Lectio 1 LECTURE I 1 ταῦτα ἐλάλησεν Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἶπεν, πάτερ, ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥρα: δόξασόν σου τὸν υἱόν, ἵνα ὁ υἱὸς δοξάσῃ σέ, 2 καθὼς ἔδωκας αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαν πάσης σαρκός, ἵνα πᾶν ὃ δέδωκας αὐτῷ δώσῃ αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 3 αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, ἵνα γινώσκωσιν σὲ τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεὸν καὶ ὃν ἀπέστειλας Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν. 4 ἐγώ σε ἐδόξασα ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὸ ἔργον τελειώσας ὃ δέδωκάς μοι ἵνα ποιήσω: 5 καὶ νῦν δόξασόν με σύ, πάτερ, παρὰ σεαυτῷ τῇ δόξῃ ᾗ εἶχον πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι παρὰ σοί. 1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven and said, "Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, 2 since you have given him power over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. 3 And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. 4 I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work which you gave me to do; 5 and now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory which I had with you before the world was made." Supra dominus confortavit discipulos exemplo et exhortatione; in parte ista confortat eos oratione: in qua quidem oratione tria facit. Primo orat pro seipso; secundo pro discipulorum collegio, ibi manifestavi nomen tuum hominibus quos dedisti mihi de mundo; tertio pro universo fideli populo, ibi non pro eis rogo tantum, sed pro eis qui credituri sunt. Circa primum tria facit. Primo proponit petitionem; secundo petitionis fructum, ibi ut filius tuus clarificet te etc.; tertio petitionis exaudiendae meritum, ibi ego clarificavi te et cetera. Circa primum primo ponitur orandi ordo; secundo orandi modus; tertio orationis verba. 2177 Above, our Lord consoled his disciples by example and encouragement; here he comforts them by his prayer. In this prayer he does three things: first, he prays for himself; secondly, for the group of the disciples (v 6); thirdly, for all the faithful (v 20). He does three things with the first: first, he makes his request; secondly, he states the fruit of this request, that the Son may glorify you; thirdly, he mentions why his request deserves to be heard (v 4). In regard to the first point: first, we see the order he followed in his prayer; secondly, the way he prayed; thirdly, the words he used. Ordo orandi est congruus, quia post exhortationem; unde dicit haec locutus est Iesus. In quo datur nobis exemplum, ut quos instruimus verbo, iuvemus orationum suffragio, quia sermo divinus maxime habet effectum in cordibus auditorum, cum oratione fulcitur, per quam divinum auxilium imploratur; II Thess. ult., 1: orantes simul etiam pro nobis, ut Deus aperiat nobis ostium sermonis. Unde et finis sermonis nostri debet ad orationem terminari; Eccli. XLIII, 29: consummatio sermonum ipse est. 2178 The order he followed was fitting, because he prayed after first encouraging them. So we read, When Jesus had spoken these words. This gives us the example to help by our prayers those we are teaching by our words, because religious teaching has its greatest effect in the hearts of those who hear it when it is supported by a prayer which asks for divine help: "Pray for us, that the word of the Lord may speed on and triumph" (2 Thess 3:1). Again, our sermon should end with a prayer: "The sum of our words is: 'he is the all.'" Modus decens, quia sublevatis oculis in caelum. Differentia est enim inter orationem Christi et orationem nostram: nam oratio nostra est solum ad necessitatem, sed oratio Christi est magis ad instructionem. Nulla enim necessitas inerat sibi orandi, qui simul cum patre exaudit. Instruxit autem nos in hoc, et verbo et facto. Facto quidem, sublevando oculos, ut et nos in oratione nostra oculos ad caelum levemus; Ps. CXXII, 1: ad te levavi oculos meos, qui habitas in caelis. Et non tantum oculos nostros, sed etiam operationes nostras in Deum referendo; secundum illud Thren. c. III, 41: levemus corda nostra cum manibus ad dominum in caelos. Verbo autem, quia manifeste orationem protulit; unde dicit et dixit, ut scilicet quos instruxerat docendo, instrueret orando. Non solum enim verbum Christi, sed et facta eius, nostra instructio est. 2179 The way he prayed is that he lifted up his eyes to heaven. There is a difference between the prayer of Christ and our own prayer: our prayer arises solely from our needs, while the prayer of Christ is more for our instruction, for there was no need for him to pray for himself, since together with his Father he answers prayers. He instructs us here by his words and actions. He teaches us by his actions in lifting up his eyes, so that we also will lift our eyes to heaven when we pray: "To you I lift up my eyes, O you who are enthroned in the heavens!" (Ps 123:1). And not just our eyes, but also our actions, by referring them to God: "Let us lift up our hearts and hands to God in heaven" (Lam 3:41). He teaches us by his words, for he said his prayer publicly, and said, so that those whom he taught by teaching he might also teach by praying. We are taught not just by the words of Christ, but also by his actions. Verba autem eius sunt efficacia; unde dicit pater, venit hora: quae quidem efficacia causatur ex tribus. Scilicet ex orantis affectu: filius enim orat patrem, cuius est patrem ex amore quaerere, et ex amore rogare; unde dicit pater, ut per hoc det intelligere, ut filiali affectu oremus Deum; Ier. c. III, 19: patrem vocabis me, et post me ingredi non cessabis. 2180 His words are effective; thus he says, Father, the hour has come. Their effectiveness is caused by three things. First, by the love of the one praying. For the Son is praying to his Father and petitioning the Father because of his love for the Father. So he says, Father, to show us that we should pray to God with the affection of his children: "And I thought you would call me, My Father, and would not turn from following me" (Jer 3:19). Secundo ex orandi necessitate; unde dicit venit hora, passionis, de qua supra II, 4: nondum venit hora mea. Hora inquam, non tempus, non dies, quia statim capiendus erat et cetera. Nec hora fatalis necessitatis, sed suae ordinationis et beneplaciti. Et convenienter rogaturus interponit tribulationes, quia in eis maxime Deus exaudit; Ps. CXIX, 1: ad dominum, cum tribularer, clamavi et exaudivit me; II Paral. XX, 12: cum ignoremus quid agere debeamus, hoc solum habemus residui ut oculos nostros dirigamus ad te. Tertio ex petitionis tenore; unde dicit clarifica filium tuum. Secondly, his prayer is effective because of the need for this prayer; for as he says, the hour has come, for his passion, about which he had said before: "My hour has not yet come" (2:4). The hour, I say, not the season, not the day, because Christ was to be seized right away. Not an hour fixed but fate, but chosen by his own plan and good pleasure. And it is appropriate that right before he prays he mentions his troubles, because God especially hears us when we are troubled: "In my troubles I cried to the Lord, and he heard me" [Ps 120:1]; "Since we do not know what to do, we can only turn our eyes to you" [2 Chron 20:12]. Thirdly, his prayer is effective because of its content, glorify your Son. Sed cum filius Dei sit ipsa sapientia, I Cor. I; haec autem maximam claritatem habeat, Sap. VI, 13: clara est, et quae numquam marcescit sapientia: quomodo dicitur claritas clarificari, praesertim cum ipse sit splendor patris? Hebr. I, 3. Sed dicendum, quod Christus tripliciter petebat clarificari a patre. Scilicet in passione: et hoc per multa miracula quae tunc ostensa sunt, cum sol obscuratus est, scissum est velum templi et monumenta aperta sunt. Et de hoc dicitur supra XII, 28: et clarificavi, scilicet miraculis ante passionem, et iterum clarificabo, in passione. Unde dicit, secundum hoc, clarifica, in passione me ostendendo esse filium tuum. Unde centurio visis miraculis dixit: vere filius Dei erat iste. 2181 But the Son of God is Wisdom itself, and this has the greatest glory: "Wisdom is radiant and unfading" (Wis 6:13). How then can he speak of glory being glorified, especially since he is the splendor of the Father (Heb 1:3)? We should say that Christ asked to be glorified by the Father in three ways. First, in his passion, and this was done by the many miracles which occurred: for the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent, and graves were opened. This was referred to before (12:28): "I have glorified it," by the miracles occurring before the passion, "and I will glorify it again," during the passion. With this understanding Christ says, glorify me in my passion by showing that I am your Son. And so the centurion, after seeing the miracles, said: "Truly, this was the Son of God" (Mt 27:54). Secundo in resurrectione. Anima enim illa sancta semper Deo coniuncta fuit habens gloriam ex Dei visione; supra, I, 14: vidimus gloriam eius, gloriam quasi unigeniti a patre, plenum gratiae et veritatis. Nam a principio conceptionis quantum ad animam habuit claritatem, sed in resurrectione habuit claritatem corporis, de qua Phil. III, 21: reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, configuratum corpori claritatis suae. Tertio in notitia omnium populorum; Sap. c. VIII, 10: habeo per hanc claritatem ad turbas, et honorem apud seniores. Secondly, Christ sought to be glorified in his resurrection. His holy soul was always joined to God and possessed glory from the vision of God: "We have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father" (1:14). From the beginning of his conception, his soul was glorified, but in the resurrection he had glory of body also, referred to in "Jesus Christ, who will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body" (Phil 3:21). Thirdly, he sought to be glorified in the knowledge of all people: "Because of her I shall have glory among the multitudes and honor in the presence of the elders" (Wis 8:10). Et sic dicit clarifica, idest, manifesta toti mundo me esse filium tuum, scilicet proprium, et hoc nativitate, non creatione: contra Arium dicentem, filium Dei esse creaturam, veritate, non nuncupatione: contra Sabellium dicentem, quod idem est qui dicitur pater, et qui dicitur filius, origine, non adoptione: contra Nestorium, qui dixit Christum esse filium adoptivum. And so he says, glorify your Son, that is, show the entire world that I am your Son, in the strict sense: by birth, not by creation (in opposition to Arius, who said that the Son of God is a creature); in truth, not just in name (against Sabellius, who said that the same person is now called Father and then called Son); by origin, not adoption (in opposition to Nestorius, who said that Christ was an adopted son). Hic ponitur fructus clarificationis, et primo proponit fructum; secundo exponit, ibi sicut dedisti ei potestatem omnis carnis. 2182 Now we see the fruit of his being glorified: first, the fruit is mentioned; secondly, it is explained, since you have given him power... Fructus autem clarificationis filii est clarificatio patris, unde dicit ut filius tuus clarificet te. Et sciendum, quod audiens Arius dominum dicentem clarifica filium tuum, opinatus est patrem maiorem filio: quod quidem verum est secundum humanitatem. Supra XIV, 28: pater maior me est. Et ideo, ut ostendat aequalitatem eius ad patrem secundum divinitatem, subiungit ut filius tuus clarificet te, scilicet in notitia hominum. Gloria enim est clara cum laude notitia. Deus autem olim erat clarus apud Iudaeos, quia notus in Iudaea Deus, Ps. LXXV, 2, sed postea per filium notus est per totum mundum. Sed et sancti viri bonis operibus notitiam Dei clarificant. Matth. V, 16: videant opera vestra bona, et glorificent patrem vestrum qui in caelis est. Unde supra VIII, 50: ego gloriam meam non quaero: est qui quaerat et iudicet. 2183 The fruit of the Son's being glorified is that the Father is glorified; thus he says, that the Son may glorify you. When Arius observed that our Lord said, glorify your Son, he supposed that the Father is greater than the Son. This is true if we consider the Son in his human nature: "The Father in greater than I" (14:28). Consequently, Christ adds, that the Son may glorify you (in the knowledge of men) to show he is equal to the Father as regards the divine nature. Now glory is renown joined with praise. Formerly, God was renowned among the Jews: "In Judah God is known" (Ps 76:1); but later, through his Son, he was known throughout the entire world. Holy people also increase God's renown by their good works: "That they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven" (Mt 5:16). Above Christ said: "I do not seek my own glory; there is One who seeks it and he will be the judge" (8:50). Hic ponit petitionis fructum, et primo ponit beneficium a Christo collatum hominibus; secundo ostendit hoc beneficium ad gloriam patris pertinere, ibi haec autem est vita aeterna. 2184 Now we have the fruit of Christ's request: first, we see the benefit conferred on us by Christ; secondly, he shows that this benefit is related to the glory of the Father (v 3). Dicit ergo ut filius tuus clarificet te; et hoc sicut dedisti ei potestatem omnis carnis. Sciendum est enim, quod agentis cuiuslibet, quod agit ab alio, intentio est reducere suum effectum in causae manifestationem: nam ex actione principii quod est de principio, manifestatur ipsum principium. Filius autem quidquid habet, a patre habet, et ideo oportet quod per ea quae facit, patrem manifestet, et ideo dicit dedisti ei potestatem, super omnes homines. Sed et filius per hanc potestatem debet eos ad tui cognitionem, quae est vita aeterna, perducere. Et sic est sensus filius clarificet te, sicut dedisti ei potestatem omnis carnis, idest omnis hominis, Lc. III, 6: videbit omnis caro salutare Dei. 1285 He says, that the Son may glorify you, and this since you have given him power over all flesh. We should know that what acts in virtue of another tends in its effect to reveal that other: for the action of a principle which proceeds from another principle manifests this principle. Now whatever the Son has he has from the Father; and thus it is necessary that what the Son does manifests the Father. Thus he says to the Father, you have given him power over all human beings. By this power the Son ought to lead them to a knowledge of t he Father, which is eternal life. This is the meaning of, that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him power over all flesh, that is, over all human beings: "All flesh shall see the salvation of God" (Lk 3:6). Dedisti, inquam, secundum Hilarium, dando per aeternam generationem naturam divinam, per quam habet potestatem omnia continendi; Matth. XI, 27: omnia mihi tradita sunt a patre meo. Et supra V, 20: pater diligit filium, et omnia demonstrat ei quae ipse facit. Vel dedisti ei, scilicet Christo homini, propter consortium personale ad filium tuum, ut sic caro haberet potestatem super carnem; Matth. ult., 18: data est mihi omnis potestas in caelo et in terra. Dan. c. VII, 14: dedit ei, scilicet filio hominis, potestatem et honorem et regnum. You have given him [this power], says Hilary, by giving, through an eternal generation, the divine nature to the Son, from which the Son has the power to embrace all things: "All things have been delivered to me by my Father" (Mt 11:27); "For the Father loves the Son, and shows him all that he himself is doing" (5:20). Or, in another way, you have given this power to Christ in his human nature because this nature is united with your Son to form one person. And in this way flesh has power over flesh: "All authority [power] in heaven and on earth has been given me" (Mt 28:18); "And to him," that is, the Son of man, "was given dominion and glory and kingdom" (Dan 7:14). Ad hoc, inquit, dedisti, ut scilicet sicut tu habes potestatem ut non ab homine aliquid accipias, sed ut teipsum ei conferas, ita et Christo homini, ut omne quod dedisti ei, per aeternam praedestinationem, det eis, sibi datis, vitam aeternam. Supra X, 27: oves meae vocem meam audiunt, et ego cognosco eas. He says, Father, you have given him power: Father, just as you have power, not to wrest things from your human creatures, but to give yourself to them, so you have given power to Christ in his human nature, power over all flesh, so that he may give eternal life to all whom you have given him, through eternal predestination: "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them" (10:27). Sed numquid vita aeterna data hominibus pertinet ad gloriam patris? Immo, quia haec est vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum Deum verum, et quem misisti Iesum Christum; idest, ut clarificetur pater in notitia hominum. 2186 But is the eternal life given to men related to the glory of the Father? Indeed it is, for this is eternal life, that they may know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent, who was sent so that the Father could be glorified by being known by men. Sed hic duo sunt exponenda. Primo quidem quid est hoc quod dicit haec est vita aeterna ut cognoscant. Circa quod sciendum est, quod illa proprie vivere dicimus quae se ipsa movent ad operandum; quaecumque autem non nisi ab aliis moventur, non dicuntur viventia, sed mortua: et ideo omnes operationes ad quas operans movet se, dicuntur opera vitae, sicut velle, intelligere, sentire, augeri et moveri. Dicitur autem aliquid vivere, dupliciter: aut quia habet opera vitae in potentia, et sic dormiens dicitur vivere vita sensitiva, quia habet potestatem movendi se, licet actu non moveatur; aut quia iam exercet opera vitae in actu, et tunc perfecte dicitur aliquid vivere: unde somnus dicitur dimidium vitae. Inter opera autem vitae altius est opus intelligentiae, quod est intelligere; et ideo operatio intellectus maxime est vita. Sicut autem idem est sensus actu et sensibile in actu, ita intelligens in actu et res intellecta in actu. Cum ergo intelligentia sit vita et intelligere sit vivere, sequitur quod intelligere rem aeternam sit vivere vita aeterna, Deus est autem res aeterna, intelligere ergo et videre Deum est vita aeterna. Two things need explanation here. First, why he says, this is eternal life, that they may know. Note that strictly speaking, we call those things living which move themselves to their activities. Those things which are only moved by other things are not living, but dead. And so all those activities to which an active thing moves itself are called living activities, for example, to will, to understand, to sense, to grow and to move about. Now a thing is said to be alive in two senses. First because it has living activities in potency, as one who is asleep is said to have sensitive life because it has the power to move itself about, although it is not actually doing so. Or, something is said to be alive because it is actually engaged in living activities, and then it is alive in the full sense. For this reason one who is asleep is said to be half alive. Among living activities the highest is the activity of the intellect, which is to understand. And thus the activity of the intellect is living activity in the highest degree. Now just as the sense in act is identified with the sense‑object in act, so also the intellect in act is identified with the thing understood in act. Since then intellectual understanding is living activity, and to understand is to live, it follows that to understand an eternal reality is to live with an eternal life. But God is an eternal reality, and so to understand and see God is eternal life. Et ideo dominus dicit, quod in visione consistit vita aeterna, scilicet principaliter secundum totam suam substantiam. Amor autem est movens ad hanc, et quoddam eius complementum: nam ex delectatione quae est in fruitione divina, quam facit caritas, est complementum et decor beatitudinis: sed eius substantia in visione consistit; I Io. III, v. 2: videbimus eum sicuti est. Accordingly our Lord says that eternal life lies in vision, in seeing, that is, it consists in this basically and in its whole substance. But it is love which moves one to this vision, and is in a certain way its fulfillment: for the completion and crown of beatitude (happiness) is the delight experienced in the enjoyment of God, and this is caused by charity. Still, the substance of beatitude consists in vision, seeing: "We shall see him as he is" (1 Jn 3:2). Secundo exponendum est hoc quod dicit te solum verum Deum. Manifestum est enim quod Christus loquebatur ad patrem, cum ergo dicat te solum verum Deum, videtur quod solus Deus pater sit Deus verus. Quod quidem concedunt Ariani dicentes, filium differre a patre per essentiam, cum sit substantia creata, magis tamen et perfectius inter omnes creaturas patris divinitatem participans, intantum quod dicatur Deus, sed non verus, quia non est Deus per naturam, sed solus pater. 