Lectio 1 LECTURE I 1 μετὰ ταῦτα ἐφανέρωσεν ἑαυτὸν πάλιν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς μαθηταῖς ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης τῆς Τιβεριάδος: ἐφανέρωσεν δὲ οὕτως. 2 ἦσαν ὁμοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ Θωμᾶς ὁ λεγόμενος Δίδυμος καὶ Ναθαναὴλ ὁ ἀπὸ Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ οἱ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ ἄλλοι ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ δύο. 3 λέγει αὐτοῖς Σίμων Πέτρος, ὑπάγω ἁλιεύειν. λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, ἐρχόμεθα καὶ ἡμεῖς σὺν σοί. ἐξῆλθον καὶ ἐνέβησαν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, καὶ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ νυκτὶ ἐπίασαν οὐδέν. 4 πρωΐας δὲ ἤδη γενομένης ἔστη Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὸν αἰγιαλόν: οὐ μέντοι ᾔδεισαν οἱ μαθηταὶ ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν. 5 λέγει οὖν αὐτοῖς [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς, παιδία, μή τι προσφάγιον ἔχετε; ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ, οὔ. 6 ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, βάλετε εἰς τὰ δεξιὰ μέρη τοῦ πλοίου τὸ δίκτυον, καὶ εὑρήσετε. ἔβαλον οὖν, καὶ οὐκέτι αὐτὸ ἑλκύσαι ἴσχυον ἀπὸ τοῦ πλήθους τῶν ἰχθύων. 1 After this Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias; and he revealed himself in this way. 2 Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin [Didymus], Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. 3 Simon Peter said to them, "I am going fishing." They said to him, "We will go with you." They went out and got into the boat; but that night they caught nothing. 4 Just as day was breaking, Jesus stood on the beach; yet the disciples did not know that it was Jesus. 5 Jesus said to them, "Children, have you any fish?" They answered him, "No." 6 He said to them, "Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some." So they cast it, and now they were not able to haul it in, for the quantity of fish. Positis duabus apparitionibus Christi ad discipulos hic ponit Evangelista tertiam apparitionem. Et si ordinem et finem harum apparitionum consideremus, patet quod in prima ostendit suae divinitatis auctoritatem, spiritum sanctum ibi insufflando; in secunda personae identitatem, cicatrices ostendendo; in tertia naturae resurgentis veritatem, cum eis comedendo. 2569 The Evangelist has just told of two appearances of Christ to his disciples. Now he mentions a third appearance. If we consider the order and purpose of these appearances, it is evident that the first showed Christ's divine authority by his breathing the Holy Spirit upon them; the second showed that he was the same person as before, since he let them view his wounds; and the third showed the reality of his risen human nature, for he ate with them. Dividitur autem haec pars in duas. In prima ostendit quid communiter discipulis pluribus dominus exhibuit; in secunda quid specialiter duobus praedilectis ibi cum ergo prandissent et cetera. Circa primum primo ponitur apparitionis titulus; secundo apparitionis modus, ibi manifestavit autem sic; tertio apparitionis epilogus, ibi hoc iam tertio manifestatus est Iesus. In titulo autem tria designantur; scilicet tempus, modus, et locus. There are two parts in this. The Evangelist first mentions Christ's dealing with a group of the disciples; secondly, with two of them he especially loved (v 15). As to the first, the Evangelist mentions the time and circumstance of his appearance, and then adds a short epilogue, This was now the third time.... Tempus quidam, quia postea, idest post praedicta. Quod signanter dicit, quia, ut dictum est, non continue erat cum eis, sed per vices eis apparebat. Cuius ratio est, quia non surrexerat ad eamdem vitam, sed ad gloriosam, in qua sunt Angeli, et erunt beati. Dan. II, 11: exceptis diis, idest Angelis, quorum conversatio non est cum hominibus. 2570 The time is After this, after what the Evangelist just narrated. It is significant that he says this for it shows that Christ was not with them continuously, but appeared to them at intervals. The reason for this was that he had not risen with the same life as before, but with a glorious life, as the angels have and the blessed will have: "Except the gods," that is, the angels, "whose dwelling is not with flesh" (Dan 2:11). Sed cum supra fecerit quamdam conclusionem, dicens haec autem scripta sunt, quare addit hic hanc narrationem? Ad haec Augustinus assignat rationem mysticam. Per hanc enim apparitionem significatur gloria futurae vitae, quando nobis apparebit sicuti est. Et ideo post finem hanc posuit, ut faceret evidentiorem locum quo illam daret intelligi. 2571 The Evangelist seemed to be ending his gospel before, when he wrote, these are written that you may believe.... Why, then, does he add on this appearance? Augustine gives a mystical reason for this, which is that this appearance signifies the glory of the future life, when Christ will appear to us as he is. And so the Evangelist put this appearance after what seemed to be the end of his gospel so that this could be better understood. Modum vero ponit, quia manifestavit se iterum Iesus ad mare Tiberiadis. In natura enim corporis gloriosi est et virtute, ut possit videri et non videri, sicut vult, a corpore non glorioso: et ideo dicit manifestavit, idest, se visibilem praebuit. Id hoc etiam modo dicitur apparere, quod idem est quod manifestari. Act. I, 3: per dies quadraginta apparens eis. Nam, ut Ambrosius dicit, id apparet in cuius potestate est videri et non videri. 2572 The circumstance of his appearance was that Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias. It is in the nature and power of a glorified body that it can be seen or not seen, as the person wishes, by non‑glorified bodies. That is why he says, revealed, i.e., Christ made himself visible. In the same way he is said to appear, which means the same thing as to reveal, "appearing to them during forty days" (Acts 1:3). As Ambrose says, that appears in whose power it is to be seen or not seen. Locus autem est ad mare Tiberiadis, quod est mare Galilaeae; sed Tiberiadis dicitur a Tiberiade civitate aedificata in honorem Tiberii Caesaris. Ponit autem hoc Evangelista primo quidem ut ostendat completam esse promissionem factam discipulis. Matth. XXVIII, 7: praecedet vos in Galilaeam. Secundo ut ostendat quoniam dominus plurimum timorem de cordibus discipulorum abstulerat, ut de reliquo iam non in domo manerent inclusi: sed longe procedunt usque in Galilaeam. 2573 The place is by the Sea of Tiberias, which is the Sea of Galilee. It is called the Sea of Tiberias after the city of Tiberias, which was built in honor of Tiberius Caesar. The Evangelist mentions this, first, to show that our Lord had kept the promise made to the disciples, "he is going before you to Galilee" (Mt 28:7). Secondly, he wanted to show that our Lord had banished the very great fear from the hearts of his disciples, so that they no longer remained shut up in their house, but even traveled as far as Galilee. Consequenter cum dicit manifestavit autem ponitur ipsa apparitio, et primo ponuntur personae quibus facta est; secundo ipsarum personarum officium, ibi dixit ei Simon Petrus etc.; tertio apparitionis modus, ibi mane autem facto stetit Iesus in littore. 