mundare. Bede: The answer of the Lord was suited to the petition; for the man said, "If thou canst do any thing, help us;" and to this the Lord answered, "If thou canst believe." On the other hand, the leper who cried out, with faith, "Lord, if Thou will, Thou canst make me clean," [Matt 8:2] received an answer according to his faith, "I will, be thou clean."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Quod autem dicit, tale est. Tanta est virtutis apud me superabundantia, ut non solum hoc possim, sed et alios hoc faciam operari: quare si credideris, ut oportet, et hunc ipse curare poteris, et alios multos. Sic ergo eum ad fidem reducebat qui adhuc de infidelitate loquitur; unde sequitur et continuo exclamans pater pueri cum lacrymis aiebat: domine, adiuva incredulitatem meam. Sed si crediderat dicens credo, quomodo subdit adiuva incredulitatem meam? Dicamus igitur, quoniam multiplex est fides, introductoria scilicet et perfecta. Hic autem incipiens credere, salvatorem deprecabatur ut apponeret reliquum ad suam virtutem. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: His meaning is; such a plenitude of virtue is there in Me, that not only can I do this, but I will make others to have that power; wherefore if thou canst believe as thou oughtest to do, thou [p. 176] shalt be able to cure not only him, but many more. In this way then, He endeavoured to bring back to the faith, the man who as yet speaks unfaithfully. There follows, "And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief." But if he had already believed, saying, "I believe," how is it that he adds, "help thou mine unbelief?" We must say then that faith is manifold, that one sort of faith is elementary, another perfect; but this man, being but a beginner in believing, prayed the Saviour to add to his virtue what was wanting.
Beda: Nemo enim repente fit summus, sed in bona conversatione a minimis quisque inchoat, ut ad magna perveniat. Alia namque sunt virtutis exordia, aliud profectus, aliud perfectio. Quia igitur per occultam inspirationem gratiae, meritorum suorum gradibus fides crescit, uno eodemque tempore is qui necdum perfecte crediderat, simul et credebat, et incredulus erat. Bede: For no man at once reaches to the highest point, but in holy living a man begins with the least things that he may reach the great; for the beginning of virtue is different from the progress and the perfection of it. Because then faith mounts up through the secret inspiration of grace, by the steps of its own merits, [ed. note: This sentence of Bede may be considered to be an exposition of our Lord's words: "for he that hath not from him shall be taken even that which he hath." The connection between grace and merit, as used by the Fathers, may be illustrated from St. Thomas, their faithful disciple. He defines a meritorious operation to be one the reward of which is beyond the nature of the worker; so that merit implies the infusion of a supernatural habit, that is, of grace, not only as its efficient, but as its formal cause. Summa 1 Q62, Art 4] he who had not yet believed perfectly was at once a believer and an unbeliever.
Hieronymus: Per hoc etiam monstratur quod credulitas nostra infirma est, nisi innixa subsistat adiutorio subsidii Dei; fides autem cum lacrymis optata vota capit: unde sequitur et cum vidisset Iesus concurrentem turbam, comminatus est spiritui immundo, dicens illi: surde et mute spiritus, ego praecipio tibi: exi ab eo, et amplius ne introeas in eum. Pseudo-Jerome: By this also we are taught that our faith is tottering, if it lean not on the stay of the help of God. But faith by its tears receives the accomplishment of its wishes. Wherefore it continues, "When Jesus saw that the multitude came running together, He rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee come out of him, and enter no more into him."
Theophylactus: Ideo autem cum videret turbam concurrere, comminatus est spiritui immundo, quia nolebat coram turba curare, ut ostentationem fugere doceret. Theophylact: The reason that He rebuked the foul spirit, when He saw the crowd running together, was that He did not wish to cure him before the multitude, that He might give us a lesson to avoid ostentation.
Chrysostomus: Quod autem comminatur, et dicit ego tibi praecipio, divinae attribuitur potestati; quod vero dicit non solum exi ab eo, sed et amplius noli introire in eum, ostendit quia ad reintrandum promptus erat, quia ille nondum erat in fide perfectus; sed hoc domini iussio inhibebat. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: And His rebuking him, and saying, "I charge thee," is a proof of Divine power. Again, in that He says not only, "come out of him," but also "enter no more into him," He shews that the evil spirit was ready to enter again, because the man was weak in faith, but was prevented by the commend of the Lord.
Sequitur et exclamans, et multum discerpens eum exiit ab eo, et factus est sicut mortuus, ita ut multi dicerent, quia mortuus est. Non enim valuit mortem Diabolus imponere propter verae vitae adventum. It goes on, "And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him; and he was as one dead, insomuch that [p. 177] many said, He is dead." For the devil was not able to inflict death upon him, because the true Life was come.
Beda in Matth: Quem autem hostis impius morti similem reddidit, hunc pius salvator piae dexterae tactu salvavit; unde sequitur Iesus autem tenens manum eius elevavit eum, et surrexit. Ex quo sicut verum se esse Deum potentia salvandi docuit, ita et veram se habuisse carnis naturam more tactus humani declaravit. Negat namque Manichaeus insanus, veraciter eum carne indutum fuisse; sed ipse cum tot languentes suo tactu erexit, mundavit, illuminavit, haeresim illius, et antequam nata esset, damnavit. Bede: But him, whom the unholy spirit made like unto death, the holy Saviour saved by the touch of His hold hand; wherefore it goes on, "But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up, and he arose." Thus as the Lord had shewn Himself to be very God by the power of healing, so He shewed that He had the very nature of our flesh, by the manner of His human touch. The Manichaean [ed. note: "Their fundamental maxim of the intrinsic evil of matter and the degraded state of mind, which their speculations on the birth after the flesh brought with it involved the denial of the Incarnation of our Lord and, as a consequence, of the reality of His whole life." (Note a, upon St. Augustine's Confessions, Oxf. Tr. p. 325)] indeed madly denies that He was truly clothed in flesh; He Himself, however, by raising, cleansing, enlightening so many afflicted persons by His touch, condemned his heresy before its birth.
Sequitur et cum introisset in domum, discipuli eius secreto interrogabant eum: quare nos non potuimus eicere? It goes on: "And when He was come into the house, His disciples asked Him privately, Why could not we cast him out?"
Chrysostomus in Matth: Timebant enim ne forte collatam sibi gratiam amisissent: receperant enim potestatem iam spirituum immundorum. Chrys.: They feared that perchance they had lost the grace conferred upon them; for they had already received power over unclean spirits.
Sequitur et dixit illis: hoc genus in nullo potest exire, nisi in oratione et ieiunio. It goes on: "And He said unto them, This kind can come forth by nothing but by prayer and fasting."
Theophylactus: Scilicet lunaticorum, vel simpliciter omnium Daemoniorum genus: oportet namque ieiunare eum qui curari debet, et illum qui curat. Sic enim vera oratio perficitur, cum coniungitur orationi ieiunium, quando non gravatur qui orat ex sumptione ciborum, sed sobrius est. Theophylact: That is, the whole class of lunatics, or simply, of all persons possessed with devils. Both the man to be cured, and he who cures him, should fast; for a real prayer is offered up, when fasting is joined with prayer, when he who prays is sober and not heavy with food.
Beda: Mystice autem dominus sursum discipulis mysteria regni reserat, deorsum turbis peccata infidelitatis exprobrat, et spiritus malos ab his qui vexantur expellit: nam carnales adhuc et insipientes confortat, docet, castigat; et perfectos liberius de aeternis instruit. Bede: Again, in a mystical sense, on high the Lord unfolds the mysteries of the kingdom to His disciples, but below He rebukes the multitude for their sins of unfaithfulness, and expels devils from those who are vexed by them. Those who are still carnal and foolish, He strengthens, teaches, punishes, whilst He more freely instructs the perfect concerning the things of eternity.
Theophylactus: Daemon autem iste surdus et mutus est: surdus, inquantum non vult Dei sermones audire; mutus vero, inquantum non vult alios quod condecens est docere. Theophylact: Again, this devil is deaf and dumb; deaf, because he does not choose to hear the words of God; dumb, because he is unable to teach others their duty.
Hieronymus: Peccator autem spumat stultitia, stridet iracundia, arescit ignavia. Discerpit autem spiritus appropinquantem ad salutem; et similiter quos in ventrem suum trahere desiderat, discerpit per terrores et damna, ut fecit Iob. Pseudo-Jerome: Again, a sinner foameth forth folly, gnasheth with anger, pineth away in sloth. But the evil spirit tears him, when coming to salvation, and in like manner those whom he would drag into his maw [p. 178] he tears asunder by terrors and losses, as he did Job.
Beda: Saepe enim dum converti ad Deum post peccata conamur, maioribus novisque antiqui hostis pulsamur insidiis: quod facit ut vel odium virtutis incutiat, vel expulsionis suae vindicet iniuriam. Bede: For oftentimes when we try to turn to God after sin, our old enemy attacks us with new and greater snares, which he does, either to instill into us a hatred of virtue, or to avenge the injury of his expulsion.
Gregorius Moralium: Velut mortuus autem ostenditur qui a maligni spiritus potestate liberatur: quia quisquis iam terrena desideria subegit, vitam in se carnalis conversationis extinguit et mundo mortuus apparet: quem multi mortuum dicunt, quia qui spiritualiter vivere nesciunt, eum qui carnalia bona non sequitur, extinctum funditus arbitrantur. Greg., Mor. x., 30: But he who is freed from the power of the evil spirit is thought to be dead; for whosoever has already subdued earthly desires, puts to death within himself his carnal mode of life, and appears to the world as a dead man, and many look upon him as dead; for they who know not how to live after the Spirit, think that he who does not follow after carnal pleasures is altogether dead.
Hieronymus: Per hoc autem quod ab infantia vexatus est, significatur gentilis populus, cuius a nativitate crevit cultus inutilis idolorum, ut stulte immolaret filios suos Daemoniis; unde dicitur, quod in ignem et aquam eum misit: alii enim de gentibus ignem venerabantur, alii aquam. Pseudo-Jerome: Further, in his being vexed from his infancy, the Gentile people is signified, from the very birth of whom the vain worship of idols arose, so that they in their folly sacrificed their children to devils. And for this reason it is said that "it cast him into the fire and into the water;" for some of the Gentiles worshipped fire, others water.