2187 Secondly, we should explain the phrase, you the only true God. It is clear that Christ was speaking to the Father, so when he says, you the only true God, it seems that only God the Father is true God. The Arians agree with this, for they say that the Son differs by essence from the Father, since the Son is a created substance, although he shares in the divinity more perfectly and to a greater degree than do all other creatures. So much more that the Son is called God, but not the true God, because he is not God by nature, which only the Father is. Sed contra hoc arguit Hilarius. Constat enim quod cum volumus scire de re aliqua utrum sit vera, ex duobus scire possumus: scilicet ex natura et ex virtute eius. Verum enim aurum est quod habet veri auri speciem; quod quidem scimus, si facit veri auri operationem. Si ergo habemus de filio quod habeat veram Dei naturam, et hoc per veram operationem divinitatis, quam exercet, manifestum est quod est verus Deus. Quod autem exerceat filius vera opera divinitatis, patet supra V, 19: quaecumque pater facit, haec et filius similiter facit. Et iterum dicit: sicut pater habet vitam in semetipso, non quidem participatam, ita et filio dedit vitam habere in semetipso; I Io. ult., v. 20: ut simus in vero filio eius Iesu Christo. Hic est verus Deus et vita aeterna. Hilary answers this by saying that when we want to know whether a certain thing is true, we can determine it from two things: its nature and its power. For true gold is that which has the species of true gold; and we determine this if it acts like true gold. Therefore, if we maintain that the Son has the true nature of God, because the Son exercises the true activities of divinity, it is clear that the Son is true God. Now the Son does perform true works of divinity, for we read, "Whatever he [the Father] does, that the Son does likewise" (5:19); and again he said, "For as the Father has life in himself," which is not a participated life, "so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself" (5:26); "That we may be in his true Son, Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life" [1 Jn 5:20]. Dicit autem te solum Deum, secundum Hilarium, non excludens aliquid. Unde non dicit absolute te solum, sed addit et quem misisti Iesum Christum; quasi diceret ut cognoscant te et quem misisti Iesum Christum, esse unum solum et verum Deum: secundum illum modum loquendi: tu solus altissimus, Iesu Christe, cum sancto spiritu. Nec facit mentionem de spiritu sancto: quia ubicumque ponuntur pater et filius, et praecipue in his quae ad maiestatem divinitatis pertinent, cointelligitur spiritus sanctus, qui est nexus amborum. According to Hilary, he says, you the only true God, in a way that does not exclude another. He does not say without qualification, you the only, but adds and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. It is like saying: that they know you and Jesus Christ whom you have sent to be the one and only true God. This is a pattern of speaking that we also use when we say [in the Gloria]: "You alone, Jesus Christ, are the most high, together with the Holy Spirit." No mention is made of the Holy Spirit because whenever the Father and the Son are mentioned, and especially in matters pertaining to the grandeur of the divinity, the Holy Spirit, who is the bond of the Father and Son, is implied. Vel secundum Augustinum de Trinitate, hoc dicit ad excludendum errorem quorumdam dicentium, quod haec est falsa: pater est Deus, et filius est Deus, et spiritus sanctus est Deus; sed haec est vera: pater et filius et spiritus sanctus sunt unus Deus. Et ratio istorum erat, quia, ut ab apostolo dicitur I Cor. I, 24, Christus est Dei virtus et Dei sapientia. Manifestum est autem quod nullus potest dicere aliquem Deum nisi habeat virtutem et sapientiam divinam. Cum ergo isti vellent quod pater esset sapientia, quae est filius, dicebant ulterius, quod pater sine filio consideratus non esset Deus, et etiam filius et spiritus sanctus. 2188 Or, according to Augustine in his work, The Trinity, he says this to exclude the error of those who claim that it is false to say that the Father is God, and the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God; while it is true to say that the Father and the Son and Holy Spirit are one God. The reason for this opinion was that the Apostle said that "Christ [is] the power of God and the Wisdom of God" (1 Cor 1:24). Now it is clear that we cannot call anyone God unless he has divine power and wisdom. Therefore, since these people held that the Father was wisdom, which is the Son, they held further that the Father considered without the Son would not be God. And the same applies to the Son and the Holy Spirit. Et quia in missione designatur incarnatio filii Dei, ideo per hoc quod dicit et quem misisti Iesum Christum, datur intelligi quod in vita aeterna gaudebimus etiam de humanitate Christi; Is. XXXIII, 17: regem, idest Christum, in decore suo videbunt. Supra X, v. 9: ingredietur, et pascua inveniet. The incarnation of the Son of God is indicated by saying that he was sent. So when he says here, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent, we are led to understand that in eternal life we will also rejoice in the humanity of Christ: "Your eyes will see the king," that is, Christ, "in his beauty" (Is 33:17); "He will go in and out and find pasture" (10:9). Hic ponitur meritum exaudiendae petitionis, et primo commemorat meritum; secundo postulat praemium, ibi et nunc clarifica me tu, pater. 2189 Now we see why Christ's prayer deserves to be heard: first, he mentions why he deserves this; secondly, he states the reward, Father, glorify me. Commemorat autem duplex meritum. Scilicet doctrinae, dicens ego te clarificavi, scilicet in notitia hominum, manifestando per doctrinam; Is. XXIV, 15: in doctrinis glorificate Deum. Item obedientiae: unde subdit opus consummavi. Utitur praeterito pro futuro, scilicet clarificavi idest, clarificabo; et consummavi, idest consummabo: et hoc, quia iam inchoatum erat, et iterum quia imminebat hora passionis, quando hoc opus consummatum est. 2190 He states that he merited to be heard for two reasons. First, because of his teaching, when he says, I glorified you on earth, that is, in the minds of men, by manifesting you in my teaching: "Glorify the Lord in teaching" [Is 24:15]. Secondly, I glorified you by my obedience; thus he said, I ... having accomplished the work. He uses the past tense in place of the future: I glorified for "I will glorify," and accomplished in place of "I will accomplish." He does this because these things had already begun, and also because the hour of his passion, when his work would be accomplished, was very near. Quod dedisti mihi, non iussisti: non enim sufficit quod Christo et nobis mandetur divinitus; quia quidquid Christus secundum quod homo fecit et nos facere possumus, est ex dono Dei; Sap. VIII, 21: scivi quia non possum esse continens, nisi Deus det. Dedisti, inquam, mihi, per donum gratiae, ut facerem, idest, ut consummarem; Eccli. XXXVIII, 31: cor suum dabit in consummationem. "The work which you gave me to do," not merely ordered. It is not enough [for a work to be accomplished] for Christ and us to be ordered by God, because whatever Christ as man accomplished and whatever we can do is God's gift, God gave us this: "I knew that I could not be continent unless God gave it" [Wis 8:21]. You gave me, I say, by the gift of grace, to do, that is, to accomplish. Sed quia obedientiae, et doctrinae Christi praemium est gloria; Phil. II, v. 8: factus est obediens usque ad mortem, mortem autem crucis; propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum, et donavit illi nomen quod est super omne nomen: ideo postulat praemium, dicens et nunc clarifica me tu, pater. Quod non est intelligendum ut quidam putaverunt, sicut Augustinus dicit, quod natura humana in Christo a verbo suscepta aliquando convertatur in verbum, et homo mutetur in Deum; quia hoc nihil aliud esset quam ipsam naturam annihilari. Omne enim quod ita in aliud convertitur quod illud in quod convertitur non augeatur, annihilari videtur: divino autem verbo Dei nihil augeri potest. 2191 The reward for Christ's obedience and teaching is glory: "He humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name" (Phil 2:8). And so Christ asks for his reward, saying, and now, Father, glorify me. According to Augustine this does not mean, as some have thought, that the human nature of Christ, which was assumed by the Word, would at some time be changed into the Word, and the human nature changed into God. This would be to annihilate the [human] nature of Christ, for when a first thing is changed into another in such a way that this other is not enriched, the first thing seems to have been annihilated [because it produced no effect]. But nothing can be added to enrich the divine Word of God. Et ideo, secundum Augustinum, intelligendum est et nunc clarifica me tu, pater, de praedestinatione Christi hominis. Nam aliquid habemus in praedestinatione divina, et in effectu rei. Homo autem Christus Iesus, sicut et alii homines, praedestinatus fuit a Deo patre; Rom. I, 4: qui praedestinatus est filius Dei et cetera. Et secundum hoc dicit et nunc, idest postquam clarificavi te, et consummavi opus quod dedisti mihi ut faciam, clarifica me tu, pater, apud temetipsum; idest, fac me sedere ad dexteram tuam; et hoc claritate quam habui priusquam mundus fieret, apud te, idest in tua praedestinatione; Mc. ult., 19: dominus quidem Iesus assumptus est in caelum, et sedet a dextris Dei. Thus, for Augustine, and now, Father, glorify me, refers to the predestination of Christ as man. Something can be had by us both in the divine predestination and in actual fact. Now Christ, in his human nature, as all other human beings, was predestined by God the Father: "He was predestined Son of God" [Rom 1:4]. With this in mind he says, and now ‑ after I have glorified you, having accomplished the work which you gave me to do ‑ Father, glorify me in your own presence, that is, have me sit at your right hand, with the glory which I had with you before the world was made, that is to say, with the glory I had in your predestination: "The Lord Jesus ... was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God" (Mk 16:19). Vel aliter, secundum Hilarium. Nam gloria hominum est quaedam conformitas ad gloriam Dei, quamvis inaequalis; Christus autem secundum quod Deus, habuit gloriam ab aeterno apud patrem, scilicet divinam, et aequalem patri. Petit ergo hic quod in humanitate clarificetur, ut scilicet id quod ex tempore erat caro, et in corruptione transformata, gloriam eius, quae sine tempore est, claritatis acciperet. Non tamen aequalem, sed similem: ut scilicet sicut ab aeterno apud patrem immortalis et ad dexteram consedens fuit, ita et secundum quod homo immortalis efficiatur, et ad Dei dexteram exaltetur. 2192 Hilary gives the other interpretation. The glory of human beings will be in a certain way similar to the glory of God, although unequal. Now Christ, as God, had glory with the Father from all eternity, a divine glory and equal to that of the Father. Accordingly, what he is asking for here is that he be glorified in his human nature, that is to say, that what was flesh in time and changed by corruption, should receive the glory of that brightness which is outside of time. He is asking not for an equal glory, but for one which is similar, which is to say that just as the Son is immortal and sitting at the right hand of the Father from all eternity, so he now become immortal in his human nature and exalted to the right hand of God.
Lectio 2 LECTURE 2 6 ἐφανέρωσά σου τὸ ὄνομα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις οὓς ἔδωκάς μοι ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου. σοὶ ἦσαν κἀμοὶ αὐτοὺς ἔδωκας, καὶ τὸν λόγον σου τετήρηκαν. 7 νῦν ἔγνωκαν ὅτι πάντα ὅσα δέδωκάς μοι παρὰ σοῦ εἰσιν: 8 ὅτι τὰ ῥήματα ἃ ἔδωκάς μοι δέδωκα αὐτοῖς, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔλαβον καὶ ἔγνωσαν ἀληθῶς ὅτι παρὰ σοῦ ἐξῆλθον, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν ὅτι σύ με ἀπέστειλας. 9 ἐγὼ περὶ αὐτῶν ἐρωτῶ: οὐ περὶ τοῦ κόσμου ἐρωτῶ ἀλλὰ περὶ ὧν δέδωκάς μοι, ὅτι σοί εἰσιν, 10 καὶ τὰ ἐμὰ πάντα σά ἐστιν καὶ τὰ σὰ ἐμά, καὶ δεδόξασμαι ἐν αὐτοῖς. 11 καὶ οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ εἰσίν, κἀγὼ πρὸς σὲ ἔρχομαι. 6 I have manifested your name to the men whom you gave me out of the world; thine they were, and you gave them to me, and they have kept your word. 7 Now they know that everything that you have given me is from you; 8 for I have given them the words which you gave me, and they have received them and know in truth that I came (exivi) from you; and they have believed that you did send me. 9 I am praying for them; I am not praying for the world but for those whom you have given me, for they are yours; 10 all mine are yours, and yours are mine, and I am glorified in them. 11a And now I am no more in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Supra oravit dominus pro seipso; hic orat pro apostolorum collegio, et primo assignat rationes orandi; secundo ponit orationis tenorem, ibi pater sancte, serva eos in nomine tuo quos dedisti mihi. Circa primum duo facit. Primo tangit rationes ex parte discipulorum; secundo ex parte sui, ibi ego pro eis rogo et cetera. Ex parte autem discipulorum ponit tres rationes orandi pro eis. Prima, quia ab eo instructi; secunda, quia sibi dati; tertia, quia ei obedientes et devoti. 2193 Above, our Lord prayed for himself; here he prays for the society of his apostles: first, he states his reasons for praying; secondly, what he is praying for (v 11). He does two things about the first: first, he mentions his reasons for praying founded on his disciples; secondly, the reasons founded on himself (v 9). From the point of view of his disciples, he mentions three reasons for praying for them: first, because they were taught by him; secondly because they had been given to him; thirdly, because of their obedience and devotion. Primam ponit cum dicit manifestavi, quasi dicat, secundum Augustinum: ut filius tuus clarificet te. Quae quidem clarificatio iam in parte est impleta, quia manifestavi nomen tuum hominibus quos dedisti mihi de mundo. 2194 He mentions the first reason when he says, I have manifested your name. We could add here, according to Augustine, "that the Son may glorify you" (v 1). The Father has already received some of this glory because I have manifested your name to the men whom you gave me out of the world. Vel, secundum Chrysostomum: dico, quod consummavi opus quod dedisti mihi ut facerem. Quale autem opus sit, subdit cum dicit manifestavi nomen tuum hominibus etc.: quod est proprium opus filii Dei, qui est verbum, cuius est proprium manifestare dicentem, Matth. XI, 27: neque patrem quis novit nisi filius, et cui voluerit filius revelare. Supra, I, 18: Deum nemo vidit unquam. Unigenitus, qui est in sinu patris, ipse enarravit. Chrysostom reads it this way. I say that I have finished the work you gave me to do. What this work was he adds by saying, I have manifested your name to the men .... This is the characteristic work of the Son of God, who is the Word, and the characteristic of a word is to manifest the one speaking it: "No one knows the Father except the Son and any one to whom the Son chooses to reveal him" (Mt 11:27); "No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known" (1:18). Sed hic est dubium. Cum Deus pater fuerit notus hominibus ante adventum Christi, secundum illud Ps. LXXV, 2: notus in Iudaea Deus, quid est hoc quod dicit manifestavi nomen tuum? Responsio. Dicendum, quod nomen Dei patris poterat tripliciter cognosci. Uno modo inquantum est omnium creator; et hoc modo notus erat a gentibus; Rom. I, 20: invisibilia Dei per ea quae facta sunt, intellecta conspiciuntur. Et infra: Deus illis revelavit. Alio modo, ut cui soli esset latriae cultus exhibendus: et hoc modo non erat notus a gentibus, quae etiam latriae cultum aliis diis exhibebant, sed a Iudaeis tantum, quibus solis praeceptum erat in lege quod non nisi domino immolarent; Ex. XXII, 20: qui immolat diis alienis, occidetur, praeterquam domino soli. Tertio modo ut pater unigeniti filii sui Iesu Christi et hoc modo nulli erat notus; sed innotuit per filium quando apostoli crediderunt eum esse filium Dei. 2195 There is a problem with this: Since God the Father was known to men before Christ came ‑ "In Judah God is known" (Ps 76:1) ‑ why does Christ say, I have manifested your name. I answer that the name of God the Father can be known in three ways. In one way, as the creator of all things; and this is the way the Gentiles knew him: "His invisible nature ... has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made" (Rom 1:20); "God has shown it to them" (Rom 1:19). In another way [the Father can be known] as the only one to whom the veneration of latria [adoration] is to be given. He was not known to the Gentiles in this way, for they gave the veneration of latria to other gods. He was known in this way only to the Jews, for they alone had been commanded in their law to sacrifice only to the Lord: "Whoever sacrifices to any god, save to the Lord only, shall be utterly destroyed" (Ex 22:20). Thirdly, he can be known as the Father of an only Son, Jesus Christ. He was not known to anyone in this way, but did become so known through his Son when the apostles believed that Christ was the Son of God. Secundam rationem ponit cum dicit quos dedisti mihi: et primo ponit dationem, ex qua sumitur ratio seu modus. Dicit ergo quos dedisti mihi, scilicet, illis hominibus nomen tuum manifestavi. Sed numquid filius habuit eos sicut et pater habuit? Utique inquantum Deus. Sed dicit dedisti mihi, scilicet homini, ut me audirent, et mihi obedirent; supra VI, 44: nemo potest venire ad me, nisi pater, qui misit me, traxerit eum. Quod autem aliqui ad Christum veniant, est ex dono et gratia Dei; Eph. II, 8: gratia salvati estis: hoc enim Dei donum est. Dedisti, inquam, de mundo, idest a mundo electos; supra XV, 19: quia elegi vos de mundo. Nam etsi totus mundus quantum ad Deum datus sit filio, apostoli tamen dati sunt filio ad obediendum. Rationem dationis ponit, dicens tui erant; quasi ideo dati, quia tui erant, et mei, et secundum divinitatem praedestinati ab aeterno, ut per gratiam ad futuram gloriam pervenirent; Eph. I, 4: elegit nos in ipso ante mundi constitutionem. Et mihi eos dedisti, idest quod antea de eis mecum et in me praedestinasti, opere implesti, faciendo ut mihi adhaererent. 