2574 In describing this appearance, he first mentions the persons to whom Christ appeared; what they were doing; and thirdly, the circumstances of this appearance. Personae autem quibus se manifestavit, sunt septem; unde dicit erant autem simul Simon Petrus, qui negaverat, et Thomas qui dicitur Didymus, qui in prima apparitione non fuerat, et Nathanael, qui erat a Cana Galilaeae, qui, ut creditur, frater Philippi erat, de quo supra I, et filii Zebedaei, scilicet Iacobus et Ioannes, et alii ex discipulis eius duo, qui non expresse nominantur. Per hunc autem numerum mystice significatur futurae gloriae apparitio, quae erit post septimam aetatem, scilicet in octava, quae est resurgentium. Is. ult., 23: erit mensis ex mense et sabbatum ex sabbato; et veniet omnis caro ut adoret coram facie mea. 2575 Christ appeared to seven persons. The Evangelist says that there were together Simon Peter, who had denied him, Thomas called the Twin, who was not present at the first appearance, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, who is thought to be the brother of Philip, the sons of Zebedee, that is, James and John, and two others of his disciples not explicitly named. In the mystical sense, this number signifies the state and appearance of future glory, which will be after the seventh age, that is, in the eighth, which is the age of those who arise: "From new moon to new moon, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me" (Is 66:23). Officium autem quo occupati erant est piscationis; unde dicit dixit eis Simon Petrus, vado piscari et primo ponitur Petri invitatio ad hoc officium; secundo aliorum assensus; tertio officii executio. 2576 They were fishing, and so we first see Peter asking about this; the willingness of the others to go with him; and then their efforts. Invitat quidem ad officium, dicens vado piscari: per quod quidem mystice significatur praedicationis officium. Matth. IV, 19: faciam vos fieri piscatores hominum. Sic ergo dixit Petrus vado piscari, per quod mystice significatur quod alios assumit in partem suae sollicitudinis et praedicationis. Ex. XVIII, 22: levius tibi sit partito in alios onere. 2577 Peter asks them to go fishing, saying, I am going fishing. In the mystical interpretation, this signifies the work of preaching: "I will make you fishers of men" (Mt 4:19). So when Peter said, I am going fishing, the mystical sense is that he is taking the others to share in his concerns and preaching: "So it will be easier for you, and they will bear the burden with you" (Ex 18:22). Sed contra Lc. IX, 62: nemo mittens manum suam ad aratrum et respiciens retro, aptus est regno Dei. Constat autem quod Petrus dimiserat piscationem: quomodo ergo rediit et respexit retro? Responsio, secundum Augustinum. Si rediisset ad officium piscationis ante resurrectionem Christi et vulnerum inspectionem, putaremus eum ex desperatione hoc fecisse. Nunc vero post eum sibi de sepulcro redditum vivum, post inspecta vulnerum loca et acceptum eius insufflatione spiritum sanctum, facti sunt sicut fuerant piscium piscatores. Per quod datur intelligi quod praedicator potest ex arte sua licita victum necessarium quaerere, sui apostolatus integritate servata, si aliunde non habeat. Si enim beatus Paulus, ut alios non gravaret, artem quam non noverat, didicit, ut sibi necessarium acquireret victum: quanto magis Petrus de arte sua licita potuit hoc facere? 2578 Their actual fishing seems to go against Luke (9:62): "No one who puts his hand to the plow and looks back is fit for the kingdom of God." And it is clear that Peter had given up his work as fisherman. Why then did he return to it and look back? I answer, with Augustine, that if he had returned to this work of fishing before Christ's resurrection and before seeing Christ's wounds, we would think that he was acting out of despair. But now, even after Christ returned from the grave, after they had seen his wounds, and had received the Holy Spirit by Christ's breathing on them, they became what they were before, fishers of fish [not of men].  We can learn from this that a preacher can use his abilities to earn the necessaries of life and still preserve the integrity of his apostolate, if he has no other means of sustenance. For if St. Paul learned an art he did not previously have in order to obtain the food he needed, so as to avoid being a burden to others, Peter could all the more do this by using his own skill. Sed dicit, quod hoc est faciendum quando non habet aliunde. Sed constat quod semper habet et habuit, quia dominus promisit dicens Matth. VI, 33: quaerite primum regnum Dei, et haec omnia adiicientur vobis, scilicet necessaria. Ad quod dicendum est, quod verum est quod adiiciuntur, sed nobis cooperantibus: et ideo dominus Petro cooperante hoc implevit. Nam quis alius pisces qui caperentur apposuit nisi ipse dominus? 2579 Augustine says that a preacher can do this when he cannot gain a living in any other way. But in this case Peter did have another way, for our Lord promised: "But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things shall be yours as well," that is, what is necessary for life (Mt 6:33). The answer is that it is true that these things will be added, with our cooperation. So our Lord did keep his promise here, with the cooperation of Peter. For who else but our Lord caused the fish that were caught to be within the range of their net? Sed notandum, secundum Gregorium, quod duplex est officium. Unum quod occupat mentem et impedit spiritualia; et ad tale officium non est redeundum, nec eo procurandum victum; sicut est vectigal et huiusmodi. Unde Matthaeum non legimus rediisse ad telonium. Est autem et aliud quod sine peccato et mentis occupatione exerceri potest, sicut est officium piscationis huiusmodi; et ideo hoc negotium post conversionem repetere, culpa non fuit. 2580 Gregory remarks that there are two kinds of work. One absorbs the mind, and hinders our spiritual concerns, as tax collecting. No one should return to such work, even to provide food. So we do not read that Matthew returned to his tax collecting post. There is another kind of work which can be done without sin and without absorbing the mind, such as fishing and things like that. And it was not a sin for Peter to return to this kind of work after his conversion. Assensus autem aliorum ponitur cum dicit venimus et nos tecum: in quo datur exemplum praedicatoribus et praelatis cohortandi se mutuo ad conversionem Prov. c. XVIII, 19: frater qui iuvatur a fratre, quasi civitas firma; Eccli. l, 13: circa illum corona fratrum quasi plantatio cedri in monte Libano. 2581 The others agree to this, We will go with you. This sets an example for preachers and prelates to encourage each other in their work of turning people to God: "A brother helped is like a strong city" (Prv 18:19); "He was like a young cedar on Lebanon; and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees" (Sir 50:12). Executio vero officii ponitur cum dicit exierunt et ascenderunt in navim, et illa nocte nihil prendiderunt. Et tangit tria quae debent facere praedicatores. Primo quidem exire a peccatorum conversatione: II Cor. VI, 17: exite de medio eorum, scilicet Chaldaeorum, et separamini, dicit dominus, et immundum ne tetigeritis, et ego recipiam vos. A carnalium affectione; Gen. XII, v. 1: egredere de terra tua et de cognatione tua et de domo patris tui. Et a quietis contemplatione; Cant. VII, 11: egrediamur in agrum, commoremur in vineis: mane surgamus ad vineas et cetera. Secundo debent ascendere in navem, idest proficere in caritate unitatis Ecclesiae, quae dicitur navis. I Petr. III, 20: in diebus Noe cum fabricaretur arca, in qua pauci, idest octo animae salvae factae sunt per aquam. Item in navi crucis, assumendo carnis mortificationem. Gal. ult., 14: mihi absit gloriari nisi in cruce domini nostri Iesu Christi, per quem mihi mundus crucifixus est, et ego mundo; Sap. XIV, 7: benedictum lignum per quod fit iustitia. 