Beda: Vel in hoc daemoniaco significatur quod qui originalis culpae reatu astricti veniunt in mundum, Christi sunt gratia salvandi. Ignis autem ad fervorem iracundiae referendus est, aqua ad voluptates carnis, quae dissolvere mentem per delicias solent. Non autem puero qui vim patiebatur, sed Daemoni qui inferebat, comminatus est: quia qui peccantem emendare desiderat, vitium utique increpando et execrando debet exterminare, sed hominem amando refovere. Bede: Or by this demoniac are signified those who are bound by the guilt of original sin, and coming into the world as criminals, are to be saved by grace; and by fire is meant the heat of anger, by water, the pleasures of the flesh, which melt the soul by their sweetness. But He did not rebuke the boy, who suffered violence, but the devil, who inflicted it, because he who desires to amend a sinner, ought, whilst he exterminates his vice by rebuking and cursing it, to love and cherish the man.
Hieronymus: Imputat autem dominus spiritui quod homini praestat, dicens surde et mute spiritus, quia ille nunquam audiet, nec loquetur quod peccator poenitens audit et loquitur. Exiens autem Daemon ab homine, nunquam revertitur, si homo cor suum seraverit clavibus humilitatis et caritatis, et ostium obtinuerit immunitatis. Factus est homo sanatus velut mortuus: sanatis etenim dicitur: mortui estis, et vita vestra abscondita est cum Christo in Deo. Pseudo-Jerome: Again, the Lord applies to the evil spirit what he had inflicted on the man, calling him a "deaf and dumb spirit," because he never will hear and speak what the penitent sinner can speak and hear. But the devil, quitting a man, never returns, if the man keep his heart with the keys of humility and charity, and hold possession of the gate of freedom [ed. note: of "fastness".]. The man who was healed became as one dead, for it is said to those who are healed, "Ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God."
Theophylactus: Sed si Iesus, idest evangelicus sermo, teneat manum, idest virtutem activam, tunc a Daemone liberabimur. Vide etiam quod primo Deus nos iuvat, deinde requiritur a nobis quod bonum operemur; unde dicitur, quod Iesus elevavit illum, in quo ostenditur Dei auxilium; et surrexit, in quo monstratur hominis studium. Theophylact: Again, when Jesus, that is, the word of the Gospel, takes hold of the hand, that is, of our powers of action, then shall we be freed from the devil. And observe that God first helps us, then it is required of us that we do good; for which reason it is said that Jesus "raised him;" in which is shewn the aid of God, and that "he arose," in which is declared the zeal of man.
Beda: Dum autem docet dominus apostolos quomodo Daemon nequissimus debeat expelli, omnes instituit ad vitam; ut scilicet noverimus graviora quaeque, vel immundorum spirituum, vel hominum, tentamenta, ieiuniis et orationibus esse superanda: iram quoque domini, cum in ultionem scelerum nostrorum fuerit accensa, hoc remedio singulari posse placari. Ieiunium autem generale est non solum ab escis, sed a cunctis illecebris abstinere carnalibus, immo ab omnibus vitiorum passionibus. Sic et oratio generalis non solum in verbis est quibus divinam clementiam invocamus, verum etiam in omnibus quae in obsequium nostri conditoris fidei devotione gerimus, teste apostolo, qui ait: sine intermissione orate. Bede: Further, [p. 179] our Lord, while teaching the Apostles how the worst devil is to be expelled, gives all of us rules for our life; that is, He would have us know that all the more grievous attacks of evil spirits or of men are to be overcome by fastings and prayers; and again, that the anger of the Lord, when it is kindled for vengeance on our crimes, can be appeased by this remedy alone. But fasting in general is not only abstinence from food, but also from all carnal delights, yea, from all vicious passions. In like manner, prayer taken generally consists not only in the words by which we call upon the Divine mercy, but also in all those things which we do with the devotedness of faith in obedience to our Maker, as the Apostle testifies, when he says, "Pray without ceasing." [Thes 5:17]
Hieronymus: Vel stultitia, quae ad luxuriam carnis pertinet, sanatur; ira et ignavia oratione depellitur. Medicina cuiusque vulneris adhibenda est ei. Non sanat oculum quod calcaneo adhibetur. Ieiunio passiones corporis, et oratione pestes sanandae sunt mentis. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, the folly which is connected with the softness of the flesh, is healed by fasting; anger and laziness are healed by prayer. Each would has its own medicine, which must be applied to it; that which is used for the heel will not cure the eye; by fasting, the passions of the body, by prayer, the plagues of the soul, are healed.

Lectio 4
30 κἀκεῖθεν ἐξελθόντες παρεπορεύοντο διὰ τῆς γαλιλαίας, καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν ἵνα τις γνοῖ: 31 ἐδίδασκεν γὰρ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ὅτι ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων, καὶ ἀποκτενοῦσιν αὐτόν, καὶ ἀποκτανθεὶς μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἀναστήσεται. 32 οἱ δὲ ἠγνόουν τὸ ῥῆμα, καὶ ἐφοβοῦντο αὐτὸν ἐπερωτῆσαι. 33 καὶ ἦλθον εἰς καφαρναούμ. καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ γενόμενος ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς, τί ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ διελογίζεσθε; 34 οἱ δὲ ἐσιώπων, πρὸς ἀλλήλους γὰρ διελέχθησαν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ τίς μείζων. 35 καὶ καθίσας ἐφώνησεν τοὺς δώδεκα καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, εἴ τις θέλει πρῶτος εἶναι ἔσται πάντων ἔσχατος καὶ πάντων διάκονος. 36 καὶ λαβὼν παιδίον ἔστησεν αὐτὸ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν καὶ ἐναγκαλισάμενος αὐτὸ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, 37 ὃς ἂν ἓν τῶν τοιούτων παιδίων δέξηται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου, ἐμὲ δέχεται: καὶ ὃς ἂν ἐμὲ δέχηται, οὐκ ἐμὲ δέχεται ἀλλὰ τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με.
30. And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and He would not that any man should know it. 31. For He taught He disciples, and said unto them, "The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill Him; and after that He is killed, He shall rise the third day." 32. But they understood not that saying, and were afraid to ask Him. 33. And He came to Capernaum: and being in the house He asked them, "What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way?" 34. But they held their peace: for by the way they had disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest. 35. And He sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, "If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all." [p. 180] 36. And He took a child, and set him in the midst of them: and when He had taken him in His arms, He said unto them, 37. "Whosoever shall receive one of such children in My name, receiveth Me: and whosoever shall receive Me, receiveth not Me, but Him that sent Me."

Theophylactus: Post miracula interponit dominus sermonem de passione, ne putaretur quod involuntarie passus est; unde dicitur et inde profecti praetergrediebantur Galilaeam; nec volebat quemquam scire, idest se ibi esse. Docebat autem discipulos suos, et dicebat illis quoniam filius hominis tradetur in manus hominum, et occident eum. Theophylact: It is after miracles that the Lord inserts a discourse concerning His Passion, lest it should be thought that He suffered because He could not help it. Wherefore it is said, "And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and He would not that any man should know it. For He taught His disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill Him."
Beda: Semper prosperis miscet tristia, ut cum repente venerint, non terreant apostolos; sed praemeditatis animis ferant. Bede, in Marc., 1, 39: He always mingles together sorrowful and joyful things, that sorrow should not by its suddenness frighten the Apostles, but be borne by them with prepared minds.
Theophylactus: Postquam vero dixerat quod triste erat, tunc adiungit quod laetificare debet; unde sequitur et occisus, tertia die resurget, ut disceremus ex hoc, quod post angustias laetitiae subsequuntur. Theophylact: After, however, saying what was sorrowful, He adds what ought to rejoice them; wherefore it goes on: "And after that He is killed, He shall rise the third day;" in order that we may learn that joys come on after struggles.
Sequitur at illi ignorabant verbum, et timebant eum interrogare. There follows: "But they understood not that saying, and were afraid to ask Him."
Beda: Haec ignorantia discipulorum non tam de tarditate ingenii, quam de amore nascitur salvatoris, qui carnales adhuc, et mysterii crucis ignari, quem Deum verum cognoverant, mortuum credere nequibant; et quia per figuras eum loquentem saepe audire consueverant, horrentes eventum mortis eius, etiam in eis quae de sua traditione ac passione aperte loquebatur, figurate aliquid significari volebant. Bede: This ignorance of the disciples proceeds not so much from slowness of intellect, as from love for the Saviour, for they were as yet carnal, and ignorant of the mystery of the cross, they could not therefore believe that He whom they had recognized as the true God, was about to die; being accustomed then to hear Him often talk in figures, and shrinking from the events of His death, they would have it that something was conveyed figuratively in those things, which He spoke openly concerning His betrayal and passion.
Sequitur et venerunt Capharnaum. It goes on: "And they came to Capernaum."
Hieronymus: Capharnaum dicitur villa consolationis; et congruit interpretatio ad praedictam sententiam, qua dixerat et occisus, tertia die resurget. Pseudo-Jerome: Capernaum means the city of consolation, and agrees with the former sentence, which He had spoken: "And after that He is killed, He shall arise the third day."
Sequitur qui cum domi essent, interrogabat eos: quid in via tractabatis? At illi tacebant. There follows: "And being in the house He asked them, What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way? But they held their peace."
Chrysostomus: Matthaeus autem dicit quod accesserunt ad Iesum discipuli dicentes: quis, putas, maior est in regno caelorum? Non enim ab initio narrationem incepit, sed tacuit de intelligentia salvatoris circa discipulorum cogitationes et dicta, quamvis posset intelligi quod ea etiam quae seorsum cogitabant, aut dicebant, dicebant ad eum; quia omnia erant ei ita cognita ac si ad eum dicta fuissent. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Matthew however says that the disciples came to Jesus, saying, "Who is the greatest in [p. 181] the kingdom of heaven?" [Matt 18:1] The reason is, that He did not begin the narrative from its commencement, but omitted our Saviour's knowledge of the thoughts and words of His disciples; unless we understand Him to mean, that even what they thought and said, when away from Christ, was said unto Him, since it was as well known to Him as if it had been said to Him.