2196 He gives the second reason why he prays for them when he says, whom you gave me. First, he mentions that they were given to him, from which we can see the reason or way they were given. He says, whom you gave me, that is, it is to these that I have manifested your name. But did Christ possess them as the Father possessed them? Yes he did, insofar as he was God. But he says, whom you gave me, that is, to me as man, to listen to me and obey me: "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him" (6:44). Those who come to Christ do so through the gift and grace of God: "For by grace you have been saved ... it is the gift of God" (Eph 2:8). You gave them to me out of the world, that is, they were chosen from the world: "I chose you out of the world" (5:19). For even though the entire world was given to the Son insofar as he was God, the apostles were given to the Son to obey. He mentions the reason for this giving when he says, thine they were. This is like saying: the reason they were given is that thine they were, and mine, and predestined from eternity to attain by grace a future glory: "He chose us in him before the foundation of the world" (Eph 1:4). And you gave them to me, that is, by making them adhere to me you accomplished in fact what was previously predestined for them with me and in me. Tertiam rationem ponit cum dicit et sermonem tuum servaverunt: quae sumitur ex discipulorum devotione. Et primo ponit devotionem ipsorum ad filium; secundo ostendit quod haec devotio redundat in gloriam patris, ibi et cognoverunt quia omnia quae dedisti mihi, abs te sunt; tertio rationem huius assignat, ibi quia verba quae dedisti mihi, dedi eis. 2197 The third reason for praying for the disciples, based on their devotion, is mentioned when he says, they have kept your word. First, he mentions their devotion to the Son; secondly, he shows that this devotion gives glory to the Father, they know that everything that you have given to me is from you; thirdly, we see the reason this gives glory to the Father: for I have given them the words which you gave me. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum mihi eos dedisti, quia tui erant; sed et ipsi devote se habuerunt, quia sermonem tuum servaverunt, in corde per fidem, et in opere per impletionem; Prov. VII, 2: serva mandata mea, ut vivas; supra XV, 10: si mandata mea servaveritis, manebitis in dilectione mea. 2198 As to the first: he had said that you gave them to me because thine they were. And they were devoted because they have kept your word, in their hearts by faith, and in their actions by fulfilling your words: "Keep my commandments and live" (Prv 7:2); "If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love" (15:10). Sed et hoc quod sic servaverunt sermonem, redundat in gloriam tuam, pater; nam hic est sermo meus, quia omnia quaecumque habeo, a te habeo; et ipsi nunc cognoverunt, quia omnia quae dedisti mihi, scilicet homini filio tuo, abs te sunt; supra c. I, 14; vidimus gloriam eius quasi unigeniti a patre, idest, vidimus eum quasi omnia a patre habentem. Et per hoc quod cognoverunt clarificatur pater in mente ipsorum. 2199 Father, the fact that they kept your word in this way gives you glory. For this is my word: everything I have I have from you. Now they know that everything that you have given me, that is, to your Son in his human nature, is from you: "We have beheld his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father" (1:14), that is to say, we saw him as having everything from the Father. And because they know this, the Father receives glory in their minds. Ratio autem huius clarificationis, quod scilicet obedientia discipulorum ad filium redundet in gloriam patris, ponitur cum dicitur quia verba quae dedisti mihi et cetera. Ubi primo ponit ordinem processus cognitionis a patre ad discipulos; secundo proponit ordinem reductionis mentium discipulorum in patrem. Primum ponit per dationem doctrinae a patre. 2200 The reason this gives glory, that is, that this obedience of the disciples to the Son gives glory to the Father, is stated when he says, for I have given them the words which you gave me. First he states that knowledge comes from the Father to the disciples; secondly, that the minds of the disciples are led back to the Father. Et ponitur duplex datio. Una quam dedit pater filio, unde dicit verba quae dedisti mihi, secundum generationem aeternam, in qua dedit pater verba filio, cum tamen ipse sit verbum patris. Huiusmodi verba nil aliud sunt quam rationes omnium fiendorum, quas omnes ab aeterno pater dedit filio, generando ipsum. Vel dedisti mihi, scilicet Christo homini: quia anima sua sanctissima ab ipso instanti conceptionis repleta fuit omni cognitione veritatis; supra I, 14: plenum gratiae et veritatis, idest cognitione cuiuslibet veritatis; Col. c. II, 3: in ipso sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae. 2201 It is stated that knowledge is given in two ways. In the first way the Father gives to the Son. Thus he says: the words which you gave me, in my eternal generation, in which the Father gave words to the Son, although the Son himself is the Word of the Father. These words are nothing else than the patterns or plans of everything which is to be done. And all these patterns the Father gave to the Son in generating him. Or, it could be said that the you gave me refers to the humanity of Christ, because from the very instant of his conception the most holy soul of Christ was full with all knowledge of the truth, "full of grace and truth" (1:14), that is, with the knowledge of every truth: "In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge" (Col 2:3). Alia datio est quam Christus dat discipulis: unde dicit dedi eis, interius et exterius docendo; supra XV, 15: omnia quaecumque audivi a patre meo, nota feci vobis. In quo se ostendit mediatorem Dei et hominum, I Tim. II, 5, quia scilicet quod accepit a patre, transfundit in discipulos; Deut. V, 5: ego sequester fui inter dominum et vos in tempore illo, ut annuntiarem vobis verba eius. The other giving of knowledge is from Christ to his disciples, so he says, I have given them, by teaching them, both from without and from within: "For all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you" (15:15). By saying this he shows that he is the mediator between God and man (1 Tim 2:5), because what he received from the Father he passed on to the disciples: "I stood between the Lord and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the Lord" (Deut 5:5). Reductio autem mentium discipulorum in Deum ponitur cum dicit et ipsi acceperunt. Ubi ponitur duplex acceptio correspondens duplici dationi praedictae. Una respondet secundae dationi, cum dicit et ipsi acceperunt, a me, non existentes rebelles; Is. l, 5: dominus Deus aperuit mihi aurem; ego autem non contradico; supra VI, 45: omnis qui audivit a patre et didicit, venit ad me. Et accipientes cognoverunt, quia tu omnia mihi dedisti, quod respondet primae dationi. 2202 He mentions that the minds of the disciples were led back to the Father when he says, and they have received them. Two kinds of receiving are mentioned, corresponding to the two kinds of giving previously stated. One kind of receiving corresponds to the second kind of giving [the giving by Christ to the disciples] and as to this he says, and they have received them, from me, without resisting: "The Lord God has opened my ear, and I was not rebellious" (Is 50:5); "Every one who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me" (6:45). And receiving them, they know in truth that I came from you, that you have given me all things, and this corresponds to the first kind of giving [of the Father to the Son]. Et, secundum Augustinum, hoc quod addit crediderunt quia tu me misisti, est expositivum praecedentium. Duplex enim est cognitio divinorum: una perfecta, quae est gloriae per apertam visionem; alia imperfecta, quae est viae per fidem; I Cor. XIII, v. 12: videmus nunc per speculum in aenigmate, quantum ad secundum, tunc autem facie ad faciem, quantum ad primum. Dicit ergo cognoverunt quia a te exivi. Sed qua cognitione? Numquid patriae? Non; sed fidei: unde subdit et crediderunt, quasi hoc ipsum sit cognoscere quod credere. Crediderunt, inquam, vere, idest firmiter et stabiliter; supra XVI, 31: modo creditis? Scilicet stabiliter. Ecce venit hora, scilicet cum perfecte creditis. Et utitur praeterito pro futuro, tum propter certitudinem rei futurae, tum propter infallibilitatem divinae praedestinationis. 2203 According to Augustine the words that follow, and they have believed that you did send me, are added to explain the previous sentence, "I came from you." Knowledge of God is of two kinds: one is perfect, by the clear vision of glory; the other is imperfect, through faith: "For now we see in a mirror dimly," in the second way, "but then face to face," in the first way (1 Cor 13:12). He says [in the previous sentence], they know in truth that I came from you. But what kind of knowledge was this? The knowledge of our homeland, heaven? No, it was the knowledge of faith. And so he adds, and they have believed, indicating that to know this is to believe it. They have believed I say, in truth, that is, firmly and strongly: "Do you now believe?" that is, firmly. "The hour is coming" when you will believe completely (16:31). He uses the past tense, have believed, in place of the future tense because of his certainty about the future, and because of the infallibility of divine predestination. Vel secundum Chrysostomum, loquitur de praeterito: et haec dicit esse facta, quia iam inchoata erant. Dicendum ergo ut utrumque sensum concordemus, quia haec omnia iam inchoata erant, sed perficienda restabant. Ergo quantum pertinet ad inchoationem, loquitur de praeterito; sed quantum ad consummationem, loquitur de futuro, quae fienda erant per adventum spiritus sancti. Or, according to Chrysostom, he uses the past tense to indicate that these things have already happened, because they had already begun. We can harmonize both of these interpretations because all these things had already begun, but they still remained to be completed. Thus, in reference to what has already begun, he speaks in the past tense, but in reference to their completion he speaks in the future, because they would be accomplished by the coming of the Holy Spirit. Sed quid crediderunt? Quia tu me misisti; Gal. IV, 4: misit Deus filium suum et cetera. Quod, secundum Augustinum, idem est quod est a te exivi. Sed hoc est contra Hilarium, quia, secundum eum, ut dictum est, exire pertinet ad aeternam generationem, mitti vero ad incarnationem. Sed dicendum, quod de Christo possumus loqui dupliciter; scilicet secundum divinitatem, et sic quantum ad filium Dei, aliud est exire et aliud mitti, ut Hilarius dicit, vel secundum humanitatem: et sic quantum ad filium hominis, idem est exire et mitti, ut dicit Augustinus. 2204 But what did they believe? That you did send me: "God sent his Son" [Gal 4:4]. According to Augustine this is the same as "I came (exire, come, come forth) from you" (v 8). This does not agree with Hilary for whom, as was said, "to come forth" (exire) refers to the eternal generation of the Son, and "to be sent" refers to the incarnation of the Son. But I say that we can speak of Christ in two ways. In one way, from the point of view of his divinity; and then, insofar as he is the Son of God "to come forth" and "to be sent" are not the same, as Hilary says. Or, we can speak of Christ from the point of view of his humanity; and then, insofar as he is the Son of man, "to come forth" and "to be sent" are the same, as Augustine says. Hic ponuntur rationes orationis ex parte Christi. Et ponit ad hoc tres rationes. 2205 Now we see the reasons, founded on himself, why Christ prayed for his disciples. He mentions three reasons. Una sumitur ex dominio quod super eos acceperat: et ad hoc dicit ego pro eis, scilicet discipulis, rogo. Ubi primo ponit rationem ipsam; secundo manifestat eam, ibi quia tui sunt. 2206 One is based on the authority he had received over them. In reference to this he says, I am praying for them, that is, the disciples. First we see the reason; secondly, its explanation, for they are yours. Ratio autem quare quis sit audiendus, et orare debeat pro aliis, est si illi specialiter pertineant ad ipsum; orationes enim generales minus exaudiuntur; et ideo dicit pro eis rogo, non pro mundo, idest mundi dilectoribus, sed pro his quos dedisti mihi ut discipulos et obedientes specialiter, quamvis omnia sint mea, potestate. Ps. II, 8: postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes haereditatem tuam. The reason why a person's prayer should be heard and why he should pray for others is that they belong to him in a special way; for general prayers are less likely to be heard. Accordingly he says, I am praying for them; I am not praying for the world, that is, the lovers of the world, but for those whom you have given me, especially as obedient disciples, although all things are mine, under my authority: "Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage" (Ps 2:8). Sed contra. Videtur quod pro omnibus rogaverit: I Io. II, 1: advocatum habemus apud patrem Iesum Christum iustum; et ipse est propitiatio pro peccatis nostris; non solum autem nostris, sed et totius mundi; I Tim. II, 4: qui vult omnes homines salvos fieri, et ad agnitionem veritatis venire. Responsio. Dicendum, quod Christus, quantum est de se, pro omnibus oravit, quia oratio sua, quantum est de se, efficax est ut valeat toti mundo; sed tamen non in omnibus sortitur effectum, nisi in sanctis et electis Dei: et hoc propter impedimentum mundanorum. 2207 To the contrary, it seems that he prayed for all: "We have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the expiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world" (1 Jn 2:1); "God our Savior, who desires all men to be saved" (1 Tim 2:4). We should say to this that Christ did pray for all because his prayer is powerful enough to benefit the entire world. Yet it does not produce its effect in all, but only in the elect and saints of God. This is because of the obstacles present in the worldly. Et rationem manifestat dicens tui erant, scilicet per aeternam praedestinationem. Sed non erant ita tui ut filius eos non haberet, nec ita dantur filio ut auferantur patri; unde dicit et omnia mea tua sunt, et tua mea sunt: in quo ostenditur aequalitas filii ad patrem, qui, secundum quod Deus, ab aeterno habet omnia quae pater habet. 2208 He gives a reason for why he prays for them when he says, for they are yours, that is, by eternal predestination. But they were not yours in such a way that the Son could not have them; nor were they given to the Son in such a way that they were taken from the Father. Thus he says, all mine are yours, and yours are mine. This indicates the equality of the Son with the Father, for the Son, insofar as he is God, has from all eternity everything that the Father has. Sed notandum, quod pater habet quaedam quae pertinent ad essentiam suam, sicut est sapientia, bonitas et huiusmodi, quae nihil aliud sunt quam sua essentia: et hoc protestatur filius se habere; supra XVI, 14, ubi loquitur de processione spiritus sancti, Deo meo accipiet, et annuntiabit vobis: et hoc ideo, quia quaecumque habet pater, mea sunt. Et dicit omnia, quia licet unum re sint, tamen multa ratione. 2209 Note that the Father has certain things that belong to his essence, like wisdom, goodness, and things of that kind; and these things are nothing else but his essence. And the Son asserts that he himself has this when, speaking of the procession of the Holy Spirit, he says: "He will receive from me and declare it to you" [16:14]. This is because "All that the Father has is mine" (16:15). He says all [using a plural form], because while all these things are one in reality, we apprehend them with many ideas. Secundo habet quaedam quae pertinent ad possessionem sanctitatis, quae sunt ei consecrata per fidem, sicut sunt omnes sancti et electi, de quibus dicit supra eodem, tui erant. Et etiam ista omnia protestatur filius se habere, cum dicit hic, de eis loquens et tua mea sunt: quia scilicet ad hoc praedestinati sunt ut fruantur filio, sicut et patre. Secondly, the Father has certain things that relate to those who possess holiness or sanctity, who are set apart for him through faith, such as all the saints and the elect, of whom it was said, "thine they were" (v 6). All these things, too, the Son asserts that he has when he says here, speaking of them, and yours are mine, because they have been predestined to enjoy the Son as well as the Father. Tertio modo habet pater quaedam per modum possessionis communiter, sicut omnes res creatas; Ps. XXIII, 1: domini est terra et plenitudo eius. Et haec etiam omnia sunt filii. Unde in parabola de filio prodigo, Lc. c. XV, 31, dicit pater filio maiori: omnia mea tua sunt. Thirdly, the Father has some things in a general way because of their origin, for example, all created things: "The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof" (Ps 24:1). All these too belong to the Son. Thus in the parable of the prodigal son, the father says to his older son: "Son ... all that is mine is yours" (Lk 15:31). Secunda ratio sumitur ex gloria quam Christus habebat in eis: quia gloriam eius iam partim cognoscebant, et adhuc magis cognoscituri erant; II Petr. I, 16: non indoctas fabulas secuti, notam fecimus vobis domini nostri Iesu Christi virtutem et praesentiam, sed speculatores facti illius magnitudinis. 2210 The second reason why Christ prayed for his disciples is based on the glory he had in them: for they already knew something of his glory, and would know it more fully: "For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty" (2 Pet 1:16). Tertia ratio sumitur ex absentia qua ab eis corporaliter recedebat; unde dicit et iam non sum in mundo. Ubi sciendum est, quod dupliciter dicitur aliquid esse in mundo: scilicet adhaerendo mundo per affectum; I Io. II, 16: omne quod est in mundo concupiscentia carnis est, et concupiscentia oculorum, et superbia vitae. Sed hoc modo non est dicendum quod Christus iam non sit in mundo, cum numquam fuerit in mundo, ei per affectum inhaerendo. Sed est alio modo intelligendum, scilicet quod iam non sit in mundo praesentia corporali: quia mox futurum erat ut qui in mundo corporaliter fuerat, corporaliter ipsum relinqueret. Et hi, scilicet discipuli, in mundo sunt, scilicet praesentia corporali; et ego ad te venio, secundum quod homo, scilicet ad participationem gloriae tuae, et exaltationem usque ad dexteram tuam et cetera. Et ideo iustum est ut pro eis orem a quibus corporaliter recessurus sum. 2211 The third reason why he prays for them is his coming physical absence; so he says, and now I am no more in the world. Note that one is said to be "in the world" in two senses. First, by clinging to the world by one's affections: "For all that is in the world [is] the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the pride of life" (1 Jn 2:16). This is not the sense in which Christ was no longer in the world, since he never clung to it with his affections. He is no longer in the world in another way, that is, by his physical presence, for while he had been in the world physically, he would soon physically leave it. But they, the disciples, are in the world, physically present. And I am coming to you, as regards my humanity, to share your glory and to be seated at your right hand. So it is fitting that I pray for those whom I will soon physically leave.