2582 Next, we see that they were working at this, They went out and got into the boat; but that night they caught nothing. Here he touches on three things that preachers ought to do. First, they should leave those places which are sunk in sin: "Come out from them," the Chaldaeans, "and be separate from them, says the Lord, and touch nothing unclean; and I will welcome you" (2 Cor 6:17). And they should go out from their carnal affections: "Go from your country and your kindred and your father's house" (Gen 12:1). And also leave the quiet of contemplation: "Let us go forth into the fields, and lodge in the villages; let us go out early to the vineyards" (Song 7:11). Secondly, preachers should get into the ship, that is, go forward in charity within the unity of the Church, which is called a ship: "In the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water" (1 Pet 3:20). They should also board the ship of the cross by depriving the flesh: "But far be it from me to glory except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world" (Gal 6:14); "Blessed is the wood by which righteousness comes" (Wis 14:7). Tertio totalis de adiutorio Christi fiducia; unde tota nocte illa nihil prendiderunt, quia quamdiu deest auxilium divinum et interior praedicator, frustra laborat lingua praedicatoris; sed tunc capiunt quando venit lux corda illuminans. Ps. XLII, 3: emitte lucem tuam et veritatem tuam. Unde hoc modo nox dicitur carentia divini auxilii. Io. IX, 4: venit nox quando nemo potest operari. Vel in nocte idest in veteri testamento, nihil prendiderunt, quia non potuerunt gentes ad fidem adducere. Rom. XIII, 12: nox praecessit. Secundum autem Augustinum, de nocte piscabantur, quia adhuc timidi erant. Thirdly, preachers should have total confidence in the help of Christ. All that night they caught nothing, because as long as God's help and the interior Preacher are not there, the words of the preacher have no effect. But when the light comes, enlightening hearts, the preacher makes a catch: "Send out your light and your truth" (Ps 42:3). Here, night indicates the lack of divine help: "Night comes, when no one can work" (9:4). Or, one could say, that night, during the time of the Old Testament, they caught nothing, because they could not bring the Gentiles to the faith: "The night has passed" [Rom 13:12]. According to Augustine, they were fishing at night because they were still afraid. Modus autem apparitionis et ordo ponitur cum dicit mane autem iam facto, stetit Iesus in littore, et primo exhibet corporalem inspectionem; secundo sui cognitionem, ibi pueri, numquid pulmentarium habetis? Tertio familiarem comestionem; ibi dixit eis Iesus: afferte de piscibus quos prendidistis nunc. 2583 Now we see the way and stages in which Jesus appeared: first, he allows himself to be seen; secondly he is recognized; and thirdly, he eats with the disciples. Dicit ergo mane autem iam facto. Mystice autem per mane intelligitur gloria resurrectionis. Ps. XXIX, 6: ad vesperum demorabitur fletus et ad matutinum laetitia. Item status vitae aeternae. Ps. V, 5: mane astabo tibi, et videbo. 2584 The Evangelist says that the day was breaking, it was morning. In the mystical interpretation, morning or the break of day indicates the glory of the resurrection: "Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comes with the morning" (Ps 30:5); "In the morning I will stand before you, and will see you" [Ps 5:5]. Sed cum ante passionem in simili miraculo non steterit in littore sed in navi; quare post passionem in littore stat? Cuius ratio est, quia mare commotionem praesentis saeculi significat, littus autem est terminus maris. Ier. V, 22: posuit arenam terminum mari, praeceptum sempiternum, quod non praeteribit. Christus autem ante passionem in mari stetit, quia corpus mortale habebat; sed post resurrectionem iam corruptionem carnis excesserat, ideo in littore stetit. 2585 Before his passion, on the occasion of a similar miracle, Jesus did not stand on the shore, but was in a boat. Why, after the passion, does he stand on the shore? The reason is that the sea signifies the troubles and tribulations of this present life, but all these end at the shore [of eternal life]. So, before his passion, Christ stood on the sea, because he had a body subject to death; but after the resurrection, he had surmounted the corruption of the flesh and stood upon the shore. Ex ignorantia discipulorum est, quia non cognoverunt eum quia Iesus est. Per quod datur intelligi, quod in mari huius fluctuationis non possumus Christi secreta cognoscere. Is. LXIV, 4: oculus non vidit, Deus, absque te quae praeparasti expectantibus te. 2586 The disciples did not know that it was Jesus because of their own ignorance. We can see from this that on this turbulent sea of the present, we cannot know the hidden things of Christ: "The eye has not seen, O God, besides you, what things you have prepared for those who wait for you" [Is 64:4]. Consequenter cum dicit dixit ergo eis Iesus etc., inducit eos ad cognitionem suam, et primo ponitur reductio ad sui cognitionem; secundo ordo, ibi dixit ergo discipulus ille quem diligebat Iesus et cetera. 2587 Next, Jesus brings them to recognize him. First, the Evangelist shows how they came to recognize him; and who was the first to do so. Circa primum tria facit. Primo ponitur domini inquisitio de pulmento, dicentis pueri, numquid pulmentarium habetis? Credebant enim discipuli quod non esset Christus, sed aliquis piscium emptor; et ideo loquitur eis ut emptor. Mystice autem a nobis pulmentum petit unde reficiatur: quod est obedientia mandatorum Dei. Supra IV, 34: meus cibus est ut faciam voluntatem eius qui misit me, ut perficiam opus eius. Responderunt ei, scilicet discipuli, non, scilicet a nobis ipsis. Rom. VII, 18: nam velle adiacet mihi, perficere autem bonum non invenio. 2588 The Evangelist does three things regarding the first. First, he shows our Lord asking for food, Children, have you any fish? The disciples did not think it was Christ asking, but someone who wanted to buy fish, for he spoke like a customer. In the mystical interpretation, Christ asks us for food to refresh himself. And we do this for him by obeying the commandments "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work" (4:34). They answered him, No, that is, not of themselves: "I can will what is right, but I cannot do it" (Rom 7: 18). Secundo, mandatum mittite in dexteram navigii rete. Sed Lc. V, 4 simile habetur factum: non tamen praecepit eis ut mitterent ad dexteram, sicut hic. Cuius ratio est, quia per hanc significatur piscatio, per quam praedestinati trahuntur ad vitam aeternam, ad quam non introducuntur nisi filii dexterae. Prov. IV, 27: vias quae a dextris sunt novit dominus; perversae autem sunt quae a sinistris sunt; Ps. CXVII, 16: dextera domini fecit virtutem. In alia autem piscatione significabatur vocatio ad praesentem Ecclesiam; et ideo indifferenter ex omni parte mittitur rete quia capiuntur et trahuntur ad ipsum de singulis. Lc. XIV, 21: exi cito in plateas et vicos. 