Sequitur siquidem inter se in via disputaverant, quis esset illorum maior. Lucas autem dicit quod cogitatio intravit in discipulos, quis esset illorum maior. Cogitationem enim et intentionem eorum dominus ex illorum verbis manifestavit secundum historiam evangelicam. It goes on: "For by the way they had disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest." But Luke says [ed. note: Luke 9:46, Vulgate] that "the thought entered into the disciples which of them should be the greatest;" for the Lord laid open their thought and intention from their private discourse according to the Gospel narrative.
Hieronymus: Recte autem in via tractabant de principatu. Similis enim est haec tractatio loco. Principatus enim sicut ingreditur, sic deseritur, et quamdiu tenetur, labitur, et incertum est in qua mansione, idest in qua die, finiatur. Pseudo-Jerome: It was fit also that they should dispute concerning the chief place by the way; the dispute is like the place where it is held; for lofty station is only entered upon to be quitted: as long as a man keeps it, it is slippery, and it is uncertain at what stage, that is, on what day, it will end.
Beda: Inde autem videtur orta disputatio discipulorum de primatu, quia viderant Petrum, Iacobum et Ioannem seorsum ductos in montem, secretumque eis ibi aliquid esse creditum; sed et Petro, secundum Matthaeum, claves regni caelorum esse promissas. Videns autem discipulorum cogitationes dominus, curat desiderium gloriae humilitate sanare, et primatum non esse quaerendum, prius simplici humilitatis commonet imperio; unde Bede: The reason why the dispute concerning the chief place arose amongst the disciples seems to have been, that Peter, James and John, were led apart from the rest into the mountain, and that something secret was there entrusted to them, also that the keys of the kingdom of heaven were promised to Peter, according to Matthew. Seeing however the thoughts of the disciples, the Lord takes care to heal the desire of glory by humility; for He first, by simply commanding humility, admonishes them that a high station was not to be aimed at.
Sequitur et residens vocavit duodecim, et ait illis: si quis vult primus esse, erit omnium novissimus, et omnium minister. Wherefore it goes on: "And He sat down, and called the twelve and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all."
Hieronymus: Ubi notandum, quod illi euntes disputabant de principatu, ipse sedens docet humilitatem. Principes enim laborant, humiles quiescunt. Jerome: Where it is to be observed, that the disciples disputed by the way concerning the chief place, but Christ Himself sat down to teach humility; for princes toil while the humble repose.
Chrysostomus: Appetebant quidem discipuli honorem habere a domino; desiderium etiam eis inerat ut magnificarentur a Christo: quanto enim quis maior est, tanto maioribus honoribus dignus existit; propter hoc non eorum desiderium impedivit, sed humilitatem introduxit. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: The disciples indeed wished to receive honour at the hands of the Lord; they also had a desire to be made great by Christ, for the great a man is, the more worthy of honour he becomes, for which reason He did not throw an obstacle in the way of that desire, but brought in humility.
Theophylactus: Non enim vult ut usurpemus nobis primatus, sed per humilitatem altitudinem consequamur. Mox autem monet eos innocentiae puerilis exemplo; unde Theophylact: For His wish is not that we should usurp for ourselves chief places, but that we should attain to lofty heights by lowliness. He next admonishes them by the example of a child's innocence.
Sequitur et accipiens puerum, statuit eum in medio eorum. Wherefore there follows, "And He took [p. 182] a child, and set him in the midst of them."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Ipso visu eis persuadens humiles esse et simplices: etenim ab invidia et vana gloria parvulus mundus existit, et a concupiscendo primatum. Non solum autem ait: si tales efficiamini, mercedem magnam accipietis; sed et si alios tales honorabitis propter me; unde sequitur quem cum complexus esset, ait illis: quisquis unum ex huiusmodi pueris recipit in nomine meo, me recipit. Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc. see Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 58: By the very sight, persuading them to humility and simplicity; for this little one was pure from envy and vain glory, and from a desire of superiority. But He does not only say, If ye become such, ye shall receive a great reward, but also, if ye will honour others, who are such for My sake. Wherefore there follows: "And when He had taken him in His arms, He said unto them, Whosoever shall receive one of such children in My name, receiveth Me."
Beda: In quo vel simpliciter pauperes Christi ab his qui volunt esse maiores, pro eius ostendit honore recipiendos; vel malitia parvulos ipsos esse suadet, ut simplicitatem sine arrogantia, caritatem sine invidia et devotionem sine iracundia conservent. Quod autem complectitur puerum, significat humiles suo dignos esse complexu ac dilectione. Addidit autem in nomine meo, ut formam virtutis quam, natura duce, puer observat, ipsi pro nomine Christi rationis industria sequantur. Sed quia se in pueris recipi docebat, ne putaretur hoc esse solum quod videbatur, subiunxit et quicumque me susceperit non me suscipit, sed eum qui me misit; talem se utique ac tantum credi volens, qualis et quantus est pater. Bede: By which, He either simply shews that those who would become greater must receive the poor of Christ in honour of Him, or He would persuade them to be in malice children, to keep simplicity without arrogance, charity without envy, devotedness without anger. Again, by taking the child into His arms, He implies that the lowly are worthy of his embrace and love. He adds also, "In My name," that they might, with the fixed purpose of reason, follow for His name's sake that mould of virtue to which the child keeps, with nature for his guide. And because He taught that He Himself was received in children, lest it should be thought that there was nothing in Him but what was seen, He added, "And whosoever shall receive Me, receiveth not Me, but Him that sent Me.;" thus wishing that we should believe Him to be of the same nature and of equal greatness with His Father.
Theophylactus: Vide quantum valet humilitas, patris namque et filii inhabitationem meretur, et etiam spiritus sancti. Theophylact: See, how great is humility, for it wins for itself the indwelling of the Father, and of the Son, and also of the Holy Ghost.

Lectio 5
38 ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ ἰωάννης, διδάσκαλε, εἴδομέν τινα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου ἐκβάλλοντα δαιμόνια, καὶ ἐκωλύομεν αὐτόν, ὅτι οὐκ ἠκολούθει ἡμῖν. 39 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, μὴ κωλύετε αὐτόν, οὐδεὶς γάρ ἐστιν ὃς ποιήσει δύναμιν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου καὶ δυνήσεται ταχὺ κακολογῆσαί με: 40 ὃς γὰρ οὐκ ἔστιν καθ' ἡμῶν, ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐστιν. 41 ὃς γὰρ ἂν ποτίσῃ ὑμᾶς ποτήριον ὕδατος ἐν ὀνόματι ὅτι Χριστοῦ ἐστε, ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσῃ τὸν μισθὸν αὐτοῦ. 42 καὶ ὃς ἂν σκανδαλίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων τῶν πιστευόντων [εἰς ἐμέ], καλόν ἐστιν αὐτῷ μᾶλλον εἰ περίκειται μύλος ὀνικὸς περὶ τὸν τράχηλον αὐτοῦ καὶ βέβληται εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν.
38. And John answered Him, saying, "Master, we saw one casting out devils in Thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbad him, because he followeth not us." 39. But Jesus said, "Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle in My name, that can lightly speak evil of Me. 40. For He that is not against us is on our part. 41. For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in My name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward. [p. 183] 42. And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea."

Beda: Ioannes praecipua devotione dominum amans, excludendum beneficio putavit eum qui non recte utatur officio; unde dicitur respondit illi Ioannes dicens: magister, vidimus quemdam in nomine tuo eicientem Daemonia, qui non sequitur nos, et prohibuimus eum. Bede: John, loving the Lord with eminent devotion, thought that He who performed an office to which He had no right was to be excluded from the benefit of it. Wherefore it is said, "And John answered Him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in Thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbad him, because he followeth not us."
Chrysostomus: Multi enim credentium charismata receperunt, nec tamen cum Christo erant; qualis erat hic qui Daemones eiciebat: non enim omnes ad omnia ordinate se habebant: alii enim erant purae vitae, fidem autem tam perfecte non habebant; alii vero e contrario. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: For many believers received gifts, and yet were not with Christ, such was this man who cast out devils; for there were many of them deficient in some way; some were pure in life, but were not so perfect in faith; others again, contrariwise.
Theophylactus: Vel etiam quidam increduli videntes nomen Iesu virtuosum, dicebant et ipsi hoc nomen, et signa faciebant, licet divina gratia essent indigni: volebat enim dominus etiam per indignos nomen suum ampliare. Theophylact: Or again, some unbelievers, seeing that the name of Jesus was full of virtue, themselves used it, and performed signs, though they were unworthy of Divine grace; for the Lord wished to extend His name even by the unworthy.
Chrysostomus: Non autem zelo, seu invidia motus Ioannes prohibebat illum qui Daemones expellebat; sed volebat quod omnes qui nomen domini invocabant, sequerentur Christum, et essent cum discipulis unum. Sed dominus per hos qui miracula faciunt, licet sint indigni, alios provocat ad fidem, et ipsosmet per hanc ineffabilem gratiam inducit ut fiant meliores; unde Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: It was not from jealousy or envy, however, that John wished to forbid him who cast out devils, but because he wished that all who called on the name of the Lord should follow Christ and be one body with His disciples. But the Lord, however unworthy they who perform the miracles may be, incites others by their means to believe on Him, and induces themselves by this unspeakable grace to become better.
Sequitur Iesus autem ait: nolite prohibere eum. Wherefore there follows: "But Jesus said, Forbid him not."
Beda: In quo docet neminem a bono quod ex parte habet, esse arcendum; sed ad hoc potius quod nondum habet, esse provocandum. Bede: By which He shews that no one is to be driven away from that partial goodness which he possesses already, but rather to be stirred up to that which he has not as yet obtained.
Chrysostomus: Decenter autem eum non esse prohibendum ostendit consequenter dicens nemo est enim qui faciat virtutes in nomine meo, et possit cito male loqui de me. Hoc autem dicit propter eos qui in haeresim ceciderunt, quales erant Simon, et Menander et Cerinthus; neque enim illi in nomine Christi miracula faciebant; sed deceptionibus quibusdam facere videbantur. Isti vero etsi non sequuntur nos, non tamen contra nos aliquid firmiter dicere valebunt, eo quod honorant in operando virtutes nomen meum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: In conformity to this, He shews that he is not to be forbidden, adding immediately after, "For there is no man which shall do a miracle in My name, that can lightly speak evil of Me." He says "lightly" to meet the case of those who fell into heresy, such as were Simon and Menander, and Cerinthus [ed. note: Irenaeus, cont. Haer. 2, 31, seems to imply that the early heretics actually worked wonders, but that these differed from Christian miracles in that they were done by magic through the aid of the devil, and were not works of mercy; he contrasts with these the ecclesiastical miracles of his day.]; not that they did miracles in the name of Christ, but by their deceptions had the appearance of doing them. But these others, though they do [p. 184] not follow us, cannot however set themselves to say any thing against us, because they honour My name by working miracles.