Lectio 3 LECTURE 3 πάτερ ἅγιε, τήρησον αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου ᾧ δέδωκάς μοι, ἵνα ὦσιν ἓν καθὼς ἡμεῖς. 12 ὅτε ἤμην μετ' αὐτῶν ἐγὼ ἐτήρουν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου ᾧ δέδωκάς μοι, καὶ ἐφύλαξα, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀπώλετο εἰ μὴ ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας, ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ. 13 νῦν δὲ πρὸς σὲ ἔρχομαι, καὶ ταῦτα λαλῶ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἵνα ἔχωσιν τὴν χαρὰν τὴν ἐμὴν πεπληρωμένην ἐν ἑαυτοῖς. 14 ἐγὼ δέδωκα αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον σου, καὶ ὁ κόσμος ἐμίσησεν αὐτούς, ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου καθὼς ἐγὼ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου. 15 οὐκ ἐρωτῶ ἵνα ἄρῃς αὐτοὺς ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου ἀλλ' ἵνα τηρήσῃς αὐτοὺς ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ. 16 ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου οὐκ εἰσὶν καθὼς ἐγὼ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου. 11b "Holy Father, keep them in your name, which you have given me, that they may be one, even as we are one. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in your name, which you have given me; I have guarded them, and none of them is lost but the son of perdition, that the scripture might be fulfilled. 13 But now I am coming to you; and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves. 14 I have given them your word; and the world has hated them because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. 15 I do not pray that you should take them out of the world, but that you should keep them from evil. 16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world." Positis rationibus orandi pro apostolis, hic ponit petitiones quas pro eis porrigebat, et primo petit eorum conservationem; secundo sanctificationem, ibi sanctifica eos. Sed conservationem a malo, sanctificationem in bono. Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit eorum conservationem; secundo ponit conservationis necessitatem, ibi cum essem cum eis, ego servabam eos. 2212 After Christ stated his reasons for praying for the apostles, he here makes his petitions: first, he asks for their protection; secondly, for their sanctification, sanctify them (v 17). They are to be protected from evil, and sanctified by good. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he asks for their protection; secondly, he mentions why they need protection (v 12). Circa primum consideranda sunt quatuor. Primo a quo petat; secundo quid petat; tertio pro quibus; quarto ad quid petit. Petit quidem a patre: unde dicit pater; et merito, quia ipse est principium omnis boni; Iac. I, 17: omne datum optimum et omne donum perfectum desursum est, descendens a patre luminum. Sed addit sancte, quia etiam in ipso est principium et origo totius sanctitatis, et quia finaliter sanctificationem petebat; Lev. XIX, 2: sancti eritis, quia ego sanctus sum, dominus Deus vester; I Reg. II, 2: non est sanctus ut est dominus. 2213 In regard to the first, four things must be considered: whom he asks; what he asks for; for whom he asks; and why he asks. The one he asks is the Father; so he says, Father: and with good reason, for the Father is the source of every good: "Every good endowment and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights" (Jas 1:17). He adds, Holy, because the Father is also the source and origin of all holiness and because, in the last analysis, he was asking for the sanctification of the apostles: "You shall be holy; for I the Lord your God am holy" (Lev 19:2); "There is none holy like the Lord" (1 Sam 2:2). Petit autem conservationem eorum. Unde dicit serva eos; quia, ut dicitur in Ps. CXXVI, v. 1: nisi dominus custodierit civitatem, frustra vigilat qui custodit eam. Non enim bonum nostrum est in hoc solum quod habemus esse a Deo, sed oportet quod conservemur ab eo. Quia, ut dicit Gregorius, omnia in nihilum redigerentur, nisi manus omnipotentis contineret; Hebr. I, 3: portans omnia verbo virtutis suae. Et ideo Psalmista petebat: conserva me, domine, quoniam speravi in te. Conservatur autem homo a malo et a peccato in nomine Dei: unde dicit in nomine tuo, idest, per virtutem nominis tui et tuae cognitionis: quia in hoc est gloria et salus nostra; Ps. XIX, 8: hi in curribus et hi in equis; nos autem in nomine domini Dei nostri invocabimus. He asks for their protection, saying, keep them, for as we read: "Unless the Lord builds the house, those who build it labor in vain" (Ps 127:1). For our good consists not only in receiving existence from God, but also in being kept in existence by God, because as Gregory says: "All things would return to nothingness, if the hand of the Almighty did not uphold them" ; "upholding the universe by his word of power" (Heb 1:3). Accordingly, the Psalmist prays: "Keep me, O Lord, for I have put my trust in you" [Ps 16:1]. Now we are kept from evil and from sin in the name of God; thus he says, keep them in your name, that means, by the power of your name and of your knowledge, for in these lay our glory and our well‑being: "Some trust in chariots, and some in horses. But we will call upon the name of the Lord our God" [Ps 20:7]. Petit autem pro sibi datis: unde dicit quos dedisti mihi, Eccle. VII, 14: inspice in omnia opera domini, quod nemo possit corrigere quem ille despexerit. Nullus enim potest conservari a malo nisi per electionem divinam, quae designatur, cum dicit quos dedisti mihi, idest dono tuae gratiae, ut mihi adhaererent; Matth. XIX, 11: non omnes capiunt verbum hoc, sed quibus datum est. Qui enim sic dantur Christo, conservantur a malo. He is praying for those who were given to him; he says, which you have given me: "Consider the work of God; who can make straight what he has made crooked?" (Eccl 7:13). For one can be kept from evil only by God's choice, which is indicated when he says, which you have given me, that is, by a gift of grace, so that they remain with me: "Not all men can receive this precept, but only those to whom it is given" (Mt 19:11). Those who are given to Christ in this way are kept from evil. Ad quid ergo petit eos conservari, subdit dicens ut sint unum sicut et nos; quod potest dupliciter continuari ad praecedentia. Uno modo ut designet modum conservationis, ut sit sensus: ita servabuntur, ut sint unum; nam quaelibet res conservatur in esse quamdiu est una, quae desinit esse per divisionem; Matth. XII, 25: omne regnum in seipsum divisum desolabitur. Et ideo Ecclesia potest conservari, et homines, si sint unum. Alio modo ut sit finis conservationis, ut sit sensus: et ad hoc conserventur, ut sint unum: nam in unitate spiritus consistit nostra perfectio tota; Eph. IV, 3: solliciti servare unitatem spiritus in vinculo pacis; Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum habitare fratres in unum. Then he states why he is asking for their protection, saying, that they may be one, even as we are one. This can be connected with what has gone before in two ways. In the first way, it shows the way they will be kept or protected. Then the meaning is: They will be kept and protected by being kept as one. For a thing is preserved in existence as long as it remains one, and it ceases to be when it become divided: "Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste" (Mt 12:23). Accordingly, the Church and people can be preserved if they remain one. In another way this phrase can state the purpose of their being kept. Then the meaning is this: Let them be kept or protected so that they may be one: for our entire perfection lies in a unity of spirit: "eager to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace" (Eph 4:3); "Behold, how good and pleasant it is when brothers dwell in unity" (Ps 133:1). Sed addit sicut nos unum sumus. Sed contra. Ipsi sunt unum secundum essentiam: ergo et nos erimus unum per essentiam. Sed hoc non est verum. Responsio. Dicendum, quod uniuscuiusque perfectio nihil est aliud quam participatio divinae similitudinis. In tantum enim sumus boni inquantum Deo assimilamur. Unitas ergo nostra intantum est perfectiva inquantum participat unitatem divinam. Est autem duplex unitas in divinis: scilicet naturae, supra X, 30: ego et pater unum sumus, et unitas amoris in patre et filio, quae est unitas spiritus. Et utraque est in nobis, non quidem per aequiparationem, sed per similitudinem quamdam: pater enim et filius sunt eiusdem naturae numero, nos autem sumus unum in natura secundum speciem. Item ipsi sunt unum per amorem non participatum ex dono alicuius, sed ab eis procedentem: nam pater et filius diligunt se spiritu sancto; nos autem per amorem participatum ex aliquo superiori. 2214 He adds, even as we are one. This causes a problem. The Father and Son are one in essence. And so we also will be one in essence? This is not true. The solution is that the perfection of each thing is nothing but sharing a likeness to God; for we are good to the extent that we resemble God. Accordingly, our unity contributes to our perfection to the extent that it shares in the unity of God. Now there is a twofold unity in God. There is a unity of nature: "I and the Father are one" (10:30); and a unity of love in the Father and Son, which is a unity of spirit. Both of these unities are found in us, not in an equal way, but with a certain likeness. The Father and the Son have the same individual nature [literally "numerically the same nature"], while we have the same specific nature. Again, they are one by a love which is not a participated love and a gift from another; rather, this love proceeds from them, for the Father and Son love themselves by the Holy Spirit. We are one by participating in a higher love. Necessitatem autem huius conservationis ponit dicens cum essem cum eis, ego servabam eos in nomine tuo: quae causatur ex duobus. Primo quidem ex recessu sui; secundo ex odio mundi, ibi ego dedi eis sermonem tuum. Circa primum tria facit. Primo ponit conservationis studium, quod dominus cum esset praesens, eis exhibuit; secundo insinuat discessum quo ad patrem redit, ibi nunc autem ad te venio; tertio assignat rationem quare haec verba protulit, ibi et haec loquor et cetera. Circa primum tria facit. Primo proponit conservandi modum; secundo conservationis debitum; tertio conservationis efficaciam, sive effectum. 2215 Then he mentions why they need this protection (v 2). They need it for two reasons: because he is leaving them; and because the world hates them (v 14). He does three things about the first: he recalls the eagerness with which he protected them while he was with them; secondly, he states he is leaving (v 13a); thirdly, he mentions why he is saying these things (v 13b). Three things are done with the first: first, he mentions the way he protected them; secondly, his obligation to protect them; and thirdly, the effectiveness of his protection. Sed modus conservandi est congruus, quia virtute patris; unde dicit cum essem cum eis, scilicet praesentia corporali, Baruch III, 38: post haec in terris visus est, et cum hominibus conversatus est, ego, scilicet filius hominis, servabam, idest custodiebam, eos a malo et peccato; sed non virtute humana, immo divina, quia in nomine tuo: quod quidem nomen etiam commune est patri et filio et spiritui sancto; Matth. ult. 19: baptizantes eos in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti. Et hoc quidem, tum quia pater et filius sunt unus Deus, tum quia in nomine patris intelligitur etiam nomen filii: pater enim dicitur qui habet filium. 2216 The way they were protected was appropriate, because it was by the power of the Father. Accordingly, he says, While I was with them, that is, physically present ‑ "Afterward he appeared on earth and lived among men" (Bar 3:37) ‑ I, the Son of man, kept, that is, protected them from evil and sin, not by human power, but rather by divine power, because it was in your name. This name is also common to the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit ‑ "Baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Mt 28:19) ‑ because the Father and the Son are one God, and because the name of "Son" is implied in the name "Father," for one who has a son is called a Father. Sed attende, quia supra cum negasset se habere Daemonium, non negavit se Samaritanum, idest custodem esse, quia custos est; Is. XXI, 11: custos quid de nocte? Scilicet huius mundi. Ipse enim sicut pastor custodit gregem suum. Note that before, when Christ denied that he had a devil, he did not deny that he was a Samaritan, that is, a guardian, because Christ is a guardian: "Watchman, what of the night?" (Is 21:11), that is, the night of this world, for like a shepherd, Christ guards his flock. Sed conservationis debitum ponit dicens quos dedisti mihi: custos enim tenetur custodire suae custodiae deputatos; III Reg. XX, 39: custodi virum istum; Habac. c. II, 1: super custodiam meam stabo. Sic stat praelatus quando diligenter invigilat super his qui sibi sunt deputati; Lc. II, 8: pastores erant in regione eadem vigilantes, et custodientes vigilias noctis super gregem suum. 2217 His obligation to protect them is stated when he says, which you have given me, for a guardian is bound to protect those placed in his care: "Keep this man" (1 Kgs 20:39); "I will take my stand to watch" (Hab 2:1). This is the way a superior acts when he carefully watches over those entrusted to his care: "And in that region there were shepherds out in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night" (Lk 2:8). Sed efficacia custodiae est perfecta, quia nemo ex iis periit; supra X, 27: oves meae vocem meam audiunt, et non rapiet eas quisquam de manu mea; et supra VI, v. 40: omnis qui credit in eum, habet vitam aeternam. Sed ab hac efficacia excipitur unus, scilicet filius perditionis, scilicet Iudas; qui dicitur filius perditionis, quasi ad perpetuam perditionem praescitus et praeordinatus. Sic enim aliqui deputati ad mortem dicuntur filii mortis; I Reg. XXVI, 16: omnes vos filii mortis estis; Matth. XXIII, 15: circuitis mare et aridam ut faciatis unum proselytum (...) et facitis eum filium mortis duplo quam vos. 2218 The effectiveness of Christ's protection is complete, because none of them is lost: "My sheep hear my voice ... and no one shall snatch them out of my hand" (10:27); "Every one who ... believes in him [the Son] should have eternal life" (6:40). One person is excluded, that is, the son of perdition, Judas. He is called the son of perdition as though foreknown and foreordained to eternal perdition. In this way those destined to die are called the sons of death: "You are the sons of death" [1 Sam 26:16]; "You traverse sea and land to make a single proselyte ... and you make him a son of death twice as much as yourself" [Mt 23: 15]. Sed nota, quod interlinearis habet: filius mortis, idest praedestinatus perditioni; cum tamen raro inveniatur quod praedestinatio ponatur in malum. Unde hic sumitur communiter pro scientia vel ordinatione. Ideo praedestinatio semper in bonum ponitur, quia habet duplicem effectum gratiae et gloriae; et ad utrumque Deus ordinat. Sed in reprobatione duo sunt, culpa et poena temporaliter: et ad unum eorum Deus tantum ordinat, scilicet ad poenam, et non per se. Ut Scriptura, qua scilicet praedixisti, scilicet in Ps. CVIII, 1: Deus laudem meam ne tacueris: quia os peccatoris et os dolosi super me apertum est, quod scilicet esset me proditurus: impleretur. A Gloss says that a "son of death is one who is predestined to perdition." It is not customary to say that one is predestined to evil, and so here we should understand predestination in its general meaning of knowledge or orientation. Actually, predestination is always directed to what is good, because it has the double effect of grace and glory; and it is God who directs us to each of these. Two things are involved in reprobation: guilt, and punishment in time. And God ordains a person to only one of these, that is, punishment, and even this is not for its own sake. That the scripture, in which you predicted that he would betray me ‑ "Wicked and deceitful mouths are opened against me" (Ps 109:2) ‑ might be fulfilled. Nunc autem ad te venio, deserens eos corporali praesentia; supra XVI, 28: iterum relinquo mundum, et vado ad patrem. Sed quia haec verba in corde male intelligentium possent infidelitatis scandalum generare, quasi non posset eos servare ab eis recedens vel quod pater eos ante non servasset: sed quidem et pater eos ante servabat, unde dixit: ego servabam eos in nomine tuo, sed et filius post suum recessum eos servare potuit. 2219 But now I am coming to you, physically leaving them: "I am leaving the world and going to the Father" (16:28). He had said before, "I kept them in your name," so that some would not fall into unbelief by misunderstanding this present statement (v 13) to mean that he could not protect them after he had left, or that the Father was not protecting them before. The Father was protecting them before. And the Son could also protect them after he left. Et ideo rationem dictorum assignans, dicit et haec loquor in mundo, ut habeant gaudium meum impletum in semetipsis; quasi dicat: locutus sum sicut homo orans; sed haec loquor propter consolationem discipulorum aestimantium me esse hominem purum, ut saltem consolentur in hoc quod eos tibi patri, quem maiorem credunt, recommendo, gaudentes se esse in protectione patris. Et hoc, secundum Chrysostomum. 