2589 Secondly, the Evangelist mentions Christ's order, Cast the net on the right side of the boat. In Luke (5:4) there is a similar incident, but there Christ did not tell them to cast their nets to the right side, as he does here. The reason for this is that the fishing mentioned by John signifies that fishing by which the predestined are taken to eternal life, and it is only those children on the right who are brought there: "The Lord knows the ways that are on the right; those on the left are perverse" [Prv 4:27]; "The right hand of the Lord does valiantly!" (Ps 118:16). The fishing mentioned in Luke signified the call into the Church, and so the net is cast to all sides because people are caught and brought to Christ from all over: "Go out quickly to the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor and maimed and blind and lame" (Lk 14:21). Consequenter ponitur obedientia discipulorum, cum dicit miserunt ergo rete; et effectus obedientiae, quia iam non valebant illud trahere prae multitudine piscium, idest salvandorum. Gen. XXII, 18: benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes, quia obedisti voci meae; Apoc. VII, 9: vidi turbam magnam, quam dinumerare nemo poterat. Differt autem haec piscatio ab illa de Luca, quia in illa rumpitur rete: sic Ecclesia scissuras patitur per dissensiones et haereses. In ista autem non rumpitur rete, quia in futura vita nulla erit scissura. Item in illa pisces trahuntur ad navem. In ista autem ad littus: quia sancti qui sunt in illa gloria occulti sunt nobis. Ps. XXX, 21: abscondes eos in abscondito faciei tuae a conturbatione hominum. 2590 The obedience of the disciples is shown when the Evangelist says, So they cast it, the net; and the effect of this obedience, and now they were not able to haul it in, for the quantity of fish, that is, for the great number of those who would be saved: "By your descendants shall all the nations of the earth bless themselves, because you have obeyed my voice" (Gen 22:18); "Behold, a great multitude which no man could number" (Rev 7:9). This fishing differs from that mentioned by Luke because there (Lk 5:6) the nets broke; and in a like way the Church is rent by disagreements and heresies. But in the fishing mentioned by John the net does not break because there will be no lack of unity in the future life. Again, in the incident mentioned by Luke, the fish were taken into the boat. But here in John's incident, the fish are brought to the shore, because the saints destined for glory are hidden from us: "In the covert of your presence you hide them from the plots of men" (Ps 31:20). [Augustine remarks that when on the sea of this life the elect are not known to us, they are hidden from us; they become known to us only when we arrive at the shore, at eternal life.]
Lectio 2 LECTURE 2 7 λέγει οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ Πέτρῳ, ὁ κύριός ἐστιν. Σίμων οὖν Πέτρος, ἀκούσας ὅτι ὁ κύριός ἐστιν, τὸν ἐπενδύτην διεζώσατο, ἦν γὰρ γυμνός, καὶ ἔβαλεν ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν: 8 οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι μαθηταὶ τῷ πλοιαρίῳ ἦλθον, οὐ γὰρ ἦσαν μακρὰν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἀλλὰ ὡς ἀπὸ πηχῶν διακοσίων, σύροντες τὸ δίκτυον τῶν ἰχθύων. 9 ὡς οὖν ἀπέβησαν εἰς τὴν γῆν βλέπουσιν ἀνθρακιὰν κειμένην καὶ ὀψάριον ἐπικείμενον καὶ ἄρτον. 10 λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἐνέγκατε ἀπὸ τῶν ὀψαρίων ὧν ἐπιάσατε νῦν. 11 ἀνέβη οὖν Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ εἵλκυσεν τὸ δίκτυον εἰς τὴν γῆν μεστὸν ἰχθύων μεγάλων ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα τριῶν: καὶ τοσούτων ὄντων οὐκ ἐσχίσθη τὸ δίκτυον. 12 λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, δεῦτε ἀριστήσατε. οὐδεὶς δὲ ἐτόλμα τῶν μαθητῶν ἐξετάσαι αὐτόν, σὺ τίς εἶ; εἰδότες ὅτι ὁ κύριός ἐστιν. 13 ἔρχεται Ἰησοῦς καὶ λαμβάνει τὸν ἄρτον καὶ δίδωσιν αὐτοῖς, καὶ τὸ ὀψάριον ὁμοίως. 14 τοῦτο ἤδη τρίτον ἐφανερώθη Ἰησοῦς τοῖς μαθηταῖς ἐγερθεὶς ἐκ νεκρῶν. 7 That disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It is the Lord!" When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his clothes, for he was stripped for work, and sprang into the sea. 8 But the other disciples came in the boat, dragging the net full of fish, for they were not far from the land, but about a hundred yards [two hundred cubits] off. 9 When they got out on land, they saw [hot coals] a charcoal fire there, with fish lying on it, and bread. 10 Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish that you have just caught." 11 So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled the net ashore, full of large fish, a hundred and fifty‑three of them; and although there were so many, the net was not torn. 12 Jesus said to them. "Come and [dine] have breakfast." Now none of the disciples dared ask him, "Who are you?" They knew it was the Lord. 13 Jesus came and took the bread and gave it to them, and so with the fish. 14 This was now the third time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples after he was raised from the dead. Posita inductione ad cognoscendum Christum quae fuit multitudo piscium captorum, eis a Christo praestita, hic consequenter ponitur ordo recognitionis, et primo ponit quomodo in ea se habuit Ioannes; secundo quomodo se habuit Petrus; tertio quomodo se habuerunt alii discipuli. 2591 The Evangelist, having shown how the taking of the great number of fish lead the disciples to recognize Christ, now mentions the order in those recognizing him. First, he mentions John; then Peter; and then actions of the other disciples. Ioannes autem ut perspicax in cognoscendo, statim Christum cognovit; et ideo dixit Petro quem prae ceteris diligebat, et etiam quia prior erat inter alios, dominus est, motus ad hoc ex captura piscium. Ps. LXXXVIII, 10: tu dominaris potestati maris; et alibi CXXXIV, 6: omnia quaecumque voluit dominus fecit in caelo et in terra, in mari et in omnibus abyssis. Dixit autem dominus est, quia isto nomine soliti erant vocare eum. Supra XIII, 13: vos vocatis me magister et domine. 