Theophylactus: Qualiter enim male de me loquitur qui ex nomine meo occasionem gloriae habet, et per hoc quod ipsum invocat, miracula operatur? Theophylact: For how can he speak evil of Me, who draws glory from My name, and works miracles by the invocation of this very name.
Sequitur qui enim non est adversum vos, pro vobis est. There follows, "For he that is not against you is on your part."
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Videndum est, ne hoc illi sententiae domini videatur contrarium, ubi ait: qui mecum non est, adversum me est. An hoc interesse aliquis dicet, quia hic discipulis ait qui non est adversum vos, pro vobis est; ibi autem de seipso locutus est: qui mecum non est, adversum me est? Quasi non possit cum illo non esse qui discipulis eius tamquam membris eius sociatur. Alioquin quomodo verum erit: qui vos recipit, me recipit? Aut potest etiam non esse adversus eum qui fuerit adversus discipulos suos? Nam ubi erit illud: qui vos spernit, me spernit? Sed nimirum hoc vult intelligi intantum cum illo non esse aliquem, inquantum est adversus illum; et intantum adversus illum non esse, inquantum cum illo est: exempli gratia, sicut iste qui in nomine Christi virtutes faciebat, et in societate discipulorum non erat, inquantum operabatur virtutes in illo nomine, intantum cum ipsis erat, et adversus eos non erat; inquantum vero eorum societati non adhaerebat, intantum cum ipsis non erat, et adversus eos erat. Sed quia illi hoc eum facere prohibuerunt in quo cum ipsis erat, dixit eis dominus nolite prohibere: illud enim prohibere debuerunt quod extra eorum erat societatem, ut illi unitatem Ecclesiae suaderent, non illud in quo cum illis erat, nomen scilicet magistri et domini eorum in expulsione Daemonum commendans, sicut Ecclesia Catholica facit, non improbans in haereticis sacramenta communia, sed divisionem, vel aliquam adversam paci veritatique sententiam: in hoc enim adversus nos sunt. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 4, 5: We must take care that this saying of the Lord appear not to be contrary to that where He says, "He who is not with Me is against Me." [Luke 11:23] Or will any one say that the difference lies in that here He says to His disciples, "For he that is not against you is on your part," but in the other He speaks of Himself, "He who is not with Me is against Me?" As if indeed it were possible [ed. note: St. Augustine has here quasi vero, instead of quasi non, which hardly makes sense; the latter reading has also been found in an old edition of the Catena Aurea, A.D. 1417.] that he who is joined to Christ's disciples, who are as His members, should not be with Him. How if it were so, could it be true that "he that receiveth you receiveth Me?" [Matt. 10:40] Or how is he not against Him who is against His disciples? Where then will be that saying, "He who despiseth you, despiseth Me? [Luke 10:16] But surely what is implied is that a man is not with Him in as far as he is against Him, and is not against Him in as far as he is with Him. For instance, he who worked miracles in the name of Christ, and yet did not join himself to the body of His disciples, in as far as he worked the miracles in His name, was with them, and was not against them; again, in that he did not join their society, he was not with them, and was against them. Be because they forbade his doing that in which he was with them, the Lord said unto them, "Forbid him not:" for they ought to have forbidden his being without their society, and thus to have persuaded him of the unity of the Church, but they should not have forbidden that in which he was with them, that is, his commendation of the name of their Lord and Master by the expulsion of devils. Thus the Church Catholic does not disapprove in heretics the sacraments, which are common, but she blames their division, or some opinion of theirs adverse to peace and to truth; for in this they are against us.
Chrysostomus: Vel aliter. Hoc dicitur de credentibus in eum, qui tamen ipsum non sequuntur propter vitae laxationem. Illud autem de Daemonibus dicitur, qui a Deo omnes student separare, et congregationem eius dispergere. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Or else, this is said of those who believe on Him, but nevertheless do not follow Him from the looseness of their lives. Again, it is said of devils, who try to separate all from God, and to disperse His [p. 185] congregation.
Sequitur quisquis enim potum dederit vobis calicem aquae frigidae in nomine meo, quia Christi estis, amen dico vobis, non perdet mercedem suam. There follows, "For whosoever shall give you a cup of cold water to drink in My name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward."
Theophylactus: Quasi dicat: non solum hunc qui in nomine meo miracula operatur, non prohibeo; sed et quisquis minimum quid dederit vobis propter nomen meum, et receperit vos propter me, non propter humanam gratiam et mundanam, non perdet mercedem suam. Theophylact: Not only will I not forbid him who works miracles in My name, but also whosoever shall give you the smallest thing for My name's sake, and shall receive you, not on account of human and worldly favour, but from love to Me, shall not lose his reward.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Unde ostendit quod ille de quo Ioannes suggesserat, non ita separabatur a societate discipulorum ut eam tamquam haereticus improbaret; sed sicut solent homines nondum audere Christi suscipere sacramenta, et tamen nomini favere Christiano, ita ut Christianos etiam suscipiant, et non ob aliud eis nisi quia Christiani sunt obsequantur; de quibus dicit, quod non perdent mercedem suam: non quia iam tuti atque securi sibi debeant videri ex hac benevolentia quam erga Christianos habent, etiam si Christi Baptismo non abluantur, nec unitati eius incorporentur; sed quia ita iam Dei misericordia gubernentur ut ad ea quoque perveniant, atque ita securi de hoc saeculo abscedant. Augustine, de Con. Evan., 4, 6: By which He shews, that he of whom John had spoken was not so far separated from the fellowship of the disciples, as to reject it, as a heretic, but as men are wont to hang back from receiving the Sacraments of Christ, and yet favour the Christian name, so as even to succour Christians, and do them service only because they are Christians. Of these He says they shall not lose their reward; not that they ought already to think themselves secure on account of this good will which they have towards Christians, without being washed with His baptism, and incorporated in His unity, but that they are already so guided by the mercy of God, as also to attain to these, and thus to go away from this life in security.
Chrysostomus: Et ne quis paupertatem alleget, ponit illud quo non contingit egere, scilicet calicem aquae frigidae; pro quo etiam consequetur mercedem. Non enim pretium dati, sed dignitas recipientium, et affectus dantium facit opus dignum mercede. Non solum autem recipiendos discipulos verbo ostendit ex mercede quam aliquis consequitur, sed etiam quia retrahitur a tormento. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: And that no man may allege poverty, He mentions that of which none can be destitute, that is, a cup of cold water, for which also he will obtain a reward; for it is not the value of the gift, but the dignity of those who receive it, and the feelings of the giver, which makes a work worthy of reward. His words shew that His disciples are to be received, not only on account of the reward, which he who receives them obtains, but also, because he thus saves himself from punishment.
Sequitur et qui scandalizaverit unum ex his pusillis credentibus in me, bonum est ei magis, si circumdaretur mola asinaria collo eius, et in mare mitteretur; quasi dicat: si qui vos propter me honorant, mercedem habent; sic et inhonorantes, idest scandalizantes, ultimam accipient ultionem. Ex manifestis autem nobis tormentum describit intolerabile, faciens mentionem molae et submersionis; et non ait: mola suspendatur in collo, sed bonum est ei hoc sustinere, demonstrans quoniam eum gravius aliquod malum expectat. Pusillos autem in se credentes dicit eos qui invocant nomen eius, non solum sequentes; etiam eos qui calicem frigidum offerunt, et non operantur alia maiora. Istorum autem neminem vult scandalizari, neque supplantari; hoc enim est prohibere nomen eius invocare. There follows: "And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in Me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea:" as though He would say [ed. note: see Chrys., Hom. in Matt. 58], All who honour you for My sake have their reward, so also those who dishonour you, that is, offend you, shall receive the worst of vengeance. Further, from things which are palpable to us, He describes an intolerable torment, making mention of a millstone, and of being drowned; and He says not, let a millstone be hanged about his neck, but, it is better for him to suffer this, shewing by this that some more heavy evil awaits him. But He means by "little ones that believe on Me," not only those [p. 186] who follow Him, but those who call upon His name, those also who offer a cup of cold water, though they do not any greater works. Now He will have none of these offended or plucked away; for this is what is meant by forbidding them to call upon His name.
Beda: Recte autem qui scandalizari potest, pusillus appellatur: qui enim magnus est, quodcumque passus fuerit, non declinat a fide; qui autem pusillus est animo, et parvus, occasiones quaerit quo scandalizetur. Propterea oportet nos maxime his consulere qui parvi sunt in fide, ne occasione nostri offendantur, et recedant a fide, ac decidant a salute. Bede: And fitly the man who if offended is called a little one, for he who is great, whatever he may suffer, departs not from the faith; but he who is little and weak in mind looks out for occasions of stumbling. For this reason we must most of all look to those who are little ones in the faith, lest by our fault they should be offended, and go back from the faith, and fall away from salvation.
Gregorius super Ezech: Notandum tamen, quod in nostro bono opere aliquando cavendum est scandalum proximi, aliquando autem pro nihilo contemnendum. In quantum enim sine peccato possumus vitare proximi scandalum, debemus; si autem de veritate scandalum ponitur, utilius permittitur scandalum nasci, quam veritas relinquatur. Greg., in Faeceh., 1, Hom. 7: We must observe, however, that in our good works we must sometimes avoid the offence of our neighbour, sometimes look down upon it as of no moment. For in as far as we can do it without sin, we ought to avoid the offence of our neighbour; but if a stumblingblock is laid before men in what concerns the truth, it is better to allow the offence to arise, than that the truth should be abandoned.