2220 He gives the reason why he said these things when he says, and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves. It is like saying: I am like a man who is praying, and I am speaking these things to console my disciples, who think that I am merely human, so that at least they can be consoled because I am entrusting them to you, Father, whom they believe to be greater than I, and so they can rejoice in your protection. This is the interpretation of Chrysostom. Vel secundum Augustinum, ut referantur haec verba ad hoc quod supra dixit: ut sint unum sicut et nos sumus. Et sic ponuntur ut fructus unitatis; quasi diceret ut habeant gaudium, iam superius expressum, quo scilicet in me gaudeant, vel quod eis est a me, plenum in semetipsis: quod quidem consequentur per unitatem spiritus, per quam pervenient ad gaudium vitae aeternae, quod est plenum. Ideo autem gaudium ad unitatem sequitur, quia unitas et pax faciunt perfecte gaudere; Prov. XII, 20: qui ineunt pacis consilia, sequitur eos gaudium; Gal. V, 22: fructus autem spiritus est gaudium et cetera. In the interpretation of Augustine, this present statement is related to "that they may be one, even as we are one" (v 11). In this case, these words (v 13) indicate the fruit of being one. It is like saying: that they may have my joy, by which they can rejoice in me, or, which they have received from me, fulfilled in themselves. They will obtain this joy by a unity of spirit, which will give them the joy of eternal life, which is full joy. And so this joy follows upon being one, because unity and peace produce perfect joy: "Those who follow plans for peace have joy" [Prv 12:20]; "The fruit of the Spirit is joy" (Gal 5:22). Hic ponitur alia conservationis necessitas, quae causatur ex odio mundi, et primo proponit beneficium quod discipulis contulerat; secundo odium mundi quod incurrerant, ibi et mundus eos odio habuit; tertio petit auxilium patris, quod eos protegat, ibi non rogo ut tollas eos de mundo, sed ut serves eos a malo. Dicit ergo primo ego dedi eis sermonem tuum, idest quem a te recepi. 2221 Now we have another reason why they need protection, which is because of the hatred of the world. First he mentions the benefit he had given his disciples; secondly, the hatred of the world for them (v 14); and thirdly, he asks the Father's help to protect them (v 15). Supra eodem verba quae dedisti mihi, dedi eis, et ipsi acceperunt. Vel dedi, idest dabo per inspirationem Paracliti, sermonem tuum, idest de te; quod quidem est maximum donum et beneficium; Prov. IV, 2: donum bonum tribuam vobis: legem meam ne derelinquatis. 2222 He says, I have given them your word, which I have received from you: "I have given them the words which you gave me" (17:7). Or, I have given, that is, I will give them, by the inspiration of the Paraclete, your word, that is, the word about yourself, which is the greatest of gifts and benefits: "I will give you a good gift, do not abandon my law" [Prv 4:2]. Sed ex hoc secutum est odium mundi, quia scilicet ex hoc quod susceperunt sermonem tuum, mundus eos odio habuit; Lc. VI, 22: beati eritis cum vos oderint homines etc.; I Io. III, 13: nolite mirari si odit vos mundus. Causa autem huius odii est quia recesserunt de mundo. Sermo enim Dei facit homines a mundo recedere: nam Deo coniungit, cui nullus coniungi potest nisi a mundo recedat, qui enim diligit mundum, non est perfecta caritas Dei in illo; et ideo dicit quia non sunt de hoc mundo; supra XV, v. 19: quia ego elegi vos de mundo, propterea odit vos mundus. Naturale enim est unicuique quod sibi simile est diligere; Eccli. c. XIII, 19: omne animal diligit sibi simile, et odio habet dissimile; Sap. II, 15: gravis est nobis etiam ad videndum; et hoc quia dissimilis est aliis vita illius. 2223 The result of this is the hatred of the world: because they have received your word, the world has hated them: "Blessed are you when men hate you" (Lk 6:22); "Do not wonder, brethren, that the world hates you" (1 Jn 3:13). The reason for this hatred is that they have left the world. For the word of God causes us to leave the world since it unites us to God, and one cannot be joined to God without leaving the world, for one who loves the world does not have a perfect love for God. Thus he says, because they are not of the world: "I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you" (15:19). For it is natural for one to love others who are similar: "Every beast loves its own kind, and hates the others" [Sir 13:19]; "The very sight of him is a burden to us," and this is "because his manner of life is unlike that of others" (Wis 2:15). Et ad hoc ponit exemplum, qualiter scilicet non sunt de mundo, dicens sicut et ego non sum de mundo: quod intelligendum est quantum ad amorem, quia sicut Christus in mundo non erat per affectum, sic nec isti; non autem quantum ad originem, quia aliquando de mundo fuerunt. Christus autem numquam, quia etiam quantum ad nativitatem carnis natus est de spiritu sancto. Matth. c. I; supra VIII, 23: vos de mundo hoc estis; ego non sum de hoc mundo. 2224 Then he mentions the model according to which they are not of the world when he says, even as I am not of the world. This should be understood to refer to their affections, for just as Christ was not in the world by his affections, so neither were they. It does not apply to their origin, because at one time they were of the world, while Christ was never of the world because even considering his birth in the flesh he was of the Holy Spirit: "You are of this world, I am not of this world" (8:23). Auxilium autem contra odium petit, dicens non rogo ut tollas eos de mundo, sed ut serves eos a malo, et primo ponit suam petitionem; secundo assignat petitionis rationem, ibi de mundo non sunt. 2225 Then he asks for help in facing this hatred when he says, I do not pray that you should take them out of the world, but that you should keep them from evil. First, he makes his prayer; secondly, he gives the reason for what he asks, they are not of the world. Circa primum duo ponit, quorum unum dicit se non petere, scilicet ut non tollantur de mundo. Contra. Quomodo tolli possunt de mundo qui de mundo non sunt? Sed dicendum, quod de mundo quidem non erant per affectum, sicut supra dixit, sed de mundo per corporalem conservationem; et secundum hoc noluit ut tollerentur de mundo: et hoc propter utilitatem fidelium, qui per eos credituri erant; Mc. ult., 15: euntes in mundum universum, praedicate Evangelium omni creaturae. 2226 He mentions two things in the first. He says he is not asking for one thing, which is that they be taken out of the world. But how can they be taken out of the world who are not of the world? We should say that they are not of the world as regards their affections, as we said before. But they are of the world by continuing to be physically present in it, and in this way he does not want them to be taken out of the world. This is because they would be of benefit to the faithful whom they would bring to the faith: "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to the whole creation" (Mk 16:15). Sed aliud petit, ut scilicet in mundo corporaliter conversantes, serves a malo, scilicet mundi: grave enim est ut homo inter malos existens a malo immunis existat, praecipue cum totus mundus in maligno positus sit; Is. XLIII, 2: cum transieris per aquas, tecum ero, et flumina non operient te. He asks for something else, namely, that while they remain physically in the world the Father should keep them from evil, that is, worldly evil; for it is difficult for a person who lives among those who are bad to remain free from evil, especially since the entire world is set in evil: "When you pass through the waters I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you" (Is 43:2). Ratio autem petitionis ponitur cum dicit de mundo non sunt. Ubi videtur esse intricatio verborum et inutilis repetitio; cum dicat eadem verba supra. Sed quidem non est inutilis repetitio: quia ad aliud dicuntur ibi, et ad aliud hic. Ibi enim dicuntur ad ostendendam causam quare odio habeantur a mundo: hic vero dicuntur ad assignandam rationem quare debeant conservari a Deo. 2227 He gives the reason for this request when he says, they are not of the world. This seems to be a useless repetition since he had just said the same thing. But, indeed, it is not useless, because they are spoken in different contexts. They were spoken before to show why the disciples were hated by the world; here they are spoken to show why they should be protected by God. Ex quo datur intelligi quod idem est propter quod sancti odiuntur a mundo et diliguntur a Deo, scilicet contemptus mundi; Iac. II, 5: nonne vos elegit Deus pauperes in hoc mundo, divites in fide et haeredes regni quod promisit Deus diligentibus se? Et ideo quodlibet bonum quod facit reddit hominem mundo odibilem, sed Deo dilectum; Ex. VIII, 26: abominationes Aegyptiorum immolabimus domino Deo nostro. We can see from this that the reason why the saints are hated by the world is the same as the reason why God loves them, that is, their disdain for the world: "Has not God chosen those who are poor in the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom which he has promised to those who love him?" (Jas 2:5). Therefore, whatever good a person does makes this person hateful to the world, but loved by God: "We sacrifice what the Egyptians worship" [Ex 8:27].
Lectio 4 LECTURE 4 17 ἁγίασον αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ: ὁ λόγος ὁ σὸς ἀλήθειά ἐστιν. 18 καθὼς ἐμὲ ἀπέστειλας εἰς τὸν κόσμον, κἀγὼ ἀπέστειλα αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν κόσμον: 19 καὶ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἐγὼ ἁγιάζω ἐμαυτόν, ἵνα ὦσιν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἡγιασμένοι ἐν ἀληθείᾳ. 17 "Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth. 18 As you did send me into the world, so I have sent them into the world. 19 And for their sake I consecrate [sanctify] myself, that they also may be consecrated [sanctified] in truth." Supra dominus petiit discipulorum conservationem, hic petit eorum sanctificationem et primo petit eorum sanctificationem; secundo sanctificationis assignat necessitatem, ibi sicut tu me misisti in mundum; tertio insinuat huius sanctificationis inchoationem, ibi et ego pro eis sanctifico meipsum. 2228 Above, our Lord prayed for the protection of his disciples; here he prays for their sanctification. First, he asks for their sanctification; secondly, he mentions why they need to be sanctified (v 18); thirdly, he says this sanctification has already begun (v 19). Dicit ergo: sic petii quod serventur a malo, sed hoc non sufficit nisi perficiantur in bono; Ps. XXXVI, 27: declina a malo, et fac bonum. Et ideo, pater, sanctifica, idest perfice, eos, et sanctos fac. Et hoc in veritate, idest in me filio tuo, qui sum veritas, supra XIV, 6, quasi diceret: fac eos participes meae perfectionis et sanctitatis. Et ideo addit sermo tuus, idest verbum tuum, veritas est, ut sit sensus: sanctifica eos in me veritate, quia ego verbum tuum sum veritas. 2229 He says: I have prayed that my disciples be kept from evil; but this is not enough unless they are perfected by what is good: "Depart from evil, and do good" (Ps 37:27). Accordingly he prays, sanctify them, that is, perfect them and make them holy. And do this in the truth, that is, in me, your Son, who am the truth (14:6). It is like saying: Make them share in my perfection and holiness (sanctity). And thus he adds, your word, that is, your Word, is the truth. The meaning is then: Sanctify them in me, the truth, because I, your Word, am the truth. Vel sanctifica eos, immittendo eis spiritum sanctum; et hoc in veritate, idest in cognitione veritatis fidei et tuorum mandatorum; supra VIII, 32: cognoscetis veritatem, et veritas liberabit vos. Nam per fidem et cognitionem veritatis sanctificamur; Rom. III, 22: iustitia enim Dei per fidem Iesu Christi, in omnes et super omnes qui credunt in eum. Et ideo subdit sermo tuus veritas est: quia scilicet veritas sermonum Dei nullam habet falsitatem admixtam; Prov. VIII, 8: recti sunt sermones mei, non est in eis pravum quid neque perversum. Et quia sermo eius docet veritatem increatam. Or, we could say this: Sanctify them, by sending the Holy Spirit. And do this in the truth, that is, in the knowledge of the truths of the faith and of your commandments: "You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free" (8:32). For we are sanctified by faith and the knowledge of the truth: "the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe" (Rom 3:22). He adds, your word is truth, because the truth of God's words is unmixed with falsity: "All the words of my mouth are righteous; there is nothing twisted or crooked in them" (Prv 8:8). Further, his word teaches the uncreated truth. Vel aliter. In veteri testamento erat modus loquendi, quod omne quod deputatur cultui divino, dicitur sanctificari; Ex. XXVIII, 1: applica ad me Aaron fratrem tuum cum filiis suis de medio filiorum Israel, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi. Dicit ergo sanctifica, idest deputa quasi per modum sanctificationis, eos in veritate, idest tuae veritati praedicandae: quia sermo tuus, quem debent praedicare, veritas est. Another interpretation: In the Old Testament everything set aside for divine worship was said to be sanctified: "Then bring near to you Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, from among the people of Israel to serve me as priests" (Ex 28:1). Accordingly he says, sanctify them, that is, set them aside, in truth, that is, to preach your truth, because your word, which they are to preach, is truth. Et necessitas sanctificationis subditur cum dicit sicut tu me misisti in mundum, ita et ego misi eos in mundum; quasi dicat: ad hoc ego veni ut praedicarem veritatem, infra XVIII, 37: in hoc natus sum (...) ut testimonium perhibeam veritati: ita et ego misi discipulos ad veritatem praedicandam; Mc. ult., 15: euntes in mundum universum, praedicate Evangelium omni creaturae. Necesse ergo habent quod in veritate testificentur; infra XX, 21: sicut misit me pater, et ego mitto vos. 2230 The need for their sanctification is added when he says, as you did send me into the world, so I have sent them into the world. He is saying in effect: I have come to preach the truth: "For this I was born ... to bear witness to the truth" (18:37). And so I have sent my disciples to preach the truth: "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to the whole creation" (Mk 16:15). Accordingly, they have to be sanctified in the truth: "As the Father has sent me, even so I send you" (20:21). Sed debent sanctificari non solum propter officium ad quod deputantur, sed quia iam inchoata est per me; unde dicit et pro eis ego sanctifico meipsum. Secundum Augustinum enim sciendum est, quod in Christo est duplex natura: sed quantum ad divinam Christus est sanctus per essentiam, quantum vero ad humanam Christus est sanctus per gratiam, quae derivatur a divina natura. Dicit ergo secundum divinitatem sanctifico meipsum, assumendo carnem pro eis: et hoc, ut sanctitas gratiae, quae est a me Deo in me homine, derivetur a me eis; quia de plenitudine eius omnes accepimus; supra I, 16. Ps. CXXXII, 2: sicut unguentum quod est in capite, Christi quod est Deus, quod descendit in barbam Aaron, idest in humanitatem, et ab hac, descendit in oram vestimenti eius, idest in nos. 2231 They need to be sanctified not only because of the task they have been given, but also because their sanctification has already been begun by me. Thus he says, and for their sake I sanctify myself. According to Augustine, we should note that there are two natures in Christ. Christ is holy by essence, considering his divine nature; while he is holy by grace, which is derived from the divine nature, considering his human nature. Referring to his divine nature he says, I sanctify myself, by taking on flesh for them. I do this in order that the sanctity or holiness of grace, which is found in my humanity, but is also from me as God, might flow from me to them, because "from his fullness we have all received" (1:16). "It is like the precious oil upon the head," and this head is Christ, who is God, "running down upon the beard, upon the beard of Aaron," that is, upon his human nature, and from here, "running down on the collar of his robes," that is, to us. (Ps 133:2). Vel aliter, secundum Chrysostomum, rogavit ut sanctificarentur sanctificatione spirituali. In veteri autem testamento erant iustificationes carnales; Hebr. IX, 10: iustitiis carnis usque ad tempus correctionis impositis. Sed illae erant figurae spiritualis sanctificationis, quae tamen fiebant per aliquod sacrificium; et ideo ad sanctificationem discipulorum competebat fieri aliquod sacrificium. Et hoc est quod dicit: ut sanctificentur ipsi, ego iam sanctifico me; idest offero me sacrificium; Hebr. c. IX, 14: obtulit semetipsum Deo; ibid. XIII, v. 12: propter quod Iesus, ut sanctificaret per suum sanguinem populum, extra portam passus est. Et hoc in veritate, non in figura, sicut in veteri testamento. Or, according to Chrysostom, he is asking they be sanctified by a spiritual sanctification. In the Old Testament there were sanctifications of the body: "Cleansing of the body imposed until the time comes to set things right" [Heb 9:10]. These were figures of a spiritual sanctification, and these figures involved the offering of some sacrifice. And so it was appropriate that some sacrifice be offered for the sanctification of the disciples. This is what he is saying: I sanctify myself in order that they might be sanctified, that is, I am offering myself as a sacrifice: "who offered himself without blemish to God" (Heb 9:14); "So Jesus also suffered outside the gate in order to sanctify the people through his own blood" (Heb 13:12). He did this in truth, not in a figure, as was done in the Old Testament.