2592 John, being quick in understanding, recognized Christ at once. So he said to Peter, whom he loved more than the others, and also because Peter was above the others in rank, It is the Lord! John was convinced of this by the catch of the fish: "Thou dost rule the raging of the sea" (Ps 88:8); "Whatever the Lord pleases he does, in heaven and on earth in the seas and all deeps" (Ps 134:6). He said, It is the Lord! because they usually called him this: "You call me teacher and Lord" (13:13). Petrus vero ponitur fervens ad consequendum: cuius fervor apparet primo quantum ad promptitudinem, unde dicit Simon Petrus, cum audisset quia dominus est, succinxit se (erat enim nudus) et misit se in mare. Alii autem discipuli navigio venerunt. Simon Petrus cum audisset, non distulit, sed statim praeparat se ad eundum. Eccli. V, 8: ne tardes converti ad dominum, neque differas de die in diem. 2593 Peter is seen as passionately devoted to Christ. His devotion is clear, first of all, by his quickness to act: When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his clothes, for he was stripped for work, and sprang into the sea. But the other disciples came in the boat. As soon as he heard it was the Lord, Peter went without delay. Secundo quantum ad reverentiam eius ad Christum: quia noluit nudus prae pudore accedere, sed tunica succinxit se, erat enim nudus, et propter caliditatem terrae, et propter expeditionem operis. Et per hoc datur intelligi quod venientes ad Christum debent exuere veterem hominem, et induere novum qui secundum Deum creatus est in fide. Apoc. c. III, 5: qui vicerit, vestietur sic vestimentis albis, et non delebo nomen eius de libro vitae. Secondly, we see his devotion for Christ, for out of modesty he did not want to appear naked, but put on his clothes, for he was stripped for work, because it was hot and it made working easier. We can learn from this that those coming to Christ ought to put off the old man and put on the new, which has been created for God in faith: "He who conquers shall be clad thus in white garments, and I will not blot his name out of the book of life" (Rev 3:5). Tertio quantum ad eius securitatem: quia ex nimia dilectione noluit cum navi ire, quia retardabatur; sed misit se in mare, ut citius perveniret ad Christum. Thirdly, his devotion is shown by his lack of fear: for because of his great love he was unwilling to stay in the boat, which was moving too slowly, and so he sprang into the sea, to reach Christ more quickly. Mystice autem per mare signatur tribulatio praesentis saeculi. Unde illi qui desiderant pervenire ad Christum, in mare se mittunt, non refugiunt tribulationes huius mundi. Actor. XIV, 21: per multas tribulationes oportet intrare nos in regnum Dei; Eccli. II, 1: fili, accedens ad servitutem Dei, sta in iustitia et timore, et praepara animam tuam ad tentationem. Petrus autem misit se in mare, et tamen illaesus pervenit ad Christum: quia inter tribulationes securus et illaesus Christi servus evadit. Sap. XIV, 3: dedisti in mari viam, et inter fluctus semitam firmissimam. Et, ut Chrysostomus dicit, ponitur hic optime conditio Ioannis et Petri: quia Ioannes altior intellectu, Petrus ferventior affectu. 2594 In the mystical interpretation, the sea signifies the troubles of this present world. Those who desire to come to Christ cast themselves into the sea, and do not refuse the tribulations of this world: "Through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of God" (Acts 14:22); "My son, if you come forward to serve the Lord, prepare yourself for trials" (Sir 2:1). Now Peter did cast himself into the sea and he reached Christ unharmed because the servant of Christ is kept safe and unharmed in the midst of tribulations: "You have given a path in the sea, and a safe way through the waves" [Wis 14:3]. As Chrysostom says, this incident very well brings out the difference between John and Peter: for John is seen to be greater in understanding, while Peter is more ardent in his affections. Alii autem discipuli navigaverunt. Unde primo ponit quid fecerunt; quia navigio venerunt, quia minus ferventes Petro. Navigium significat Ecclesiam. Sap. XIV, v. 6: spes orbis terrarum ad ratem confugiens, remisit saeculo semen nativitatis. Et per hanc signatur Ecclesia, ut habetur I Petr. III, v. 20. 2595 The other disciples remained on the boat. First, the Evangelist mentions what they did, the other disciples came in the boat, because they were not as ardent as Peter. The boat signifies the Church: "The hope of the world took refuge on a raft, and guided by your hand left to the world the seed of a new generation" (Wis 14:6). This text refers to the Church as we see from 1 Peter (3:20). Alii vero navigio venerunt, idest protecti societate Ecclesiae, quae est terribilis ut castrorum acies ordinata. Ps. XXX, 21: proteges eos in tabernaculo tuo a contradictione linguarum. The other disciples came in the boat, that is, protected by the society of the Church, which is as formidable as an army prepared for battle: "In the covert of your presence you hide them from the plots of men" (Ps 31:20). Secundo assignat rationem praedictorum, cum dicit non enim longe erant a terra, sed quasi cubitis ducentis, trahentes rete piscium. Quod potest esse ratio quare Petrus se misit in mare, scilicet quia prope terram erat, vel quare isti cito pervenerunt. Et quidem non longe erant, quia Ecclesia non longe est a terra viventium: est enim domus Dei et porta caeli, Gen. XXVIII, 17, et terram illam sancti quotidie contemplantur. II Cor. IV, 18: non contemplantibus nobis quae videntur, sed quae non videntur; Phil. III, 20: nostra conversatio in caelis est. 2596 Secondly, the Evangelist gives the reason why they did this, for they were not far from the land, but about two hundred cubits off. This could be the reason why Peter sprang into the sea, because the land was near; and it could explain why the others arrived so quickly. Indeed, they were not far away, because the Church is not far from the land of the living, for the Church is "none other than the house of God, and ... the gate of heaven" (Gen 28:17); and the saints think about this land every day: "We look not to the things that are seen, but to the things that are unseen" (2 Cor 4:18); "Our commonwealth is in heaven" (Phil 3:20). Et dicit cubitis ducentis quod idem significant duae naves, Lc. V, 2, scilicet duos populos: de quibus electi trahuntur ad vitam aeternam. Eph. II, 15: ut duos condat in semetipso in unum novum hominem, faciens pacem et reconcilians ambos in uno corpore Deo. Rete autem quo pisces trahuntur est doctrina fidei, qua quidem Deus trahit inspirando interius, supra VI, 44: nemo potest venire ad me, nisi pater, qui misit me, traxerit eum: et apostoli exhortando, ut hic. He says, two hundred cubits, which signifies the same thing as the two boats mentioned by Luke (5:2), that is, the two peoples from which the elect are drawn to eternal life: "That he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross" (Eph 2:15). The net by which the fish are taken is the teaching of the faith, by which God draws us by inspiring us from within: "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him" (6:44). The apostles also draw us by their exhortations. Hic ponitur quomodo Christus suis discipulis exhibet familiare convivium, et primo convivii praeparatio; secundo Christi ad convivium invitatio, ibi dixit eis Iesus: venite, et prandete; tertio ipsa convivii refectio, ibi venit Iesus, et accepit panem et cetera. Praeparatio convivii describitur primo quantum ad ea quae a Christo praeparata sunt; secundo quantum ad ea quae a discipulis sunt allata, ibi dixit eis Iesus: afferte de piscibus quos prendidistis nunc. 2597 Next, the Evangelist tells how Christ affectionately prepared a meal for his disciples. He mentions its preparation; Christ's invitation; and the meal itself. In the preparation of the meal we see what was contributed by Christ, and what was brought by the disciples. A Christo autem sunt praeparata tria. Primo piscis et panis unde dicit ut ergo descenderunt de navi in terram viderunt prunas, quas Christus sua potestate creaverat ex nihilo, vel ex aliqua praeiacente materia formaverat. Sed supra VI, 5 ss., pavit turbam de panibus multiplicatis; hic autem post passionem suam miraculose de novo creat vel format, quia iam non est tempus infirmitatis ostendendae, sed potestatis manifestandae. Nam id quod supra fecit ante passionem, fuit condescensionis, quia si voluisset, potuisset de novo creare vel formare. 