Gregorius Reg. Pastor: Mystice autem in mola asinaria saecularis vitae circuitus ac labor exprimitur, et per profundum maris extrema damnatio designatur. Qui ergo ad sanctitatis speciem deductus, vel verbo ceteros destruit, vel exemplo, melius profecto erat ut hunc ad mortem sub exteriore habitu terrena acta constringerent, quam sacra officia in culpa ceteris imitabilem demonstrarent: quia nimirum si solus caderet, utcumque hunc tolerabilior Inferni poena cruciaret. Greg, de eura, past. p.i.v.2: Mystically by a millstone is expressed the tedious round and toil of a secular life, and by the depths of the sea, the worst damnation is pointed out. He who therefore, after having been brought to a profession of sanctity, destroys others, either by word or example, it had been indeed better for him that his worldly deeds should render him liable to death, under a secular garb, than that his holy office should hole him out as an example for others in his faults, because doubtless if he had fallen alone, his pain in hell would have been of a more endurable kind.

Lectio 6
43 καὶ ἐὰν σκανδαλίζῃ σε ἡ χείρ σου, ἀπόκοψον αὐτήν: καλόν ἐστίν σε κυλλὸν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν ἢ τὰς δύο χεῖρας ἔχοντα ἀπελθεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν, εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ ἄσβεστον. 44 45 καὶ ἐὰν ὁ πούς σου σκανδαλίζῃ σε, ἀπόκοψον αὐτόν: καλόν ἐστίν σε εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ζωὴν χωλὸν ἢ τοὺς δύο πόδας ἔχοντα βληθῆναι εἰς τὴν γέενναν. 46 47 καὶ ἐὰν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου σκανδαλίζῃ σε, ἔκβαλε αὐτόν: καλόν σέ ἐστιν μονόφθαλμον εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἢ δύο ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντα βληθῆναι εἰς τὴν γέενναν, 48 ὅπου ὁ σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτᾷ καὶ τὸ πῦρ οὐ σβέννυται: 49 πᾶς γὰρ πυρὶ ἁλισθήσεται. 50 καλὸν τὸ ἅλας: ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας ἄναλον γένηται, ἐν τίνι αὐτὸ ἀρτύσετε; ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἅλα, καὶ εἰρηνεύετε ἐν ἀλλήλοις.
43. "And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: 44. Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 45. And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: [p. 187] 46. Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 47. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire: 48. Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 49. For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. 50. Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another."

Beda: Quia supra docuerat dominus ne scandalizaremus eos qui credunt in eum, nunc consequenter admonet quantum cavere debeamus eos qui scandalizare nos, idest verbo, vel exemplo suo ad ruinam peccati propellere, certant; unde dicitur et si scandalizaverit te manus tua, abscinde illam. Bede: Because the Lord had taught us not to offend those who believe on Him, He now as next in order warns us how much we should beware of those who offend us, that is, who by their words or conduct strive to drag us into the perdition of sin; wherefore He says, "And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off."
Chrysostomus: Non de membris hoc dicit, sed de propinquis amicis, quos quantum ad necessaria in membrorum ordine nos habemus: nihil enim tam nocivum ut perniciosa societas. Chrys., Hom. in Matt., 59: He says not this of our limbs, but of our intimate friends, whom as being necessary to us we look upon as our limbs; for nothing is so hurtful as mischievous society.
Beda: Manum quippe nostram appellat necessarium amicum, cuius auxilio quotidiano opus habemus; sed si talis nos laedere in causa animae voluerit, excludendus est a nostra societate, ne si cum perdito in hac vita partem habere volumus, simul in futuro cum illo pereamus; unde sequitur bonum est tibi debilem introire in vitam, quam duas manus habentem ire in Gehennam, in ignem inextinguibilem. Bede: That is, He calls by the name of hand, our intimate friend, of whose aid we daily stand in need; but if such an one should wish to do us a hurt in what concerns our soul, he is to be driven away from our society, lest by choosing a portion in this life with one who is lost, we should perish together with him in that which is to come. Wherefore there follows, "It is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to enter into hell."
Glossa: Debilem dicit adiutorio alicuius amici privatum: nam melius est absque amico ire in vitam, quam cum eo ire in Gehennam. Gloss.: By maimed He means, deprived of the help of some friend, for it is better to enter into life without a friend, than to go with him into hell.
Hieronymus: Vel aliter. Bonum est tibi debilem ingredi in vitam, idest, sine cupito principatu, quam duas manus habentem. Duae manus principatus sunt humilitas et superbia. Abscinde superbiam, tenens humilem principatum. Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, "It is better for thee to enter into life maimed," that is, without the chief place, for which you have wished, than having two hands to go into eternal fire. The two hands for high station are humility and pride; cut off pride, keeping to the estate of lowliness.
Chrysostomus: Deinde testimonium propheticum ex Isaia propheta inducit, dicens ubi vermis eorum non moritur, et ignis non extinguitur. Non de sensibili verme hoc dicit, sed vermem conscientiam vocat mordentem animam, quod non sit operata bonum. Unusquisque enim sui ipsius accusator fiet, rememorans quae gessit in vita mortali, et sic eorum vermis immortalis permanet. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Then He introduces the witness of prophecy [p. 188] from the prophet Isaiah, saying, "Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." [Isa 65:24] He says not this of a visible worm, but He calls conscience, a worm, gnawing the soul for not having done any good thing; for each of us shall be made his own accuser, by calling to mind what he has done in this mortal life, and so their worm remains forever.
Beda: Sicut autem vermis est dolor interius accusans, sic ignis est poena extrinsecus saeviens. Vel in verme putredinem Gehennae, sicut in igne ardorem designat. Bede: And as the worm is the pain which inwardly accuses, so the fire is a punishment which rages without us; or by the worm is meant the rottenness of hell, by the fire, its heat.
Augustinus de Civ. Dei: Utrumque autem horum, ignem scilicet, ac vermem, qui volunt ad animae poenas, non ad corporis pertinere, dicunt etiam uri dolore animae, sero ac infructuose poenitentis, eos qui fuerint a regno Dei separati; et ideo ignem pro isto dolore urente non incongrue poni posse contendunt, secundum illud apostoli: quis scandalizatur, et ego non uror? Eumdem etiam dolorem vermem putant intelligendum esse, secundum illud: sicut tinea vestimentum, vermis lignum, sic moeror excruciat cor viri. Qui vero poenas et animae et corporis in illo supplicio futuras esse non dubitant, igne uri corpus, animam vero rodi quodammodo verme moeroris affirmant; quod etsi credibilius dicitur, quia utique absurdum est ibi dolorem aut corporis, aut animae defuturum; ego tamen facilius existimo ut ad corpus utrumque dicam pertinere quam neutrum: et ideo tacitum esse in istis divinae Scripturae verbis animi dolorem, quia consequens esse intelligitur ut corpore dolente animus quoque crucietur. Eligat ergo quisque quod placet: aut ignem tribuere corpori, animae vermem, hoc proprie, illud tropice; aut utrumque proprie corpori. Possunt enim animalia etiam in ignibus vivere, in ustione sine consumptione, in dolore sine morte per miraculum potentissimi creatoris. Augustine, de Civ. Dei, 21, 9: But those who hold that both of these, namely, the fire and the worm, belong to the pains of the soul, and not of the body, say also that those who are separated from the kingdom of God are tortured, as with fire, by the pangs of a soul repenting too late and hopelessly; and they not unfitly contend that fire may be put for that burning grief, as says the Apostle, "Who is offended, and I burn not?" [2 Cor 11:29] They also think that by the worm must be understood the same grief, as is said: "As a moth destroys a garment, and a worm wood, so grief tortures the heart of man." [Prov 25:20 Vulgate] All those who hesitate not to affirm that there will be pain both of body and soul in that punishment affirm that the body is burnt by the fire. But although this is more credible, because it is absurd that there either the pains of body or of soul should be wanting, still I think that it is easier to say that both belong to the body than that neither: and therefore it seems to me that Holy Scripture in this place is silent about the pains of the soul, because it follows that the soul also is tortured in the pains of the body. Let each man therefore choose which he will, either to refer the fire to the body, the worm to the soul, the one properly, the other in a figure, or else both properly to the body; for living things may exist even in fire, in burnings without being wasted, in pain without death, by the wondrous power of the Almighty Creator.
Sequitur et si pes tuus scandalizat te. It goes on: "And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched; where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."
Beda: Pes amicus dicitur propter ministerium discursus, quasi nostris usibus accommodatus. Bede: A friend is called a foot, on account of its service in going about for us, since he is as it were ready for our use.
Sequitur quod si oculus tuus scandalizat te. Oculus dicitur amicus utilis atque sollicitus et acutus ad perspiciendum. It goes on: "And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better [p. 189] for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire; where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." A friend who is useful, and anxious, and sharp in perception, is called an eye.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Hic profecto apparet quod illi qui nomini Christi sunt devoti, et priusquam Christianorum numero socientur, utiliores sunt quam hi qui, cum iam Christiani appellentur et Christianis sacramentis imbuti sint, talia suadent ut eos quibus ea persuaserint, secum in aeternam poenam pertrahant: quos membrorum corporalium nomine, tamquam manum vel oculum scandalizantem, iubet erui a corpore, hoc est ab ipsa unitatis societate; ut sine his potius veniatur ad vitam, quam cum eis eatur in Gehennam. Hoc ipso autem separantur a quibus separantur, quod eis mala suadentibus, hoc est scandalizantibus, non consentiunt. Et si quidem omnibus bonis cum quibus eis societas est, de hac perversitate innotescunt, ab omni penitus societate atque ab ipsa divinorum sacramentorum participatione separentur. Si autem quibusdam ita noti sunt, pluribus autem ista eorum est ignota perversitas, ita tolerandi sunt ut neque illis ad iniquitatis communionem consentiatur, neque propter illos bonorum societas deseratur. Augustine, de. Con. Evan., 4, 6: Here truly it appears that they who do acts of devotedness in the name of Christ, even before they have joined themselves to the company of Christians, and have been washed in the Christian Sacraments, are more useful than those who though already bearing the name of Christians, by their doctrine drag their followers with themselves into everlasting punishment; whom also under the name of members of the body, He orders, as an offending eye or hand, to be torn from the body, that is, from the fellowship itself of unity, that we may rather come to everlasting life without them, than with them go into hell. But the separation of those who separate themselves from them consists in the very circumstance of their not yielding to them, when they would persuade them to evil, that is, offend them. If indeed their wickedness becomes known to all the good men with whom they are connected, they are altogether cut off from all fellowship, and even from partaking in the heavenly Sacraments. If however they are thus known only to the smaller number, whilst their wickedness is unknown to the generality, they are to be tolerated in such a way that we should not consent to join in their iniquity, and that the communion of the good should not be deserted on their account.