Lectio 5 LECTURE 5 20 οὐ περὶ τούτων δὲ ἐρωτῶ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ τῶν πιστευόντων διὰ τοῦ λόγου αὐτῶν εἰς ἐμέ, 21 ἵνα πάντες ἓν ὦσιν, καθὼς σύ, πάτερ, ἐν ἐμοὶ κἀγὼ ἐν σοί, ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἡμῖν ὦσιν, ἵνα ὁ κόσμος πιστεύῃ ὅτι σύ με ἀπέστειλας. 22 κἀγὼ τὴν δόξαν ἣν δέδωκάς μοι δέδωκα αὐτοῖς, ἵνα ὦσιν ἓν καθὼς ἡμεῖς ἕν, 23 ἐγὼ ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ σὺ ἐν ἐμοί, ἵνα ὦσιν τετελειωμένοι εἰς ἕν, ἵνα γινώσκῃ ὁ κόσμος ὅτι σύ με ἀπέστειλας καὶ ἠγάπησας αὐτοὺς καθὼς ἐμὲ ἠγάπησας. 20 "I do not pray for these only, but also for those who [will] believe in me through their word, 21 that they may all be one; even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. 22 The glory which you have given me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, 23 I in them and you in me, that they may become perfectly one, so that the world may know that you have sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me." Postquam dominus oravit pro suis discipulis, hic rogat communiter pro fidelibus omnibus, etprimo proponit orationem;secundo subiungit exauditionis rationem, ibi pater iuste, mundus te non cognovit.In oratione autem duo petit a patre discipulis suis. Primo quidem unitatis perfectionem; secundo gloriae visionem, ibi pater quod dedisti mihi, volo ut ubi ego sum et illi sint mecum. Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit quasi homo unitatis perfectionem; secundo ostendit quod ipse ut Deus fecerit eis potestatem ad hanc unitatem consequendam, ibi et ego claritatem quam dedisti mihi, dedi eis. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit pro quibus petit; secundo subdit quid petit, ibi ut omnes unum sint et cetera. 2232 After our Lord prayed for his disciples, he now prays in general for all the faithful. First, we see his prayer; secondly, he states why he should be heard (v 25). In his prayer he asks the Father two things for those who follow him: first, a perfect unity; secondly, the vision of glory, I desire that they also ... may be with me (v 24). He does two things about the first: he asks, as man, for a perfect unity; secondly, he shows that as God he gives them the ability to acquire this unity (v 22). He does two things with the first: he mentions for whom he is asking; secondly, what he is asking for, that they may be one (v 22b). Petit autem pro toto coetu fidelium, unde dicit: dixi, quod conserves discipulos a malo, et quod sanctifices eos in veritate; sed non pro eis rogo tantum, sed etiam pro eis qui credituri sunt, idest pro illis quorum fides confirmabitur: et hoc per verbum eorum, idest apostolorum. Et iuste rogat, quia nullus salvatur, nisi per intercessionem Christi. Ne autem solum apostoli salvarentur, sed etiam alii, ideo etiam pro aliis orandum erat; Deut. IV, 37: dilexit patres tuos, et elegit semen eorum post eos; Eccli. c. XLIV, 11: cum semine eorum permanebo, et haereditas sancta nepotes eorum. 2233 He is praying for the entire community of the faithful. He says: I have asked that you protect my disciples from evil, and that you sanctify them in the truth; but I do not pray for these only, but also for those who will believe, that is, for those whose faith will be strengthened, through their word, the word of the apostles. It is right for him to ask this, because no one is saved except by the intercession of Christ. So that it was not only the apostles who were saved, but also others, he also had to pray for these others: "He loved your fathers and chose their descendants after them" (Deut 4:37); "Their prosperity will remain with their descendants" (Sir 44:11). Sed contra. Videtur quod non oravit pro omnibus fidelibus suis. Nam pro his hic orat qui convertendi erant per verba apostolorum: sed antiqui patres et Ioannes Baptista non fuerunt conversi per verba eorum. Ad quod dicendum, quod ipsi iam pervenerant ad consummationem; et licet non fruerentur Dei visione, cum non esset solutum pretium, tamen cum meritis suis hinc abierant, ita ut statim aperta ianua introducendi essent: et ideo oratione non indigebant. 2234 The objection is made that he does not seem to be praying for all his faithful, because he is praying for those who would be converted by the word of the apostles. But the old fathers and John the Baptizer were not converted by their word. We should answer that these persons had already arrived at their destination; and although they were not enjoying the vision of God, since the price had not yet been paid, they went from this world with their merits, so that as soon as the gate was opened they would enter. Thus, they did not need such prayer. Sed adhuc iterum quaeritur de aliquibus, qui non per apostolorum verba crediderunt, sed immediate per Christum, sicut Paulus; Gal. I, 12: non ab hominibus neque per hominem accepi illud neque didici, sed per revelationem Iesu Christi. Et latro in cruce, Lc. XXIII, 43. Non videtur ergo quod pro eis oraverit. Sed ad hoc dicendum, secundum Augustinum, quod per verbum apostolorum dicuntur credere non solum qui ab ipsis audierunt, sed quicumque credunt per verbum quod apostoli praedicaverunt, quod est verbum fidei, Rom. X, 8, quod dicitur verbum apostolorum, quia ipsis principaliter commissum et praedicatum: quod etiam Paulo et latroni in cruce est revelatum divinitus. Vel dicendum, quod qui immediate a Christo et per Christum conversi sunt, sicut Paulus, et latro in cruce, et si qui alii, computantur in parte orationis qua dominus pro discipulis oravit. Unde dominus dixit (supra hoc cap.): quos dedisti mihi, seu daturus es. 2235 Again, what of others who did not believe through the word of the apostles, but through Christ's, like Paul believed: "I did not receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came through a revelation of Jesus Christ" (Gal 1:12), or like the thief on the cross (Lk 23:43). It does not seem that Christ prayed for them. The answer, according to Augustine, is that those are said to believe through the word of the apostles who not only listened to the apostles, but those also who believed through the word [as coming from others] which the apostles preached, which is the word of faith (Rom 10:8). The word of faith is called the word of the apostles because they were especially commissioned to preach it. The same word was divinely revealed to Paul and the thief on the cross. Or, one could say that those who were converted directly by and through Christ, like Paul and the thief on the cross, and others like these, are included in that part of the prayer in which our Lord prayed for his disciples. And so our Lord said: "whom you gave me" (17:6), or will give me. Sed adhuc quaeritur de nobis, qui non credimus per apostolos. Sed ad hoc dicendum, quod licet non crediderimus per apostolos, credimus tamen per discipulos eorum. 2236 What about us, who do not believe through the apostles? We should say that although we do not believe through the apostles, we do believe through their disciples. Petit autem unitatis perfectionem, unde dicit ut omnes unum sint. Ubi primo proponit unitatem quam petit; secundo unitatis exemplum et causam, ibi sicut tu, pater, in me, et ego in te; tertio unitatis fructum, ibi ut mundus credat quia tu me misisti. 2237 He prays for a perfect unity when he says, that they may all be one. First, he mentions the unity he is asking for; secondly, he gives an example of it, and its cause, as you, Father, are in me; thirdly, he gives the fruit of unity, that the world may believe. Dicit ergo hoc rogo ut omnes unum sint. Nam, ut Platonici dicunt ab hoc quaelibet res habet unitatem a quo habet bonitatem. Bonum enim est quod est rei conservativum; nulla autem res conservatur nisi per hoc quod est una. Et ideo dominus petens discipulorum perfectionem in bonitate, petit quod sint unum; quod quidem impletum est; Act. IV, 32: multitudinis credentium erat cor unum et anima una; Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum habitare fratres in unum. 2238 He says: I am praying that they may all be one. As the Platonists say, a thing acquires its unity from that from which it acquires its goodness. For that is good for a thing which preserves it; and a thing is preserved only if it remains one. Thus when our Lord prays that his disciples be perfect in goodness, he prays that they be one. Indeed, this was accomplished: "Now the company of those who believed were of one heart and soul" (Acts 4:32); "Behold, how good and pleasant it is when brothers dwell in unity" (Ps 133:1). Sed unitatis exemplum et causam subdit, dicens: sicut tu, pater, in me, et ego in te. Aliqui enim sunt unum, sed in malo. Unde hanc unitatem Deus non petit, sed illam secundum quam homines uniuntur ad bonum, scilicet in Deum; et ideo dicit: sicut tu, pater, in me, et ego in te; idest hoc modo uniantur quod credant in me et in te; Rom. XII, 5: multi unum corpus sumus in Christo; Eph. IV, 3: solliciti servare unitatem spiritus (...) qui est unus Deus, una fides, unum Baptisma. Et quidem in patre et filio qui sunt unum, sumus unum: quia si diversa quaerimus credendo et desiderando, affectus noster diversificatur ad multa. 2239 He gives an example of this unity and its cause, saying, even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you. Others are one, but in evil. Our Lord is not asking for this kind of unity, but that which unites in good, that is, in God. And so he says, as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that is, let them be united by believing in me and in you: "We, though many, are one body in Christ" (Rom 12:5); "Eager to keep the unity of the Spirit ... one Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph 4:3). We are one or united in the Father and the Son, who are one; for if we were seeking different things to believe and desire, our affections would be scattered. Sed Arius ex hoc arguit, quod eodem modo filius est in patre et pater in filio, quo nos sumus in Deo: sed nos non sumus per unitatem essentiae, sed per conformitatem voluntatis et amoris: ergo et similiter pater non est in filio per unitatem essentiae. 2240 Arius uses this passage to argue that the Son is in the Father and the Father in the Son in the same way that we are in God. However, we are not in God by a unity of essence, but by a conformity of will and love. Therefore, he says, like us, the Father is not in the Son by a unity of essence. Sed dicendum, quod in patre et filio est duplex unitas, scilicet essentiae et amoris; et secundum utramque pater est in filio, et filius in patre. Quod ergo hic dicit sicut tu, pater, in me, et ego in te, potest referri uno modo ad unitatem amoris, secundum Augustinum, ut sit sensus: sicut, te, pater, es in me per amorem, quia caritas facit unum esse cum Deo; quasi diceret: sicut pater diligit filium, et e converso; ita ipsi diligant patrem et filium. Et sic ly sicut non dicit aequiparantiam, sed quamdam remotam similitudinem. We should say to this that there is a twofold unity of the Father and the Son: a unity of essence and of love. In both of these ways the Father is in the Son and the Son is in the Father. The even as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, can be understood of the unity of love, according to Augustine, and then the meaning is: even as you, Father, are in me, through love, because love, charity, makes one be with God. It is like saying: as the Father loves the Son and the Son loves the Father, so the disciples love the Father and the Son. Then the words even as do not imply equality but a remote likeness. Vel secundum Hilarium, potest referri ad unitatem naturae: non quidem quod eadem natura numero sit in nobis cum patre et filio, sicut est in eis; sed quod unitas nostra per hoc sit quod assimilamur illi divinae naturae, per quam pater et filius sunt unum. Hoc etiam modo ly sicut dicit imitationem quamdam. Et inde est quod invitamur ad imitationem dilectionis divinae: Eph. V, 1: estote imitatores Dei sicut filii carissimi, et ambulate in dilectione, sicut et Christus dilexit nos; et perfectionis, seu bonitatis; Matth. V, 48: estote perfecti sicut pater vester perfectus est. Or, according to Hilary, this statement can refer to a unity of nature; not indeed that the same numerical nature is in us and in the Father and the Son, but in the sense that our unity resembles that of the divine nature, by which the Father and the Son are one. In this case the words even as indicate a certain imitation. That is why we are invited to imitate divine love: "Be imitators of God, as beloved children, and walk in love, as Christ loved us" (Eph 5:1). And we are also to imitate the divine perfection or goodness: "You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect" (Mt 5:48). Fructum autem unitatis ponit cum dicit ut mundus credat: per nihil enim aliud sic manifestatur veritas Evangelii, sicut per caritatem fidelium; supra XII, 35: in hoc cognoscent omnes quia mei estis discipuli, si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem. Erit ergo hic unitatis fructus: quia, per hoc quod sint unum, mundus credat, quod doctrina quam dedi eis sit a te, et cognoscat quia tu me misisti. Non enim est Deus dissensionis causa, sed pacis. 2241 He indicates the fruit of this unity when he says, so that the world may believe: for nothing shows the truth of the gospel better than the charity of those who believe: "By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another" (13:35). This will be the fruit of unity: because if my disciples are one, the world may believe that the teaching I gave to them is from you, and know that you have sent me. For God is a cause of peace, not of contentions. Sed hic est quaestio: quia unum perfecte erimus in patria, ubi non erit tempus credendi: inconvenienter ergo post unitatem subdit ut mundus credat quia tu me misisti. Sed dicendum, quod hic non loquitur de unitate consummata, sed inchoata. 2242 There is a problem here. If we will be perfectly one in our homeland, where we will not believe [but see], it seems out of place to say, after mentioning unity, that the world may believe that you have sent me. Our reply is that our Lord is speaking here of the unity which is taking shape and not of perfected unity. Item est alia quaestio: quia ipse orat ut sint unum illi qui credunt in eum: ergo et mundus credens est unum. Quomodo ergo dicit, postquam sunt unum, mundus credat? Ad quod potest mystice responderi, quod uno modo dominus petit pro omnibus credentibus quod sint unum: qui tamen non simul credituri erant, sed quidam prius, per quos alii convertendi erant. Quod ergo dicit ut mundus credat, intelligitur quantum ad illos qui non a principio crediderunt, qui, cum crediderunt, facti sunt unum, et similiter alii credentes post eos: et sic usque ad finem mundi. 2243 There is another problem. Our Lord is praying that those who believe in him may be one; therefore, even the believing world is one. Therefore, how can he say, after the world has become one, that the world may believe? One can answer by giving the mystical sense. Then our Lord is praying that all believers be one. Yet all would not believe at the same time; some would be the first to believe, and they would convert others. So when he says, that the world may believe, it refers to those who did not believe at first, from the beginning, but when they did believe they did become one. And the same applies to those who would believe after them, and continuing to the end of the world. Alio modo, secundum Hilarium, ut ly mundus credat sit finis unitatis et perfectionis; quasi diceret: perfice eos, ut sic sint unum, ad hoc scilicet ut mundus credat quia tu me misisti. Unde ly ut importat causam finalem. Hilary has another interpretation. The words so that the world may believe indicates the purpose of their unity and perfection. It is like saying: you will perfect them so that they may be one, for this purpose, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. Here the words so that indicate a final cause. Tertio modo, secundum Augustinum, ut ly mundus credat sit alia petitio: et tunc oportet repeti quod dixit rogo; quasi diceret: rogo ut sint unum, et rogo ut mundus credat. A third interpretation is by Augustine. For him, that the world may believe, is another petition. In this case the I pray (v 20) has to be repeated, so that the sense is: I pray that they may be one, and I pray that the world may believe. Quid autem Christus ad hanc unitatem operatus sit, subdit dicens et ego claritatem quam dedisti mihi, dedi eis, quasi, hoc quod petit ut homo, facit ut Deus. Et primo ostendit quod ipse operatus est ad hoc quod sint unum; secundo ponit unitatis modum et ordinem, ibi ego in eis, et tu in me; tertio ostendit unitatis finem, ibi ut cognoscat mundus quia tu me misisti. 2244 Christ's part in establishing this unity is mentioned when he says, the glory which you have given me, I have given to them, since what he is asking for as man he is accomplishing as God. First, he shows that he acted to make them one; secondly, he mentions the kind and degree of this unity, I in them and you in me; and thirdly, we see the purpose of this unity, so that the world may know (v 23). Dicit ergo: etsi ut homo petam eorum perfectionem, nihilominus tamen simul tecum hoc facio quia et ego claritatem, idest gloriam resurrectionis, quam tu, pater, dedisti mihi, aeterna praedestinatione, et daturus es statim in re: ego dedi illis, scilicet discipulis. Et claritas est immortalitas, quam in resurrectione fideles accipient etiam quantum ad corpus; Phil. III, 21: reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae configuratum corpori claritatis suae; I Cor. XV, 43: seminatur in ignobilitate, surget in gloria. Et hoc ut sint unum: quia per hoc quod habebunt gloriam, efficientur unum, sicut et nos unum sumus. 2245 He says: Although, as man, I am asking for their perfection, still I am accomplishing this together with you, because the glory, of my resurrection, which you, Father, have given me, by an eternal predestination, and which you will soon give me in reality, I have given to them, my disciples. This glory is the immortality which the faithful will receive at the resurrection, an immortality even of the body: "Who will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body" (Phil 3:21); "It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory" (1 Cor 15:43). And this is so that they may be one, because by the fact that they have glory they will be made one, even as we are one. Sed videtur distinguere operationem suam ab operatione patris. Dicit, quod pater sibi claritatem dedit, et Christus eam dedit fidelibus. Sed si bene intelligatur, non ponitur hoc ad distinguendum operationem, sed personas. Nam filius, inquantum filius, simul cum patre claritatem dat Christo homini, et simul etiam cum eo fidelibus. Sed tamen inquantum hanc claritatem specialiter per humanitatem suam eis tribuit; ideo hanc attribuit sibi, illam patri. Et sic accipitur hic claritas, secundum Augustinum. 