2598 Christ prepared three things. The Evangelist continues, When they got out on land, they saw hot coals there, with fish lying on it, and bread, which Christ by his power had created from nothing, or had formed from some nearby matter. In a previous miracle (6:11), Jesus fed the people with bread he had multiplied from previously existing bread. Now, after his passion, he creates or newly forms things, because it is no longer the time to show weakness but his power. For what he did before his passion in the multiplication of the bread was done in condescension, because if he wanted, he could have created it from nothing or newly formed it. Per hoc autem datur intelligi, quod in convivio spirituali praeparatur a Christo aliquid. Et si quidem convivium hoc sumatur allegorice pro convivio Ecclesiae, sic Christus ista tria praeparat: scilicet prunas caritatis. Prov. XXV, 21: haec autem faciens, carbones ignis congeres super caput eius; Ez. X, 2: imple manum tuam prunis ignis. Has prunas Christus de caelo portavit ad terras; supra XIII, 34: mandatum novum do vobis, ut diligatis invicem; item Lc. XII, 49: ignem veni mittere in terram. Item praeparat piscem, suppositis prunis, qui est Christus: nam piscis assus, est Christus passus, qui super prunas ponitur, quando ex incendio caritatis ad nos immolatur in cruce. Eph. V, 2: obtulit semetipsum pro nobis oblationem et hostiam Deo in odorem suavitatis; item ibidem 1: estote imitatores Dei sicut filii carissimi, et ambulate in dilectione, sicut et Christus dilexit nos. 2599 We can understand from this that Christ prepares a spiritual meal or banquet. If we take this present meal symbolically for the Church's meal, Christ also prepares these three things. First the hot coals of charity: "You will heap coals of fire on his head" (Prv 25:22); "Fill your hands with burning coals" (Ez 10:2). Christ carried these burning coals from heaven to earth: "A new commandment I give you, that you love one another" (13:34); "I came to cast fire upon the earth" (Lk 12:49). Also, Christ prepares the fish laid over the coals, which is Christ himself: for the cooking fish outspread over the hot coals is the suffering Christ who is spread over the hot coals when because of the fire of his love for us he is immolated on the cross: "Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God" (Eph 5:2); "Be imitators of God, as beloved children. And walk in love, as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God" (Eph 5:1). Item praeparat panes quibus reficitur, qui est ipse. Nam inquantum Christus latet per suam divinitatem, dicitur piscis, cuius proprietas est latere sub aquis, Is. XLV, 15: vere tu es Deus absconditus, sed inquantum nos reficit per doctrinam et etiam dat nobis corpus suum in cibum, vere panis est; supra VI, v. 51: ego sum panis vivus qui de caelo descendi; Is. XXX, 23: panis frugum terrae tuae erit uberrimus et pinguis. Sed ad hoc convivium debet afferri aliquid ex parte ministrorum Ecclesiae: sed tamen nihil, nisi praeexistat nobis a Deo. He also prepares the bread which nourishes us, and this bread is himself. Christ is called a fish insofar as his divinity is hidden, for it is characteristic of fish to remain hidden in the water: "Truly, you are a God who hides yourself" (Is 45:15). While insofar as Christ nourishes us by his teaching, and even gives us his body for food, he is truly bread: "I am the living bread which came down from heaven" (6:51); "The bread will be rich and abundant" [Is 30:23]. The ministers of the Church should also bring something to this meal; but whatever it is, it has come from God. Quid autem afferatur, subdit dixit eis Iesus: afferte de piscibus quos prendidistis nunc et primo ponitur mandatum domini; secundo executio discipuli. 2600 The Evangelist now mentions what was brought by the disciples: first, we see the Lord's command; and then one of the disciples acts on it. Praecipit autem ut afferant de piscibus ab eis captis, quasi diceret: ego dedi donum caritatis, assavi corpus in cruce, et proposui vobis panem doctrinae, ex quo perficitur et roboratur Ecclesia, vestrum est ut vos alios capiatis: et isti sunt qui convertuntur ad praedicationem apostolorum. Ps. XXVIII, 1: afferte domino filii Dei; Is. c. ult., 20: adducetis omnes fratres vestros de cunctis gentibus donum domino. 2601 Our Lord tells them to bring some of the fish they have caught. It was like saying: I have given you the gift of charity, I have roasted my body upon the cross and given you the bread of my teaching, which perfects and strengthens the Church. Now it is your task to catch others. These are the ones who will be converted by the preaching of the apostles: "Bring to the Lord, O children of God" [Ps 29:1]; "And they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as an offering to the Lord" (Is 66:20). Si autem hoc convivium sumatur pro convivio morali, sic Christus ad convivium animae praeparat primum prunas caritatis. Rom. V, 5: caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris; Lc. XII, 49: ignem veni mittere in terram. Item piscem, idest fidem absconditam, cum sit de non apparentibus, Hebr. X, 1. Item panem, idest solidam doctrinam. Hebr. V, 14: perfectorum autem est solidus cibus. Ad quod convivium ex parte nostra requiritur ut bene utamur gratia nobis concessa. I Cor. XV, 10: gratia Dei sum id quod sum, et gratia eius in me vacua non fuit. Unde praecipit afferte de piscibus, idest, portetis vestra bona opera, vobis data. Matth. V, 16: sic luceat lux vestra coram hominibus, ut videant opera vestra bona. 2602 If this meal is understood to be a moral meal, then Christ first prepares as food for the soul the burning coals of charity: "God's love has been poured into our hearts" (Rom 5:5); "I came to cast fire upon the earth" (Lk 12:49). Then he prepares the fish, that is, a hidden faith, since it is concerned with things that are not evident (Heb 10:1); and also the bread, that is, solid teaching: "Solid food is for the mature" (Heb 5:14). Our contribution to this meal is to make good use of the grace given to us: "But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me was not in vain" (1 Cor 15:10). Thus our Lord asks us to bring the fish, bring your good works, which have been granted to you to accomplish: "Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works" (Mt 5:16). Et ideo consequenter ponitur executio discipuli, scilicet Petri, qui ferventior erat: unde dicit ascendit autem Simon Petrus, et traxit rete in terram, plenum magnis piscibus, centum quinquaginta tribus. Ascendit in gubernaculum Ecclesiae. Cant. c. VII, 8: ascendam in statum perfectionis; Ps. LXXXIII, 7: ascensiones in corde suo disposuit. Et traxit rete in terram, quia ipsi sancta Ecclesia est commissa, et ipsi specialiter dicitur pasce oves meas, infra eodem, 17. Quod ergo tunc Christus aperit in voce dicens pasce oves meas, hoc ipse nunc praefigurat in opere: nam ipse pisces ad soliditatem littoris protrahit, quia stabilitatem aeternae patriae fidelibus ostendit. 