Beda: Quia vero dominus tertio mentionem vermis et ignis fecerat, ut hoc valeamus evitare tormentum, subdit omnis enim igne salietur. Foetor enim vermium de corruptione solet nasci carnis et sanguinis; ideoque caro recens sale conditur, ut exsiccato humore sanguineo, vermescere nequeat. Et quidem quod sale salitur, vermis putredinem arcet; quod vero igne salitur, idest ignibus sale aspersis reconditur, non solum vermes abicit, sed ipsam quoque carnem consumit. Caro ergo et sanguis vermes creat: quia delectatio carnalis, cui condimentum continentiae non resistit, poenam luxuriosis generat aeternam; cuius foetorem quisquis vitare desiderat, et corpus sale continentiae, et mentem studeat condimento sapientiae ab erroris et vitiorum labe castigare. Sal enim dulcedinem sapientiae, ignis spiritus sancti gratiam designat. Dicit ergo omnis igne salietur: quia omnis electus sapientia spirituali debet a corruptione concupiscentiae carnalis expurgari. Vel ignis est tribulationis, quo patientia fidelium, ut perfectum opus habere possit, exercetur. Bede: But because the Lord had three times made mention of the worm and the fire, that we might be able to avoid this torment, He subjoins, "For every one shall be salted with fire." For the stink of worms always arises from the corruption of flesh and blood, and therefore fresh meat is seasoned with salt, that the moisture of the blood may be dried off, and so it may not breed worms. And if, indeed, that which is salted with salt, keeps off the putrefying worm, that which is salted with fire, that is, seasoned again with flames, on which salt is sprinkled, not only casts off worms, but also consumes the flesh itself. Flesh and blood therefore breed worms, that is, carnal pleasure, if unopposed by the seasoning of continence, produces everlasting punishment for the luxurious; the stink of [p. 190] which if any man would avoid, let him take care to chasten his body with the salt of continence, and his mind with the seasoning of wisdom, from the stain of error and vice. For salt means the sweetness of wisdom; and fire, the grace of the Holy Spirit. He says, therefore, "Every one shall be salted with fire," because all the elect ought to be purged by spiritual wisdom, from the corruption of carnal concupiscence. Or else, the fire is the fire of tribulation, by which the patience of the faithful is proved, that it may have its perfect work.
Chrysostomus: Simile autem est huic quod dicit apostolus: uniuscuiusque opus quale sit ignis probabit. Postea a Levitico testimonium introducit dicens et omnis victima salietur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: Similar to this is that which the Apostle says, "And the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is." [1 Cor 3:13] Afterwards he brings in a witness from Leviticus: which says, "And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt." [Lev 2:13]
Hieronymus: Victima domini est genus humanum, quod hic ratione sapientiae salitur, dum corruptio sanguinis, custodia putredinis et mater vermium, consumetur, et illic Purgatorio igne examinabitur. Pseudo-Jerome: The oblation of the Lord is the race of man, which is here salted by means of wisdom, whilst the corruption of blood, the nurse of rottenness, and the mother of worms, is being consumed, which there also shall be tried by the purgatorial fire. [ed. note: On the subject of the purgatorial fire, see Fluery's Hist., xix, 31, p. 102, note i, and Chrysostom, de Statuis, vi, 10, p. 130, note c, Oxford trans.]
Beda: Possumus et ita intelligere: quod altare Dei sit cor electorum; hostiae vero et sacrificia in hoc altari offerenda, bona sunt opera fidelium. In omnibus autem sacrificiis sal debet offerri: quia nullum est opus bonum quod non sal sapientiae ab omni corruptione vanae laudis ceterisque pravis sive superfluis cogitationibus expurgat. Bede: We may also understand the altar to be the heart of the elect, and the victims and sacrifices to be offered on the altar are good works. But in all sacrifices salt ought to be offered, for that is not a good work which is not purged by the salt of wisdom from all corruption of vain glory, and other evil and superfluous thoughts.
Chrysostomus: Vel hoc dicitur, quia omne munus victimae nostrae, quae est secundum orationem et proximi subventionem, salitur igne divino, de quo dicitur: ignem veni mittere in terram; de quo subditur bonum est sal, idest ignis dilectionis. Quod si sal insulsum fuerit, idest seipso privatum, et propria qualitate per quam dicitur bonum, in quo illud condietis? Sunt enim sales sal habentes, qui scilicet habent gratiae plenitudinem; et sunt sales sal non habentes: qui enim non sunt pacifici, sal sunt insulsum. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. in Cat.: Or else it is meant, that every gift of our victim, which is accompanied by prayer and the assisting of our neighbour, is salted with that divine fire, of which it is said, "I am come to send fire on earth." [Luke 12:49] Concerning which it is added: "Salt is good;" that is, the fire of love. "But if the salt have lost his saltness," that is, is deprived of itself, and that peculiar quality, by which it is called, good, "where with will ye season it?" For there is salt, which has saltness, that is, which has the fulness of grace; and there is salt, which has no saltness, for that which is not peaceful is salt unseasoned.
Beda: Vel bonum est sal: bonum est Dei verbum audire frequentius et sale sapientiae spiritualis cordis arcana condire. Bede: Or the good salt is the frequent hearing of God's word, and the seasoning the hidden parts of the heart with the salt of spiritual wisdom.
Theophylactus: Sicut enim sal carnes conservat, et vermes eas non sinit generare, sic et sermo doctoris, si desiccativus erit, carnales homines constringit, et in eis inextinguibilem vermem non sinit generari; si vero sit insulsus, idest si virtutem desiccativam et conservativam non habeat, in quo condietur? Theophylact: For as salt preserves flesh, and suffers it not to breed worms, so also the discourse of the teacher, if it can dry up what is evil, [p. 191] constrains carnal men, and suffers not the undying worm to grow up in them. But if it be without saltness, that is, if its virtue of drying up and preserving be gone, with what shall it be salted?
Chrysostomus: Vel, secundum Matthaeum, discipuli Christi sunt sal, qui totum orbem conservant, resistentes putredini, quae est ab idololatria et fornicatione peccatorum. Potest etiam intelligi quod unusquisque nostrum habeat tantum salis quantum capax est Dei gratiarum; unde et apostolus coniungit gratiam sali, dicens: sermo vester sit in gratia sale conditus. Sal etiam est dominus Iesus Christus, qui fuit sufficiens totam terram conservare, et multos in terra fecit sales: quorum si aliquis marcescat (possibile est enim et bonos in putredinem transmutari), dignum est ut foras mittatur. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. in Cat.: Or, according to Matthew, the disciples of Christ are the salt, which preserves the whole world, resisting the rottenness which proceeds from idolatry and sinful fornication. For it may also be meant, that each of us has salt, in as far as he contains in himself the graces of God. Wherefore also the Apostle joins together grace and salt, saying, "Let your speech be always with grace, seasoned with salt.: [Col 4:6] For salt is the Lord Jesus Christ, Who was able to preserve the whole earth, and made many to be salt in the earth: and if any of these be corrupted, (for it is possible for even the good to be changed into corruption,) they are worthy to be cast out.
Hieronymus: Vel aliter. Sal insulsum est qui amat principatum et increpare non audet; unde sequitur habete in vobis sal, et pacem habete inter vos: ut scilicet salsedinem correptionis amor proximi temperet, et dilectionem proximi sal iustitiae condiat. Pseudo-Jerome: Or otherwise; That salt is saltless which loves the chief place, and dares not rebuke others. Wherefore there follows, "Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another." That is, let the love of your neighbour temper the saltness of rebuke, and the salt of justice season the love of your neighbour.
Gregorius super Ezech: Vel hoc dicitur contra quosdam, quos dum maior scientia erigit, a ceterorum societate disiungit; et quo plus sapiunt, eo a concordiae virtute resipiscunt. Greg., De cura past., iii, e.22: Or this is said against those whom greater knowledge, while it raises above their neighbours, cuts off from the fellowship of others; thus the more their learning increases, the more they unlearn the virtue of concord.
Gregorius Reg. Pastor: Qui etiam loqui sapienter nititur, magnopere metuat ne eius eloquio audientium unitas confundatur; ne dum sapiens videri desiderat, unitatis compagem insipienter abscindat. Greg., De cura past., ii, 4: He also who strives to speak with wisdom should be greatly afraid, lest by his eloquence the unity of his hearers be thrown into confusion, lest, while he would appear wise, he unwisely cut asunder the bonds of unity.
Theophylactus: Vel qui constringit se vinculo dilectionis ad proximum, hic salem habet, et ex hoc pacem cum fratre suo. Theophylact: Or else, he who binds himself to his neighbour by the tie of love, has salt, and in this way peace with his neighbour.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Haec Marcus dominum locutum fuisse contextim commemorat; et aliqua posuit quae nullus alius Evangelistarum posuit, alia vero quae Matthaeus quoque posuit, et aliqua quae Matthaeus et Lucas; sed illi ex aliis occasionibus et in alio rerum ordine: unde mihi videtur etiam hoc loco dominum ideo dixisse quae aliis locis dixit, quia satis pertinebant ad hanc ipsam eius sententiam, qua vetuit prohiberi virtutes in nomine suo fieri, etiam ab illo qui cum discipulis eum non sequebatur. Augustine, de. Con, iv. 6: Mark relates that the Lord said these things consecutively, and has put down some things omitted by every other Evangelist, some which Matthew has also related, others which both Matthew and Luke relate, but on other occasions, and in a different series of events. Wherefore it seems to me that our Lord repeated in this place discourses which He had used in other places, because they were pertinent enough to this saying of His, by which He prevented their forbidding miracles to be wrought in His name, even by him who followed Him not together with His disciples.