2246 He seems to be distinguishing his own activity from that of the Father, for he says that the Father gave him glory, and Christ gave this to his faithful. If this is understood correctly, we see that he is not saying these things to distinguish their activities, but their persons. For the Son, as Son, together with the Father, gives glory to Christ in his human nature, and together with the Father Christ gives it to the faithful. But because Christ gave glory to his faithful especially through his own human nature, he attributes this giving to himself, while he attributes to the Father the giving of glory to his own human nature. This is the opinion of Augustine. Vel, secundum Chrysostomum, ego claritatem, scilicet gratiae, quam dedisti mihi, homini, quantum ad excellentem cognitionem, perfectionem et miraculorum operationem, dedi eis in parte, et adhuc perfectius dabo: II Cor. III, 18: transformamur a claritate in claritatem; Ps. LXVII, 19: dedit dona hominibus. Et hoc, ut sint unum sicut et nos sumus. Hic enim est finis divinorum donorum ut uniamur illa unitate, quae est conformis unitati patris et filii. Or, according to Chrysostom, the glory, that is, the glory of grace, which you have given me, in my human nature, giving me a superior knowledge, perfection, and power to accomplish miracles, I have given to them, in a limited way, and will give it later more fully: "We are being changed into his likeness from one degree of glory to another" (2 Cor 3:18); "You have given gifts to men" [Ps 68:18]. And this is in order that they may be one even as we are one, for the purpose of God's gifts is to unite us in a unity which is like the unity of the Father and the Son. Ordo autem unitatis subditur, cum dicit ego in eis, et tu in me. Nam per hunc ordinem perveniunt ad unitatem, quia vident quod ego sum in eis per gratiam, sicut in templo; I Cor. III, 16: nescitis quia templum Dei estis, et spiritus Dei habitat in vobis? Quae est quasi quaedam similitudo eius essentiae, qua tu es in me per unitatem naturae; supra XIV, 10: ego in patre, et pater in me est. Et hoc ut ipsi sint consummati, idest perfecti, in unum. 2247 The manner of this unity is added when he says, I in them and you in me. They arrive at unity, because they see that I am in them, as in a temple: "Do you not know that you are God's temple and that God's Spirit dwells in you?" (1 Cor 3:16), by grace, which is a certain likeness of the Father's essence, by which you, Father, are in me by a unity of nature: "I am in the Father and the Father in me" (14:10). And this is in order that they may become perfectly one. Sed attende, quod cum supra dixisset ut sint unum, hic addit quod consummati: ideo est, quia illud refertur ad unitatem gratiae, hoc autem ad eius complementum. Vel aliter, secundum Hilarium, ego in eis, supple: sum per unitatem naturae humanae quam eamdem habeo cum illis, et quia etiam do eis corpus meum in cibum, et tu in me, per unitatem essentiae. Above, he had said, "that they may be one" (v 22), while here he says, perfectly one. The reason for this is that the first time he was referring to the unity brought about by grace, but here to its consummation. Hilary gives another interpretation: I in them, that is, I am in them by the unity of human nature, which I have in common with them, and also because I give them my body as food; and you in me, by a unity of essence. Sed secundum primam expositionem, quia per gratiam non solum filius est in eis, sed et pater, supra XIV, 23: ad eum veniemus, et mansionem apud eum faciemus: quare dicit ego in eis, sine patre? Responsio. Dicendum, secundum Augustinum, quod hoc non dicit ut ostendat filium in eis esse sine patre, sed quia per filium accessum habeant ad patrem; Rom. V, 1: iustificati igitur ex fide per Christum, pacem habeamus ad Deum, per quem et habemus accessum. Vel, secundum Chrysostomum, supra dixit ad eum veniemus, ut ostendat pluralitatem personarum divinarum contra Sabellium; hic autem dicit ego in eis ut ostendat aequalitatem patris ad filium contra Arium. Per hoc enim datur intelligi quod sufficit fidelibus, si solus filius inhabitet. 2248 Referring to the first explanation [the unity from grace], since the Father also, as well as the Son, is in them by grace - "We will come to him and make our home with him" (14:23) ‑ why does he say, I in them, without mentioning the Father? According to Augustine, he does this because they have access to the Father through the Son: "We have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. Through him we have obtained access" (Rom 5:1); and it does not mean that the Son is in them without the Father. Or, according to Chrysostom, above Christ said, "We will come to him" (14:23), to indicate that there is a plurality of divine persons, contrary to Sabellius; but here he says, I in them, to indicate the equality of the Father and the Son, contrary to Arius. We can understand from this that it is enough for the faithful if the Son alone dwells in them. Finis autem unitatis ponitur, ibi ut cognoscat mundus quia tu me misisti. Et quidem si consummata unio referatur ad perfectionem viae, tunc ly cognoscat mundus, idem est quod supra dixit ut mundus credat. Tunc dicitur propter inchoationem; hic autem dicit cognoscat, quia imperfectam cognitionem non sequitur fides, sed plena cognitio. 2249 The purpose of this unity is given when he says, so that the world may know that you have sent me. If the "perfectly one" (v 23) refers to the perfection of this life, then that the world may know is the same as what he said before, "that the world may believe" (v 21). This would indicate just a beginning state. But here he is saying, know, because complete knowledge, not faith, comes after imperfect knowledge. Et dicit cognoscat mundus, non quod nunc sit mundus, sed quod fuit mundus; ut sit sensus: mundus, iam credens, cognoscat. Vel mundus, idest amatores mundi, cognoscat quia tu me misisti: quia tunc mali per manifesta indicia cognoscent Christum esse filium Dei; Apoc. I, 7: videbitis eum omnis oculus; et infra XIX, 37: videbunt in quem transfixerunt; Lc. XXI, 27: videbunt filium hominis venientem in nubibus caeli cum potestate magna et maiestate. He says, that the world may know, not the world as it is now, but as it was [will be?], so that the meaning is: so that the world, now a believing world, may know. Or, so that the world, that is, the lovers of the world, may know that you have sent me: for by that time those who are evil will know by clear signs that Christ is the Son of God: "Every eye will see him" (Rev 1:7); "They shall look on him whom they have pierced" (19:37); "They will see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory" (Lk 21:27). Et non solum cognoscat hoc; sed et sanctorum claritatem, quia dilexisti eos, scilicet fideles. Nunc enim non possumus cognoscere dilectionem Dei ad nos quanta sit: quia bona quae Deus daturus est nobis, cum excedant appetitum et desiderium nostrum, non possunt cadere in cor nostrum. I Cor. II, 9: oculus non vidit nec auris audivit nec in cor hominis ascendit, quae praeparavit Deus iis qui diligunt illum. 2250 The world will not only know this, it will also know the glory of the saints, that you have loved them, that is, the faithful. At the present time we cannot know how great God's love for us is: this is because the good things that God will give us exceed our longings and desires, and so cannot be found in our heart: "What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him" (1 Cor 2:9). Et ideo mundus credens, idest sancti cognoscent per experientiam quantum diligat nos; sed mundi amatores, idest mali, cognoscent hoc videndo et admirando gloriam sanctorum; Sap. V, 3: hi sunt quos aliquando habuimus in derisum et in similitudinem improperii; et infra 5: ecce quomodo computati sunt inter filios Dei, et inter sanctos sors illorum est. Thus the believing world, that is, the saints, will now know by experience how much God loves us; but the lovers of the world, that is, the wicked, will know this by seeing in amazement the glory of the saints: "This is the man whom we once held in derision ... Why has he been numbered among the sons of God? And why is his lot among the saints?" (Wis 5:4); and it continues, "Why has he been numbered among the sons of God? And why is his lot among the saints?" (v 4). Sed dicit sicut tu me dilexisti: quod non importat parilitatem dilectionis, sed rationem et similitudinem. Quasi dicat: dilectio qua dilexisti me, est ratio et causa quare eos dilexisti: nam per hoc quod me diligis, diligentes me et membra mea diligis; supra XVI, 27: ipse pater amat vos, quia vos me amastis. 2251 He continues, as you have loved me. This does not imply an equality of love, but a similarity and a reason. It is like saying: the love you have for me is the reason and cause why you love them: for by the fact that you love me, you love those who love me and are my members: "The Father himself loves you, because you have loved me" (16:27). Sciendum est autem, quod Deus diligit omnia quae fecit, dando eis esse; Sap. XI, v. 25: nihil odisti eorum quae fecisti; nec enim odiens aliquid constituisti aut fecisti. Maxime autem diligit unigenitum filium suum, cui totam naturam suam per aeternam generationem dedit. Medio autem modo diligit membra unigeniti sui, scilicet fideles Christi, dando eis gratiam qua Christus inhabitat nos; Deut. XXXIII, 3: dilexit populos: omnes sancti in manu illius sunt. God loves all the things he has made, by giving them existence: "For you love all things that exist, and have loathing for none of the things you have made" (Wis 11:24). But above all he loves his only Son, to whom he has given his entire nature by an eternal generation. In a lesser way he loves the members of his only Son, that is, the faithful of Christ, by giving them the grace by which Christ dwells in them: "He loved his people; all those consecrated to him were in his hand" (Deut 33:3).
Lectio 6 LECTURE 6 24 πάτερ, ὃ δέδωκάς μοι, θέλω ἵνα ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγὼ κἀκεῖνοι ὦσιν μετ' ἐμοῦ, ἵνα θεωρῶσιν τὴν δόξαν τὴν ἐμὴν ἣν δέδωκάς μοι, ὅτι ἠγάπησάς με πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου. 25 πάτερ δίκαιε, καὶ ὁ κόσμος σε οὐκ ἔγνω, ἐγὼ δέ σε ἔγνων, καὶ οὗτοι ἔγνωσαν ὅτι σύ με ἀπέστειλας, 26 καὶ ἐγνώρισα αὐτοῖς τὸ ὄνομά σου καὶ γνωρίσω, ἵνα ἡ ἀγάπη ἣν ἠγάπησάς με ἐν αὐτοῖς ᾖ κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτοῖς. 24 "Father, I desire that they also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, to behold my glory which you have given me in your love for me before the foundation of the world. 25 O righteous Father, the world has not known you, but I have known you; and these know that you have sent me. 26 I made known to them your name, and I will make it known, that the love with which you have loved me may be in them, and I in them." Supra dominus petiit pro discipulis perfectionis unitatem, hic petit pro eis visionis claritatem, et primo tangit personas pro quibus petit; secundo ponit petendi modum; tertio subdit quod petit. 2252 Above, our Lord prayed for the perfect unity of his disciples; here he is asking the vision of glory for them. First, he mentions the persons for whom he is praying; secondly, he shows the way he is praying; thirdly, he states what he is asking for. Petit quidem pro sibi datis, unde dicit pater, quos dedisti mihi et cetera. Sciendum est, quod illud dicitur alicui dari quod voluntati eius submittitur, ut scilicet faciat de eo quod vult. Voluntas autem Christi duplex est, scilicet misericordiae et iustitiae: sed misericordiae quidem primo et per se est ipsius, quia miserationes eius super omnia opera eius, Ps. CXLIV, 9; et I Tim. II, 4: vult omnes homines salvos fieri, sed voluntas iustitiae punientis est eius non primo, sed praesupposito peccato: Deus enim non delectatur in perditione hominum, Sap. I, 13; Ez. c. XVIII, 32: nolo mortem peccatoris, verum secundum se, sed tamen ex consequenti vult eam propter peccatum. 2253 He is praying for those given to him; he says, whom you have given me. That is given to a person which is subject to his will, so he can do with it as he wills. We can distinguish two wills in Christ: a will to mercy and a will to justice. His will to mercy is fundamental and absolute, because "His compassion is over all that he has made" (Ps 145:9); "who desires all men to be saved" (1 Tim 2:4). But his will for a punishing justice is not fundamental, as it presupposes sin: "God does not delight in the destruction of men" [Wis 1:13]; and in Ezekiel [18:32] we read: "I do not desire the death of the sinner," absolutely; but he wills it as a consequence of sin. Sunt ergo omnes homines dati filio; supra dedisti ei potestatem omnis carnis, idest omnis hominis, ut scilicet faciat de eis suam voluntatem, vel misericordiae ad salvandum, vel iustitiae ad puniendum. Ipse enim est qui constitutus est a Deo iudex vivorum et mortuorum: ut dicitur Act. X, 42. Sed illi sunt sibi simpliciter dati qui ad hoc dati sunt ei, ut de eis faciat voluntatem misericordiae ad salvandum: unde de his dicit quos dedisti mihi, in tua scilicet praedestinatione ab aeterno; Is. VIII, 18: et Hebr. c. III, ecce ego, et pueri mei, quos dedit mihi dominus. All men have been given to the Son: "You have given him power over all flesh" (17:2), that is, over all men, to accomplish his will in their regard: his will for mercy, leading to salvation, or his will for justice, leading to punishment: "He is the one ordained by God to be judge of the living and the dead" (Acts 10:42). But those were given to him absolutely who were given to him so that he might accomplish his will of mercy for their salvation; he says of these people, whom you have given to me, that is, in your predestination from all eternity: "Behold, I and the children whom the Lord has given me..." (Is 8:18). Modus autem petendi designatur cum dicit volo: quod potest designare auctoritatem, vel meritum. Auctoritatem quidem si intelligamus de voluntate eius inquantum est Deus, quae est eadem cum voluntate patris: nam sua voluntate homines iustificat et salvat; Rom. IX, 18: cuius vult miseretur. Meritum autem designat, si intelligamus de voluntate eius inquantum est homo, quae est meritoria salutis nostrae. Si enim voluntates iustorum, qui sunt membra Christi habent meritum impetrandi: supra XV, 7: quodcumque volueritis petetis, et fiet vobis: multo magis hoc habet voluntas Christi hominis, qui est caput sanctorum omnium. 2254 The way he asks is given when he says, I desire. This can indicate authority or merit. It indicates authority if we refer this to Christ's divine will, which is the same as the will of the Father: for by his will he justifies and saves men: "He has mercy upon whomever he wills" (Rom 9:18). If we refer this to Christ's human will, it indicates merit, for Christ's human will merits our salvation. For if the wills of the just, who are the members of Christ, have merit entitling them to be heard ‑ "Ask whatever you will, and it shall be done for you" (15:7) ‑ much more so does the human will of Christ, who is the head of all the saints. Quid autem petat, subdit dicens ut ubi ego sum, et illi sint mecum, et primo petit coniunctionem membrorum ad caput; secundo demonstrationem claritatis suae ad membra, ibi ut videant claritatem meam. 2255 He mentions what he is asking for when he says, that they also ... may be with me. First, he asks that the members be united to the head; secondly, that his glory be shown to his members, to behold my glory. Dicit ergo hic: volo, scilicet, ut ubi ego sum, et illi sint mecum: quod potest dupliciter intelligi. Uno modo ut referatur ad Christum hominem. Nam Christus, secundum quod homo, statim futurus et ascensurus in caelum erat; infra XX, 17: ascendo ad patrem meum et patrem vestrum. Et sic est sensus: volo, ut in caelo, ubi ego mox futurus sum, et illi, scilicet fideles, sint mecum, etiam loco; Matth. XXIV, 28: ubi fuerit corpus, illic congregabuntur et aquilae, idest sancti. Hoc enim promiserat Matth. V, 12 et Lc. VI, 23: gaudete et exultate, quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis. 2256 He says, I desire that they also ... may be with me where I am. This can be understood in two ways. In the first way it can be understood of Christ in his human nature. Christ, in his human nature, is soon to ascend and to be in heaven: "I am ascending to my Father and your Father" (20:17). Then the meaning is: I desire that they also, the faithful, may be with me, in heaven, where I am about to ascend: "Wherever the body is, there the eagles," that is, the saints, "will be gathered together" (Mt 24:28). For this is what Christ promised: "Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven" (Mt 5:12). Sed dubitatur: quia cum nondum esset in caelo, debuisset dicere ubi ego ero non ubi ego sum et cetera. Item, quia supra III, 13, dixit: nemo ascendit in caelum nisi qui de caelo descendit. 2257 There is a difficulty with this meaning. Since Christ was not yet in heaven, he should have said, "where I will be," and not "where I am." And besides, he also said, "No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven" (3:13). Responsio. Dicendum ad primum, quod Christus qui loquebatur, et Deus erat et homo, et ideo, licet secundum eius humanitatem non esset in caelo, erat tamen ibi secundum divinitatem, ut sic, in terra existens, esset in caelo; et ideo dicit ubi ego sum. I reply to the first that Christ, who was speaking, was both God and man. And although he was not yet in heaven in his human nature, he was there in his divine nature. And so, while present on earth, he was in heaven; and thus he says, where I am. Ad secundum dicendum, quod id quod dicit supra (loc. cit.) quod nemo descendit de caelo nisi filius hominis qui est in caelo, intelligitur quod est in caelo secundum divinitatem, et descendit humanam naturam assumendo, et ascendit secundum humanam naturam iam glorificatam. Et sic, dum nos cum illo, unum sumus iam facti. Unde solus venit, in se scilicet, descendendo de caelo, illuc etiam solus rediit in nobis ascendendo in caelum: secundum Gregorium XXVIII Moralium. As to the second objection, when we read that "No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven" (3:13), we should understand that the Son is in heaven by reason of his divinity, and descended by taking on a human nature, and then ascended by reason of his human nature, now glorified. But now we have been made one with him. Thus, he alone comes, in himself, by descending from heaven, and he alone returns there, now one with us, by ascending into heaven. This is the observation of Gregory, (Morals, 28). Dicit autem sum, praesenti utens pro futuro: vel quia statim illic futurus erat, vel ut referatur ad Christum Deum. He says, where I am, using the present tense instead of the future, either because he would very soon be there, or because he was referring to Christ as God. Sed secundum hoc, cum Deus ubique sit, Ier. XXIII, 24: caelum et terram ego impleo: videtur sequi quod etiam sancti erunt ubique. Ad quod dicendum, quod Deus hoc modo se habet ad nos ut lux ad homines. Lux autem ubique diffunditur sole existente super terram. Et licet lux sit cum hominibus, non tamen omnes sunt in luce solis, sed tantum eam videntes. Sic ergo cum Deus sit ubique, est cum omnibus qui sunt ubicumque; sed tamen non omnes sunt cum Deo, nisi qui ei coniunguntur per fidem et dilectionem, et tandem coniungentur per perfectam fruitionem; Ps. LXXII, 22: et ego semper tecum; I Thess. IV, 16: sic semper cum domino erimus. 2258 But since God is everywhere ‑ "Do I not fill heaven and earth" (Jer 23:24) ‑ it seems to follow that the saints also will be everywhere. We should reply to this that God is related to us like light is. When the sun is over the earth, the light spreads everywhere. And although the light is with all, yet all are not in the light, but only those who see it. So, since God is everywhere, he is with all, wherever they are; yet not all are with God, but only those joined to him by faith and love; and they will be finally joined in complete joy: "I am continually with you" (Ps 73:23); "We shall always be with the Lord" (1 Thess 4:17). Et sic est sensus ut ubi ego sum, scilicet in divinitate tua, quam habeo per naturam, et illi sint mecum, per participationem gratiae; supra I, 12: dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri; I Io. IV, 16: qui manet in caritate in Deo manet et Deus in eo. Thus the meaning is this: where I am, that is, in your divinity, Father, which I have by nature, they may be with me, by participating in grace: "He gave power to become children of God" (1:12); "He who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him" (1 Jn 4:16). Demonstrationem autem suae claritatis ad membra subdit dicens ut videant claritatem, et primo ponit petitionem; secundo ostendit claritatis originem, ibi quam dedisti mihi; tertio assignat claritatis rationem, ibi quia dilexisti me et cetera. 