2603 The Evangelist mentions that this was done by one of the disciples, Peter, who was more ardent than the others, So Simon Peter went aboard; he also went up to the helm of the Church: "I will climb the state of perfection" [Song 7:8]; "In his heart he is set to ascend" [Ps 64:6]. And hauled the net ashore, because the holy Church has been entrusted to him, and it was said to him in particular, "Feed my lambs" (21:15). Peter now foreshadows this by his action in drawing the fish to the solid land, because he will show the solidity of the eternal homeland to the faithful. Sed dicit rete plenum magnis piscibus, quia quos praedestinavit, hos et vocavit, et quos vocavit hos et magnificavit; Rom. VIII, 30; et Eccli. XLIV, 3: homines magni virtute, et prudentia sua praediti, annuntiantes in prophetis dignitatem, et imperantes in praesenti populo; et virtute prudentiae populis sanctissima verba. In alia autem piscatione non additur numerus sicut hic: fuerunt enim centum quinquaginta tres. Quia in vocatione ad praesentem Ecclesiam trahuntur boni et mali, ut dicitur Eccle. I, 15: stultorum infinitus est numerus. Unde Gen. XXII, 17, dicitur Abrahae de illa vocatione: erit semen tuum sicut arena quae est in littore maris, quae ponitur in malam partem. Sed de ista dicitur: inspice stellas, et numera eas, si potes. Hi enim numerantur a Deo quasi habiti in pretio. Ps. CXLVI, 4: qui numerat multitudinem stellarum. 2604 He said, full of large fish, because "those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified" (Rom 8:30); "Men renowned for their power, giving counsel by their understanding, and proclaiming prophecies; leaders of the people in their deliberations" (Si 44:3). At the other catch of fish (Lk 5:4) the number of fish taken was not mentioned, but it is here; here there were a hundred and fifty‑three. The reason for this is that those called to the Church of the present time include both those who are good and bad: "The number of fools is infinite" [Eccl 1:15]. Thus in Genesis (22:17), when Abraham is told of his calling, we read, "I will multiply your descendants as the sand which is on the seashore," which refers to the bad. While referring to the good, God says, "Look toward heaven, and number the stars, if you are able to number them .... So shall your descendants be" (Gen 15:5); for God especially counts the good, "He tells the number of the stars" [Ps 147:4]. Sed numquid non plures salvabuntur quam centum quinquaginta tres? Immo plures, sed hic numerus aliquid mystice signat. Nullus enim potest ad patriam venire nisi per observantiam Decalogi; nec hoc observari potest nisi per septiformem gratiam spiritus sancti, de quo Is. XI, 2: requiescet super eum spiritus domini; spiritus sapientiae et intellectus, spiritus consilii et fortitudinis, spiritus scientiae et pietatis, et replebit eum spiritus timoris domini. Sanctificatio autem primo legitur facta in septimo die. Gen. II, 3: benedicens diei septimo, sanctificavit illum. Decem autem et septem faciunt septemdecim. Si ergo numeretur tali ordine progressionis, ut primo accipias unum et duo quae faciunt tria, et tria quae faciunt sex, et quatuor quae faciunt decem, et decem et quinque quae faciunt quindecim, et sic deinceps addendo numerum qui sequitur usque ad decem et septem, numero coniuncto habebis centum quinquaginta tres. 2605 Does this mean that no more than a hundred and fifty‑three will be saved? No indeed! There will be more, but this number indicates a mystery. For no one can reach the homeland without observing the commandments of the decalogue; and the commandments can only be kept with the help of the sevenfold gift of the Holy Spirit: "The spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and of fortitude; the spirit of knowledge and of godliness, and you will be filled with the spirit of the fear of the Lord" [Is 11:2]. Further, the first recorded instance of sanctification occurred on the seventh day: "God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it" (Gen 2:3). Adding ten and seven gives seventeen. Now if we add the cardinal numbers successively ‑ one plus two gives three, plus three gives six, plus four gives ten, plus five gives fifteen, plus six gives twenty‑one, and so on in this way till we have reached the number seventeen ‑ we arrive at the number one hundred and fifty‑three. Vel aliter. Hi discipuli quibus Christus apparuit erant septem. Multiplicando autem septem per septem (quae sunt dona spiritus sancti), fiunt quadraginta novem, quibus, si addas unum ad significandum unitatis perfectionem in qua esse debent filii Dei qui spiritu Dei aguntur, fiunt quinquaginta, quibus triplicatis, et iterum additis tribus ad significandum fidem Trinitatis, quae in confessione cordis et oris et operis consistit, fiunt centum quinquaginta tres. Quia qui sunt perfecti septem donis spiritus sancti et uniti in fide Trinitatis, perveniunt ad patrem. Or, in another way: Christ now was appearing to seven disciples. If we multiply this seven by seven (the gifts of the Holy Spirit) we get forty‑nine. Now if we add one to indicate that perfection of unity which is characteristic of the children of God who act by the Spirit of God, we get fifty. If we triple this, and also add three, to indicate our faith in the Trinity (which we profess with our heart, our words and our actions), we get a hundred and fifty‑three. Thus, those who are perfected by the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, and united by their faith in the Trinity, come to the Father. Sed dicit et cum tanti essent, non est scissum rete; in alia autem dicitur quod rumpebatur: quia in praesenti Ecclesia, quae per illam significatur, sunt multae scissurae schismatum, haeresum, seditionum, sed totaliter non rumpitur, quia ego vobiscum sum usque ad consummationem saeculi: Matth. ult., 20. Sed in futura patria quae significatur per istam, idest in illa pace sanctorum, nulla erunt schismata. Ps. CXLVII, 3: qui posuit fines tuos pacem. 2606 The Evangelist continues, and although there were so many, the net was not torn. In the incident related by Luke (Lk 5:6) the net broke because in the present Church [in this world], which the net signifies, there are many rips of schisms, heresies and seditions. But the Church is not entirely torn apart because "I am with you always, to the close of the age" (Mt 28:20). But in the future, in our homeland, heaven, which is signified by the net which was not torn, that is, in that peace which will be in the saints, there will be no schisms: "He makes peace in your borders" (Ps 147:14). Consequenter cum dicit dixit eis Iesus: venite, prandete, ponitur invitatio ad convivium praeparatum, et primo ponitur Christi invitatio; secundo discipulorum in convivio dispositio, ibi et nemo audebat discumbentium interrogare eum. 2607 When the Evangelist says, Jesus said to them, Come and dine, we see his invitation to the meal he had prepared. First, we see Christ's invitation; then the attitude of the disciples. Invitat autem ad convivium Christus interius inspirando per seipsum, dicens venite, prandete, Matth. XI, 28: venite ad me omnes qui laboratis et onerati estis; et ego reficiam vos; Cant. V, 1: comedite, amici, bibite et inebriamini, carissimi, et exterius docendo et exhortando per alios. Lc. XIV, v. 16: homo quidam fecit coenam magnam (...) et misit servum suum hora coenae dicere invitatis ut venirent. 