Caput 10Gospel of Mark, Chapter 10[p. 192]
Lectio 1
1 καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἀναστὰς ἔρχεται εἰς τὰ ὅρια τῆς ἰουδαίας [καὶ] πέραν τοῦ ἰορδάνου, καὶ συμπορεύονται πάλιν ὄχλοι πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ ὡς εἰώθει πάλιν ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς. 2 καὶ προσελθόντες φαρισαῖοι ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν εἰ ἔξεστιν ἀνδρὶ γυναῖκα ἀπολῦσαι, πειράζοντες αὐτόν. 3 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, τί ὑμῖν ἐνετείλατο μωϋσῆς; 4 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, ἐπέτρεψεν μωϋσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι καὶ ἀπολῦσαι. 5 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, πρὸς τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν ἔγραψεν ὑμῖν τὴν ἐντολὴν ταύτην. 6 ἀπὸ δὲ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς: 7 ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα [καὶ προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ], 8 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν: ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ μία σάρξ. 9 ὃ οὖν ὁ θεὸς συνέζευξεν ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω. 10 καὶ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν πάλιν οἱ μαθηταὶ περὶ τούτου ἐπηρώτων αὐτόν. 11 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην μοιχᾶται ἐπ' αὐτήν, 12 καὶ ἐὰν αὐτὴ ἀπολύσασα τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς γαμήσῃ ἄλλον μοιχᾶται.
1. And He arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto Him again; and, as He was wont, He taught them again. 2. And the Pharisees came to Him, and asked Him, "Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife?," tempting Him. 3. And He answered and said unto them, "What did Moses command you?" 4. And they said, "Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away." 5. And Jesus answered and said unto them, "For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept." 6. But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. 7. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife; 8. And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh. 9. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder." 10. And in the house, His disciples asked Him again of the same matter. 11. And He saith unto them, "Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her. [p. 193] 12. And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery."

Beda: Hucusque Marcus ea narravit de domino quae in Galilaea fecit et docuit; hic incipit enarrare quae in Iudaea fecit et docuit sive passus est, et primo quidem trans Iordanem ad orientem; et hoc est quod dicitur et inde exurgens venit in fines Iudaeae ultra Iordanem. Deinde etiam circa Iordanem, quando venit Iericho, Bethaniam et Hierosolymam. Et cum omnis Iudaeorum provincia generaliter ad distinctionem aliarum gentium Iudaea sit dicta, specialius tamen meridiana eius plaga appellabatur Iudaea, ad distinctionem Samariae, Galilaeae, Decapolis et ceterarum in eadem provincia regionum. Bede, In Marcum, 3, 40: Up to this time, Mark hath related what Our Lord said and did in Galilee; here he begins to relate what He did, taught, or suffered in Judaea, and first indeed across the Jordan on the east; and this is what is said in these words: "And He arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea, by the farther side of Jordan"; then also on this side Jordan, when He came to Jericho, Bethany, and Jerusalem. And though all the province of the Jews is generally called Judaea, to distinguish it from other nations, more especially, however, its southern portion was called Judaea, to distinguish it from Samaria, Galilee, Decapolis, and the other regions in the same province.
Theophylactus: Visitat autem regionem Iudaeae, quam saepe propter Iudaeorum aemulationem reliquerat, quia passio in ea erat futura; non tamen ascendit tunc Hierosolymam, sed Iudaeae confinia, ut turbae non malitiosae proficerent; Hierosolyma enim erat operatrix omnis nequitiae ob malitiam Iudaeorum; unde Theophylact: But He enters the region of Judaea, which the envy of the Jews had often caused Him to leave, because His Passion was to take place there. He did not, however, then go up to Jerusalem, but to the confines of Judaea, that He might do good to the multitudes, who were not evil; for Jerusalem was, from the malice of the Jews, the worker of all the wickedness.
Sequitur et conveniunt iterum turbae ad eum; et sicut consueverat, iterum docebat illos. Wherefore it goes on: "And the people resort unto Him again, and, as He was wont, He taught them again."
Beda: Notanda est mentium distantia in turbis et Pharisaeis: hae conveniunt ut doceantur, et sui sanentur infirmi, sicut Matthaeus commemorat; illi accedunt ut salvatorem tentando decipiant; unde sequitur et accedentes Pharisaei interrogabant eum, si licet viro uxorem dimittere, tentantes eum. Bede: Mark the difference of temper in the multitude and in the Pharisees. The former meet together, in order to be taught, and that their sick may be healed, as Matthew relates [Matt 19:2]; the latter come to Him, to try to deceive their Saviour by tempting Him. Wherefore there follows: "And the Pharisees came to Him, and asked Him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting Him."
Theophylactus: Accedunt quidem non deserentes eum, ne turbae in eum crederent; sed continue accedentes credebant eum in dubitationem deducere, et eum per interrogationes confundere. Proposuerunt autem ei quaestionem ex utraque parte praecipitium habentem: ut si dicat, quod licet viro uxorem dimittere, vel non licet, accusarent ipsum, contradicentes eidem ex dogmatibus Moysi. Christus igitur sapientia ipsa respondit eis responsionem illorum laqueos fugientem. Theophylact: They come to Him indeed, and do not quit Him, lest the multitudes should believe on Him; and by continually coming to Him, they thought to bring Him into difficulty, and to confuse Him by their questions. For they proposed to Him a question, which had on either side a precipice, so that whether He said that it was lawful for a man to put away his wife, or that it was not lawful, they might accuse Him, and contradict what He said, out of the doctrines of Moses. Christ, therefore, being Very Wisdom, in answering their [p. 194] question, avoids their snares.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Interrogatus enim si licet, non statim respondit: non licet, ne tumultuentur; sed primo eis legis sententiam voluit respondere, ut quod eum dicere oportebat, hoc illi responderent: unde sequitur at ille respondens ait: quid vobis praecepit Moyses? Chrys., Vict. Ant., Cat. in Marc., and see Chrys. Hom. 62 [note: the same sort of comment is to be found in Origin, in Matt. tom. 14, 17, IIii in Matt. 19, Ambr. in Luc. 8, 9. Auct. Op. Imperfecti in loc. Theophyl. in Matt. 19.]: For being asked, whether it is lawful, he does not immediately reply, it is not lawful, lest they should raise an outcry, but He first wished them to answer Him as to the sentence of the law, that they by their answer might furnish Him with what it was right to say.
Sequitur qui dixerunt: Moyses permisit libellum repudii scribere et dimittere. Proponunt quidem Moysen hoc dixisse, aut propter interrogationem salvatoris, aut volentes in eum virorum multitudinem incitare. Etenim hoc Iudaeis erat indifferens, et omnes hoc operabantur tamquam a lege permissum. Wherefore it goes on: "And He answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you?" And afterwards, "And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away." They put forward indeed this that Moses had said either on account of the question of our Saviour, or wishing to excite against Him a multitude of men. For divorce was an indifferent thing among the Jews, and all practised it, as though it were permitted by the law.
Augustinus de Cons. Evang: Nihil autem ad rei veritatem interest utrum domino separationem prohibenti, et sententiam suam de lege firmanti, ipsae turbae, ut Matthaeus narrat, intulerint quaestionem de libello repudii per eumdem Moysen sibi permisso, an hoc quidem illi de praecepto Moysi illos interroganti responderint, ut Marcus hic dicit: nam et voluntas eius ita se habebat ut non eis redderet rationem cur illud Moyses permiserit, nisi prius ipsi hoc commemorassent. Cum ergo voluntas loquentium, cui debent verba servire, ab Evangelista utroque monstrata sit, nihil interest iam, licet diversus inter ambos fuerit modus narrandi. Potest etiam hoc intelligi quod, sicut dicit Marcus, prius eos de uxore dimittenda interrogantes, dominus vicissim interrogarit quid eis praecepit Moyses; qui cum respondissent, Moysen permisisse libellum repudii scribere, et dimittere, respondit eis de ipsa lege per Moysen data, quomodo Deus instituerit coniugium masculi et feminae, dicens ea quae ponit Matthaeus; quibus auditis, illi id quod ei primo interroganti responderant, repetierunt, dicentes quid ergo mandavit Moyses? Augustine, de Con. Evan., ii, 62: It makes nothing, however, to the truth of the fact, whether, as Matthew says, they themselves addressed to the Lord the question concerning the bill of divorcement, allowed to them by Moses, on our Lord's forbidding the separation, and confirming His sentence from the law, or whether it was in answer to a question of His, that they said this concerning the command of Moses, as Mark here says. For His wish was to give them no reason why Moses permitted it, before they themselves had mentioned the fact; since then the wish of the parties speaking, which is what the words ought to express, is in either way shewn, there is no discrepancy, though there be a difference in the way of relating it. It may also be meant that, as Mark expresses it, the question put to them by the Lord, What did Moses command?, was in answer to those who had previously asked His opinion concerning the putting away of a wife. And when they had replied that Moses permitted them to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away, His answer was concerning that same law, given by Moses, how God instituted the marriage of a male, and a female, saying those things which Matthew relates [Matt 19:4]; on hearing which they again rejoined what they had replied to Him when He first asked them, namely - Why then did Moses command?
Augustinus contra Faustum: Nolebat autem dimitti uxorem a viro, qui hanc interposuit moram, ut in dissidium animus praeceps, libelli conscriptione refractus absisteret, praesertim quia, ut perhibent, apud Hebraeos scribere litteras Hebraeas nulli fas erat nisi solis Scribis. Ad hos igitur quos oporteret esse prudentes legis interpretes, et iustos dissidii dissuasores, lex mittere voluit eum quem iussit libellum dare repudii, si dimisisset uxorem. Non enim poterat ei scribi libellus nisi ab ipsis, quem per hanc occasionem, et necessitatem venientem quodammodo in manus suas bono consilio regerent, atque inter ipsum et uxorem pacifice agendo dilectionem, concordiamque suaderent. Quod si tantum intercederet odium ut extingui, emendarique non posset, tunc utique scriberetur libellus: quia frustra non dimitteret quam sic odisset ut ad debitam coniugio caritatem nulla prudentium suasione revocaretur; propter hoc subditur quibus respondens Iesus ait: ad duritiam cordis vestri scripsit vobis praeceptum istud. Magna enim duritia erat, quae nec per libelli interpositionem, ubi dissuadendi locus iustis et prudentibus tribuebatur, solvi, vel flecti posset ad recipiendam, vel revocandam coniugii caritatem. Augustine, cont. Faust, XIX, 26: Moses, however, was against a man's dismissing his wife, for he interposed this delay, that a person whose mind was bent on separation, might be deterred by the writing of the bill, and desist; particularly, since, as is related, among the Hebrews, no one was allowed to write Hebrew characters but the scribes. The [p. 195] law therefore wished to send him, whom it ordered to give a bill of divorcement, before he dismissed his wife, to them, who ought to be wise interpreters of the law, and just opponents of quarrel. For a bill could only be written for him by men, who by their good advice might overrule him, since his circumstances and necessity had put him into their hands, and so by treating between him and his wife they might persuade them to love and concord. But if a hatred so great had arisen that it could not be extinguished and corrected, then indeed a bill was to be written, that he might not lightly put away her who was the object of his hate, in such a way as to prevent his being recalled to the love, which he owed her by marriage, through the persuasion of the wise. For this reason it is added, "For the hardness of your heart, he wrote this precept"; for great was the hardness of heart which could not be melted or bent to the taking back and recalling the love of marriage, even by the interposition of a bill in a way which gave room for the just and wise to dissuade them.