2259 He speaks of manifesting his glory to his members when he says, to behold my glory. First, he makes his request; secondly, he mentions the source of this glory, which you have given me; thirdly, he gives the reason for this glory, in your love for me. Dicit ergo: volo ut non solum mecum sint, sed ut videant, scilicet visione beatificante, I Io. III, 2: cum apparuerit, similes ei erimus, et videbimus eum sicuti est, claritatem meam: quod potest intelligi de claritate eius secundum humanitatem, qua illustratus est in resurrectione; Phil. III, v. 21: reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae configuratum corpori claritatis suae. Vel de claritate eius secundum divinitatem: est enim splendor gloriae, et figura paternae substantiae Hebr. I, 3 et Sap. VII, 26: candor est lucis aeternae. Et utramque claritatem sancti existentes in gloria videbunt. Nam de prima dicitur Is. XXXIII, 17: regem in decore suo videbunt. Sed hanc impii videbunt in iudicio tantum; Lc. XXI, 27: tunc videbunt filium hominis venientem cum potestate et maiestate. Sed Marcus dicit: venientem in gloria, idest in claritate. Sed visio huius claritatis subtrahetur eis post iudicium; Is. XXVI, 10, secundum aliam litteram: tollatur impius ne videat gloriam Dei. Sed secundum claritatem videbunt sancti perpetuo; Ps. XXXV, 10: in lumine tuo, scilicet gratiae, videbimus lumen, scilicet gloriae, quam numquam videbunt mali; Iob XXXVI, 32: in manibus, idest in superbis, abscondit lucem (...) annuntiat de ea amico suo, quod possessio eius sit. 2260 He says that he not only wants them to be with him, but he also wants them to behold my glory, in a beatifying vision: "When he appears we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is" (1 Jn 3:2). This can be understood to refer to the glory of his human nature after the resurrection ‑ "He will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body" (Phil 3:21) ‑ or to the glory of his divine nature, for he is the radiance of the Father's glory and the image of his substance, as we see from Hebrews (1:3); "The radiance of eternal light" [Wis 7:26]. The saints in glory will see both of these glories. We read about the first [the glory of Christ's human nature]: "Your eyes will see the king in his beauty" (Is 33:17). The wicked will see this glory only at the judgment: "And then they will see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and majesty" [Lk 21:27]; and Mark adds "and glory" (Mk 13:26). But the sight of this glory will be taken away from them after the judgment: "Let the wicked be taken away so they cannot see the glory of the Lord" [Is 26:10], as we read in one version. Yet the saints will see the second glory [that of the divine nature] forever: "In your light," that is, of grace, "do we see light," that is, of glory, which the wicked will never see. Huius autem claritatis origo est a patre: unde dicit quam dedisti mihi. Gloriam scilicet corporis dedit ei in resurrectione, sed quia hoc factum erat in divina ordinatione, licet esset futurum in re, ideo dicit dedisti; Ps. VIII, 7: gloria et honore coronasti eum. 2261 The source of this glory is the Father: so he says, which you have given me. He gave him the glory of his body at the resurrection. Although this still remained to be done, it had already been done in the divine decree; and this is why he says, have given: "You have crowned him with glory" [Ps 8:5]. But he gave him divine glory from all eternity, because the Son is from the Father from all eternity, like radiance from light. Sed claritatem divinam dedit ei ab aeterno, quia filius est a patre ab aeterno, sicut splendor a luce.Rationem autem claritatis datae ostendit dicens quia dilexisti me ante mundi constitutionem. Quod quidem si referatur ad Christum hominem, sic ly quia denotat causam. Sicut enim dilectio et aeterna praedestinatio est causa quod nos habeamus claritatem gratiae in praesenti, et gloriae in futuro, Eph. I, 4: elegit nos in ipso ante mundi constitutionem: sic etiam est causa claritatis Christi secundum quod homo; Rom. I, 4: qui praedestinatus est filius Dei in virtute. Et sic est sensus: dico, quod dedisti mihi claritatem: et huius causa est quia dilexisti me; et hoc ante mundi constitutionem, ut scilicet homo ille uniretur filio Dei in persona; Ps. LXIV, 5: beatus quem elegisti et assumpsisti: inhabitabit in atriis tuis. 2262 He gives the explanation for the glory given to him when he says, in your love for me before the foundation of the world. If we refer this to Christ in his human nature, then the in indicates the cause. For just as love and predestination are the cause why we have the radiance of grace in the present life and of glory in the future ‑ "He chose us in him before the foundation of the world" (Eph 1:4) ‑ so also it is the cause of the radiance which Christ has in his human nature, "predestined the Son of God in power" [Rom 1:4]. So the meaning is this: I say that you have given me this radiance: and the cause of this is that you have loved me, in your love for me before the foundation of the world. The result being that this man is united to the Son of God to form one person: "Blessed is he whom you choose and bring near, to dwell in your courts" (Ps 65:4). Si vero referatur ad Christum secundum quod est Deus, sic ly quia denotat signum. Non enim dedit quia dilexit: nam in datione, qua pater dedit filio, designatur aeterna eius generatio; in dilectione vero, si sumatur essentialiter, importatur voluntas divina: si vero notionaliter, designatur notio spiritus sancti. Sed pater natura dedit filio claritatem, non voluntate, quia genuit eum per naturam: nec ideo dedit filio quia spiravit spiritum sanctum. If we refer this to Christ as God, then the in indicates a sign. For then the Father did not give because he loved: for when we say the Father gave to the Son we are referring to the eternal generation of the Son. If love is taken essentially, it indicates the divine will; if it is taken notionally, it indicates the Holy Spirit. Now it was by nature that the Father gave radiance to the Son, not by his will, because the Father begot the Son by nature. And so he also did not give to the Son because he brought forth the Holy Spirit. Hic assignatur ratio exauditionis petitionis suae. Supra autem dominus admisit ad suam petitionem etiam fideles cum dixit non pro eis rogo tantum, sed pro his qui credituri sunt per eos et quosdam excludit, scilicet mundum et infideles; unde dixit: pro eis rogo, non pro mundo. Horum ergo rationem assignans, primo ponit defectum mundi; secundo profectum discipulorum, ibi ego autem te cognovi. 2263 Now he gives the reason why his prayer should be heard. Before, our Lord had included the faithful in his petition when he said, "I do not pray for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word" (17:20). He also excluded the world and unbelievers when he said, "I am praying for them; I am not praying for the world" (17:9). Now he gives the reason for this: first, he mentions the failure of the world; secondly, the progress of the disciples (v 25). Sed nota, quod quando petiit eorum sanctificationem, vocavit patrem sanctum, unde dixit: pater sancte, hic vero petens retributionem, vocat eum iustum; Ps. c. VII, 12: Deus iudex iustus. In quo excluditur error antiquorum ponentium alium esse Deum iustum, scilicet Deum veteris testamenti, et alium Deum bonum, scilicet Deum novi testamenti. 2264 Note that when he prayed for their sanctification he called the Father holy Father (v 11). But now, calling for retribution, he refers to the Father as righteous Father. This eliminates the old error which said that there was a just God, the God of the Old Testament, and another God who was good, the God of the New Testament. Defectus autem mundi quantum ad cognitionem Dei est; unde dicit mundus, non reconciliatus, sed damnatus, non te cognovit; supra I, 10: mundus per ipsum factus est, et mundus eum non cognovit. The failure of the world concerned its knowledge of God. He says, the world, not as reconciled, but damned, has not known you: "The world was made through him, yet the world knew him not" (1:10). Sed contra. Rom. I, 19: quod notum est Dei, manifestum est in illis (...). Invisibilia enim Dei per ea quae facta sunt, a creatura mundi intellecta conspiciuntur. Responsio. Dicendum, quod duplex est cognitio: una speculativa, et alia affectiva: et neutra mundus Deum cognovit perfecte. Licet enim aliqui gentilium Deum quantum ad aliqua quae per rationem cognoscibilia erant, cognoverint; ipsum tamen secundum quod est pater filii unigeniti et consubstantialis, non cognoverunt: de qua cognitione loquitur dominus. Et inde est quod apostolus dicit, quod notum est idest cognoscibile Dei. 2265 But this seems to conflict with Romans (1:19) "For what can be known about God is plain to them. Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made." We should say to this that knowledge is of two kinds: one is speculative, and the other affective. Through neither of these ways did the world know God completely. Although some Gentiles knew God as having some of those attributes which are knowable by reason, they did not know God as the Father of an only begotten and consubstantial Son ‑ and our Lord is talking about knowledge of these things. Sed et si quid speculativa cognitione de Deo cognoscebant, hoc erat cum admixtione multorum errorum, dum quidam subtraherent omnium rerum providentiam; quidam dicerent eum esse animam mundi; quidam simul cum eo multos alios deos colerent. Unde dicuntur Deum ignorare. Licet enim in compositis possit partim sciri et partim ignorari; in simplicibus tamen dum non attinguntur totaliter, ignorantur. Unde etsi in minimo aliqui errent circa Dei cognitionem, dicuntur eum totaliter ignorare. Isti ergo non cognoscentes singularem Dei excellentiam, ignorare dicuntur; Rom. I, 21: cum Deum cognovissent, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt, aut gratias egerunt; sed evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et obscuratum est insipiens cor eorum; Sap. XIII, 1: neque operibus attendentes agnoverunt quis esset artifex. Again, if they did have some speculative knowledge of God, this was mixed with many errors: some denied his providence over all things; others said he was the soul of the world; still others worshipped other gods along with him. For this reason they are said not to know God. Composite things can be known in part, and unknown in part, while simple things are unknown if they are not known in their entirety. Thus, even though some erred only slightly in their knowledge of God, they are said to be entirely ignorant of him. Consequently, since these people did not know the special excellence of God, they are said not to know him: "For although they knew God they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking and their senseless minds were darkened" (Rom 1:21); "Nor did they recognize the craftsman while paying heed to his works" (Wis 13:1). Similiter etiam mundus eum non cognovit cognitione affectiva, quia eum non diligit; I Thess. IV, 5: sicut et gentes quae ignorant Deum. Dicit ergo mundus te non cognovit, sine errore, et ut patrem per dilectionem. Furthermore, the world did not know God by an affective knowledge, because it did not love him, "like heathen who do not know God" (1 Thess 4:5). So he says, the world has not known you, that is, without error, and as a Father, through love. Profectus autem discipulorum designatur cum dicit ego autem te cognovi, et hi cognoverunt, et primo quantum ad cognitionem; secundo quantum ad cognitionis fructum, ibi ut dilectio qua dilexisti me, in ipsis sit, et ego in ipsis. Circa profectum discipulorum in cognitione Dei, tria facit. Primo ponit radicem et fontem cognitionis Dei; secundo ramos et rivulos ex hoc procedentes; tertio derivationem eorum a radice seu fonte. 2266 Then the progress of the disciples is mentioned (v 25b). First, their progress in knowledge; secondly, the fruit of this knowledge (v 26). As regards the disciples' progress in knowledge he does three things: first, he gives the root and fountain of this knowledge of God; secondly, the rivulets and streams that flow from it; thirdly, we see their origin in the root or fountain. Radix autem et fons cognitionis Dei est verbum Dei, scilicet Christus; Eccli. c. I, 5: fons sapientiae verbum Dei in excelsis. Humana autem sapientia in Dei cognitione consistit. Haec autem cognitio ad homines derivatur a verbo; quia inquantum homines participant verbum Dei, intantum Deum cognoscunt. Ideo dicit: ita mundus te non cognovit, ego autem, scilicet fons sapientiae, verbum tuum, cognovi te, cognitione comprehensionis aeterna; supra VIII, 55: si dixero quia nescio eum, ero similis vobis, mendax. 2267 The root and fountain of our knowledge of God is the Word of God, that is, Christ: "The fountain of wisdom is the word of God" [Sir 1:5]. Human wisdom consists in knowing God. But this knowledge flows to us from the Word, because to the extent that we share in the Word of God, to that extent do we know God. Thus he says, the world has not known you in this way, but I, the fountain of wisdom, your Word, have known you, eternally and fully: "If I said, I do not know him, I should be a liar like you" (8:55). Ex hac autem cognitione verbi, quae est fons et radix, derivantur, sicut rivuli et rami, omnes cognitiones fidelium; et ideo dicit et hi cognoverunt quia tu me misisti: ut ly quia dicat rationem cognitionis, secundum Augustinum, ut sit sensus: ego cognovi te, per naturam, et hi cognoverunt te per gratiam. Et quare? Quia tu me misisti: supple, ad hoc ut te cognoscerent; infra XVIII, 37: in hoc natus sum, et ad hoc veni in mundum, ut testimonium perhibeam veritati; supra manifestavi nomen tuum hominibus. 2268 From this knowledge of the Word, which is the root and fountain, flows, like rivulets and streams, all the knowledge of the faithful. Accordingly he says, and these know that [quia, meaning "that," or "because"] you have sent me. Augustine understands the word as meaning "because," and it then indicates the reason for their knowledge. The meaning is then: I have known you, by nature, and these know you by grace. Why? Because you have sent me, so that they may know you: "For this was I born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth" (18:37); "I have manifested your name" (17:6). Vel ly quia dicat rem cognitam, ut sit sensus: hi cognoverunt, et quid? Hoc scilicet, quia tu me misisti, quia qui videt filium, videt patrem; supra XV, 9. If we understand the word as meaning "that," it then refers to what is known. The meaning is: and these know. What do they know? That you have sent me, because he who sees the Son also sees the Father (14:9). Sed hoc non a seipsis habuerunt, sed derivatum est eis a me, quia nemo novit patrem nisi filius, et cui voluerit filius revelare. Et ideo dicit notum feci eis nomen tuum, et notum faciam. Et designat duplicem cognitionem, quam per eum habent fideles. Scilicet doctrinae; et quantum ad hanc dicit notum feci eis nomen tuum, exterius instruendo per verba; supra I, 18: Deum nemo vidit unquam: unigenitus filius, qui est in sinu patris, ipse enarravit; Hebr. II, 3: quae cum initium accepisset enarrandi per dominum, ab eis qui audierunt, in nos confirmata est. 2269 They did not know this by themselves; they learned it from me because "No one knows the Father except the Son and any one to whom the Son chooses to reveal him" (Mt 11:27). So he says, I made known to them your name, and I will make it known. He is indicating the two types of knowledge which the faithful have through him. First, there is the knowledge of his teaching, and he refers to this by saying, I made known to them your name, teaching them by my external words: "No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known" (1:18); "It was declared at first by the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard him" (Heb 2:3). Alia cognitio est interior per spiritum sanctum; et quantum ad hanc dicit et notum faciam, dando scilicet eis spiritum sanctum; supra XVI, 13: cum autem venerit ille spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem. The other knowledge is from within, through the Holy Spirit. Referring to this he says, and I will make it known by giving them the Holy Spirit: "When the Spirit of truth comes, he will teach you all truth" [16:13]. Vel dicit notum feci eis nomen tuum, scilicet cognitione fidei, quia videmus nunc per speculum in aenigmate, et notum faciam, per speciem gloriae in patria, ubi videbimus facie ad faciem, I Cor. XIII, 12. Or, alternatively, I made known to them your name by the knowledge of faith, "for now we see in a mirror dimly," and I will make it known through the vision of glory in their homeland, where they will see "face to face" (1 Cor 13:12). Fructus autem cognitionis huius est, ut dilectio, qua dilexisti me, in ipsis sit, et ego in ipsis. Quod potest exponi dupliciter. Uno modo, et melius quia dictum est, quod pater diligit filium, ut ostenditur per claritatem quam dedit ei: consequens ergo est ut diligat omnes in quibus est filius, qui est in eis, inquantum habent veritatis cognitionem. Et sic est sensus: ego faciam eis notum nomen tuum; et per hoc quod cognoscunt te, ego verbum tuum ero in eis; et per hoc quod in eis sum, dilectio, qua dilexisti me, in ipsis sit, idest, ad eos derivetur, et diligas eos sicut me dilexisti. 2270 The fruit of this knowledge is that the love with which you have loved me may be in them, and I in them. This can be explained in two ways. The first and better way is that since the Father loves the Son, as is shown by the glory he gave him, consequently, he loves all those in whom the Son is present ‑ and the Son is in them insofar as they have knowledge of the truth. So the meaning is this: I will make your name known to them; and by the fact that they know you, I, your Word, will be in them; and by the fact that I am in them, the love with which you love me may be in them, that is, will be given to them, and you will love them as you have loved me. Vel aliter: ut dilectio qua dilexisti me, idest, sicut tu me dilexisti, ita ipsi participando spiritum sanctum, diligant: et per hoc ergo ero in ipsis sicut Deus in templo, et ipsi in me, sicut membra in capite; I Io. IV, v. 16: qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo. Here is the other explanation: that the love with which you have loved me may be in them, that is, as you have loved me, so they, by sharing in the Holy Spirit, may love. And by that fact I will be in them as God in a temple, and they in me, as members of the head: "He who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him" (1 Jn 4:16).
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 17:1 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 21, a. 3, s. c.; q. 83, a. 4, ad 2; Jn 17:3: ST I, q. 18, a. 2, obj. 3; q. 31, a. 4, obj 1; I-II, q. 3, a. 2, ad 1; q. 3, a. 4, s. c.; q. 114, a. 4, s. c.; II-II, q. 1, a. 8; q. 24, a. 12, s. c.; III, q. 9, a. 2, obj. 2; q. 59, a. 5, ad 1; Jn 16:5: ST I, q. 46, a. 1, s. c. ; Jn 17:5: ST III, q. 83, a. 4, ad 7.
 De Trin., 9, ch. 31; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 De Trin., 5, ch. 3; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 De Trin., 3, ch. 14; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 Augustine, De Trin., 6, ch. 9; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 Augustine, De Trin., 105, ch. 5; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 Summa-Christ's human nature is glorified, but remains human.
 Hilary, De Trin., 3; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 17:6 in the Summa Theologiae: II-II, q. 2, a. 8, obj. 2; Jn 17:10: ST III, q. 48, a. 1, s. c.
 Tract. in Io., 106, ch. 1, col. 1908; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:6-8.
 In Ioannem hom., 81, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 437; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:6-8.
 Tract. in Io., 106, ch. 6, col. 1911; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:6-8.
 In Ioannem hom., 80, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 435; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:1-5.
 Tract. in Io., 106, ch. 6, col. 1911; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:6-8.
 In Ioannem hom., 81, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 440; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:9-13.
 Tract. in Io., 107, ch. 8, col. 1914-5; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:9-13.
 Tract. in Io., 108, ch. 5, col. 1916; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:14-19.
 In Ioannem hom., 82, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 443; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:14-19.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 17:22 in the Summa Theologiae: II-II, q. 183, q. 2, obj. 1; III, q. 23, a. 3.
 Tract. in Io., 109, ch. 2, col. 1918; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
Tract. in Io., 110, ch. 1, col. 1920; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 De Trin., 7; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 De Trin., 8; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 Tract. in Io., 110, ch.2, col. 1920-1; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 Ibid.; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 In Ioannem hom., 82, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 444; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 De Trin., 8; PL 10; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:20-23.
 Summa-mercy is fundamental to God-justice exists in relation to sin.
 Gregory, Moralia, 28; PL 76; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:24-26.
 summa --speculative and affective knowledge.
 Tract. in Io., 111, ch. 5, col 1929; cf. Catena Aurea, 17:24-26.