Chrysostomus: Vel dicitur ad duritiam cordis vestri, quia si anima fuerit purgata desideriis et ira, possibile est mulierem nequissimam tolerare. Multiplicatis autem in anima passionibus praedictis, multa mala contingent circa odiosum connubium.

Sic igitur ab incusatione eorum Moysen eripit, qui dederat legem, et totum in eorum caput convertit. Sed quia grave erat quod dictum est, statim ad antiquam legem sermonem reducit, dicens ab initio autem creaturae, masculum et feminam fecit eos Deus.

Pseudo-Chrys., Cat. in Marc. Oxon: Or else, it is said, "For the hardness of your hearts," because it is possible for a soul purged from desires and from anger to bear the worst of women; but if those passions have a redoubled force over the mind, many evils will arise from hatred in marriage.

Chrys.: Thus then, He saves Moses, who had given the law, from their accusation, and turns the whole upon their head. But since what He had said was grievous to them, He at once brings back the discourse to the old law, saying, "But from the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female."

Beda: Non ait: masculum et feminas, quod ex priorum repudio quaerebatur; sed masculum et feminam, ut unius coniugis consortio necterentur. Bede: He says not male and females, which the sense would have required had it referred to the divorce of former wives, but "male" and "female", so that they might be bound by the tie of one wife.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Si autem voluisset hanc quidem dimitti, et alteram introduci, creasset plurimas mulieres. Nec solum homini Deus mulierem coniunxit; sed et relinquere parentes praecepit, et mulieri adhaerere; unde sequitur et dixit, scilicet Deus per Adam: propter hoc relinquet homo patrem suum, et matrem suam, et adhaerebit ad uxorem suam, ex ipso modo locutionis inseparabilitatem matrimonii demonstrans, quia dicit adhaerebit. Chrys.: If however he had wished one wife to be put away and another to be brought in, He would have created several women. Nor did God only join one woman to one man, but He also bade a man quit his parents and cleave to his wife. Wherefore it goes on: "And he said, (that is, God, said by Adam) For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife. From the very mode of speech, shewing the impossibility of severing marriage, because He said, "He shall cleave."
Beda: Et similiter quia dicit adhaerebit ad uxorem suam, non ad uxores. Bede: [p. 196] And in like manner, because He says, he shall cleave to his wife, not wives.
Sequitur et erunt duo in carne una. It goes on: "And they twain shall be one flesh."
Chrysostomus in Matth: Idest ex una radice facti, in unum corpus convenient. Chrys.: Being framed out of one root, they will join into one body.
Sequitur itaque iam non sunt duo, sed una caro. It goes on: "So then they are no more twain, but one flesh."
Beda: Primum igitur nuptiarum est ex duabus unam carnem fieri. Castitas iuncta spiritui, unus efficitur spiritus. Bede: The reward then of marriage is of two to become one flesh. Virginity being joined to the Spirit, becomes of one spirit.
Chrysostomus in Matth: Post hoc terribile faciens argumentum, non dixit: ne dividatis; sed conclusit: quod ergo Deus coniunxit, homo non separet. Chrys.: After this, bringing forward an awful argument, He said not, do not divide, but He concluded, "What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder."
Augustinus contra Faustum: Ecce Iudaei ex libris Moysi convincuntur, non esse uxorem dimittendam, qui secundum voluntatem legis Moysi arbitrabantur se facere cum dimitterent. Similiter et illud hinc ipso Christo attestante cognoscimus Deum fecisse, et coniunxisse masculum et feminam; quod Manichaei negando damnantur; non iam Moysi libris, sed Christi Evangelio resistentes. Augustine, cont. Faust, XIX, 29: Behold the Jews are convinced out of the books of Moses, that a wife is not to be put away, while they fancied that in putting her away, they were doing the will of Moses. In like manner from this place, from the witness of Christ Himself, we know this, that God made and joined male and female, for denying which the Manichees are condemned, resisting now not the books of Moses, but the Gospel of Christ.
Beda: Quod ergo Deus coniunxit, unam faciendo carnem viri et feminae, hoc homo non potest separare, sed solus Deus. Homo separat quando propter desiderium secundae uxoris primam dimittimus; Deus separat quando ex consensu propter servitutem Dei sic habemus uxores quasi non habentes. Bede: What therefore God hath conjoined by making one flesh of a man and a woman, that man cannot separate, but God alone. Man separates, when we dismiss the first wife because we desire a second; but it is God who separates, when by common consent [1 Cor 7:5], for the sake of serving God, we so have wives as though we had none [1 Cor 7:29].
Chrysostomus: Si autem duo quos Deus coniunxit, separari non debent, multo magis Ecclesiam, quam Deus Christo coniunxit, ab eo non convenit separare. Chrys.: But if two persons, whom God has joined together, are not to be separated; much more is it wrong to separate from Christ, the Church, which God has joined to Him.
Theophylactus: Quia vero scandalizabantur discipuli, tamquam ex praedictis non plene eis fuerit satisfactum, propter hoc eum iterum interrogant; unde sequitur et in domo iterum discipuli eius de eodem interrogaverunt eum. Theophylact: But the disciples were offended, as not being fully satisfied with what had been said; for this reason they again question Him. Wherefore there follows: "And in the house, His disciples asked Him again of the same matter."
Hieronymus: Secunda interrogatio ab apostolis iterum dicta est: quia de eadem re, de qua Pharisaei, eum interrogaverunt, idest de coniugii statu: et hoc proprie dicit Marcus. Pseudo-Jerome: This second question is said to be asked "again" by the Apostles, because it is on the subject of which the Pharisees had asked Him, that is, concerning the state of marriage; and this is said by Mark in his own person.
Glossa: Iterata enim verbi sententia, non fastidium, sed esuriem et sitim praestat: unde qui me comedunt, adhuc esurient; et qui me bibunt, adhuc sitient. Melliflua enim sapientiae eloquia gustata, diligentibus multimodum saporem reddunt: unde dominus iterato discipulos instruit; nam Gloss: For a repetition of a saying of the Word, produces not weariness, but thirst and hunger. Wherefore it is said, "They that eat me shall yet be hungry, and they that drink me shall yet be [p. 197] thirsty"; for the tasting of the honied words of wisdom yields all manner of savour to them who love her.
Sequitur et dixit illis: quicumque dimiserit uxorem suam, et aliam duxerit, adulterium committit super eam. Wherefore the Lord instructs His disciples over again; for it goes on, "And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife and marry another, committeth adultery upon her."
Chrysostomus: Adulterium vocat non cum sua simul esse: non enim est sua quam accepit, prima derelicta; et propter hoc committit adulterium super eam, idest super secundam quam introducit. Idem autem est et de muliere; unde sequitur et si uxor dimiserit virum suum, et alii nupserit, moechatur. Non enim alteri, ut proprio viro potest coniungi, si proprium derelinquat. Et quidem lex prohibuit adulterium manifestum; sed salvator hoc non manifestum, neque ab omnibus notum, naturae tamen contrarium. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant., e Cat. in Marc.: The Lord calls by the name of adultery cohabitation with her who is not a man's wife; she is not, however, a wife, whom a man has taken to him, after quitting the first; and for this reason he commits adultery upon her, that is, upon the second, whom he brings in. And the same thing is true in the case of the woman; wherefore it goes on, "And if a woman shall put away her husband, and marry another, she committeth adultery"; for she cannot be joined to another as her own husband, if she leave him who is really her own husband. The law indeed forbade what was plainly adultery; but the Saviour forbids this, which was neither plain, nor known to all, though it was contrary to nature.
Beda: In Matthaeo vero scriptum est plenius: quicumque dimiserit uxorem suam, nisi ob fornicationem. Una ergo solum carnalis est causa, fornicatio; una spiritualis, timor Dei, ut uxor dimittatur, sicut multi religionis causa fecisse leguntur. Nulla autem causa est Dei lege perscripta, ut vivente ea quae relicta est, alia adducatur. Bede: In Matthew it is more fully expressed, "Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication." [Matt 19:9] The only carnal cause then is fornication; the only spiritual cause is the fear of God, that a man should put away his wife to enter into religion [ed. note: Husbands and wives have never been allowed to take monastic vows without mutual consent, see Bingham, book 7, ch 3; where also are incidentally given many instances of married persons thus giving up the world.], as we read that many have done. But there is no cause allowed by the law of God for marrying another, during the lifetime of her who is quitted.
Chrysostomus: Quod autem Matthaeus dicit, Pharisaeis haec verba dixisse, Marcus vero discipulis, non est contrarium: contingit enim haec et his et illis dicta esse. Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: There is no contrariety in Matthew's relating that He spoke these words to the Pharisees, though Mark says that they were spoken to the disciples; for it is possible that He may have spoken them to both.

Lectio 2
13 καὶ προσέφερον αὐτῷ παιδία ἵνα αὐτῶν ἅψηται: οἱ δὲ μαθηταὶ ἐπετίμησαν αὐτοῖς. 14 ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἠγανάκτησεν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, ἄφετε τὰ παιδία ἔρχεσθαι πρός με, μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά, τῶν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ. 15 ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὃς ἂν μὴ δέξηται τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς παιδίον,