2608 Christ invites us to dine with him by inspiring us himself from within, saying, Come and dine: "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you" [Mt 11:28]; "Eat, O friends, and drink; drink deeply, O lovers!" (Song 5:1). He also invites us to dine by encouraging and teaching us from without through others: "A man once gave a great banquet ... he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, Come" (Lk 14:16). Dispositio discipulorum ponitur cum dicit et nemo audebat discumbentium interrogare eum: quod, secundum Augustinum, designat discipulorum de resurrectione Christi certitudinem, quia scilicet ita certi erant quod Christus esset, quod nullus discumbentium ausus est dubitare an ipse esset. Et quia interrogatio est signum dubitationis, nullus audebat eum interrogare tu quis est? Supra XVI, 23: in illo die me non interrogabitis quidquam. Secundum Chrysostomum, significat maiorem solito reverentiam discipulorum ad Christum. Libenter interrogassent eum; sed Christus apparuit eis in quodam magnifico aspectu, et mirabili gloria, ita ut non auderent eum interrogare prae stupore et reverentia. Et hoc specialiter detinebat eos ab interrogando, quia sciebant quoniam dominus est. 2609 The Evangelist gives their attitude when he says, Now none of the disciples dared ask him, Who are you? According to Augustine, this indicates the disciples' certainty about Christ's resurrection; they were so certain that it was Christ that none of them presumed to doubt that it was he. And because a question indicates a doubt, no one presumed to ask, Who are you? "In that day you will ask nothing of me" (16:23). For Chrysostom, it indicates a reverence of the disciples for Christ which was greater than usual. They would have liked to have questioned him; but Christ appeared to them in such grandeur and glory that they did not dare to question him because of their amazement and respect. It was this that particularly stopped them from questioning him, for they knew it was the Lord. Consequenter cum dicit et venit Iesus, et accepit panem, et dabat eis, ponitur ipsa refectio, quam habuerunt ipso manducante. Ps. CXLIV, 16: aperis tu manum tuam, et imples omne animal benedictione. Ipse est enim qui dat escam illorum in tempore opportuno. 2610 Next, Jesus came and took bread and gave it to them, and we see the meal they had, with Jesus eating with them: "You open your hand, you satisfy the desire of every living thing" (Ps 145:16). For he is the one who gives nourishment at the appropriate times. Sed numquid Christus comedit cum eis? Dicendum quod sic, licet hic non exprimatur; Lc. ult., 43, expresse dicitur, quod comedit cum eis. Et Act. I, 4 dicitur: et convescens praecepit eis ab Ierosolymis ne discederent. 2611 But did Christ really eat with them? We should say that he did, although it does not say this here. Luke (24:43) explicitly says that he ate with them, and in Acts [1:4] we read that "while eating with them, he charged them not to leave Jerusalem." Sed numquid fuit vera comestio? Responsio. Dicendum ad hoc, quod aliquis actus dicitur esse verus dupliciter; scilicet veritate significationis, et veritate speciei. Veritate quidem significationis verus est actus qui configuratur rei significatae: sicut si volo aliquid significare per orationem, et illud quod significo est verum, et concordat rei significatae, sic oratio est vera veritate significationis, licet non speciei: sicut hoc quod dixit Christus: ego sum vitis vera, verum est licet non sit vitis vera secundum speciem vitis, sed tantum secundum quod vitis significat. Secundum veritatem speciei dicitur aliquid verum quod habet quae pertinent ad speciei veritatem. Huiusmodi autem sunt principia speciei, non autem effectus eius consequentes: sicut locutio haec homo est animal, primo modo vera est, quia verum significat; sed veritate speciei non est vera, nisi formetur ab ore animalis loquentis organis debitis. Nec requiritur ad eius veritatem effectus locutionis, puta quod audiatur et huiusmodi. Sic ergo dicendum est de comestione, quod aliqua est de veritate significationis tantum, sicut comestio Angelorum, quia in Angelis non sunt membra ordinata ad comestionem; sed verum est illud quod ipsi per hoc significabant, scilicet desiderium quod habebant de salute hominum. Comestio autem Christi post resurrectionem vera fuit et veritate significationis, quia ad hoc fiebat ut ostenderet se habere naturam humanam, quam in veritate habebat, et veritate speciei, quia habebat instrumenta propria ad comestionem. Sed tamen effectus consequentes comestionem non erant ibi: quia cibus non fuit conversus in comedentem, cum haberet corpus glorificatum et incorruptibile; sed resolutus fuit virtute divina in praeiacentem materiam. Huiusmodi autem effectus nihil faciunt ad veritatem speciei, ut dictum est. 2612 But did he truly eat? We should say to this that a thing is said to be true in two ways: true with the truth of signification, and true with the truth of its species. A thing is true in the first way when it corresponds to what is signified. For example, if I want to signify something by speech, and what I signify by it is true and agrees with the thing signified, my speech is true with the truth of signification, although not [necessarily] true with the truth of the species. When Christ said "I am the true vine" (15:1), that was true, although he is not a true vine in the sense that he has the species or nature of a vine, but he is a vine considering what vine signifies. On the other hand, something is said to be true with the truth of its species or kind, when it has what belongs to the truth of its species. These things are the principles of the species, not their subsequent effects. Thus the utterance, "Man is an animal" is true in the first way, with the truth of signification, because it signifies what is true. But is not true with the truth of species unless it is spoken by the mouth of a [human] animal using its normal organs of speech. Its truth does not depend on the effects of the speaking, for example, that it be heard by someone. So, applied to the act of eating: some cases are true only with the truth of signification, as the eating ascribed to an angel, because an angel does not have the organs for eating. But what is signified by their eating is true, that is, the desire they have for our salvation. But Christ's act of eating after the resurrection was true both with the truth of signification, because he did it to show that he had a human nature, which he did in truth have, and his eating was true according to its species, because he had the organs used for eating. However, the effects consequent on eating were not present, since the food was not transformed into his substance, since he had a glorified and incorruptible body. It was dissolved into pre‑existing matter by the divine power. However, this effect does not alter the truth of the species, as was said. Consequenter cum dicit hoc iam tertio manifestatus est Iesus discipulis suis, epilogat apparitiones. Et secundum Augustinum, si hoc quod dicitur iam tertio, referatur ad vices, non est verum: quia ut dictum est, primo die apparuit quinque vicibus; postea quidem octavo die quando Thomas erat cum eis, supra XX, 19; secundo iuxta mare, ut hic; tertio in monte Galilaeae, ut habetur Matth. c. ult.; 16 s.; quarto recumbentibus, Mc. ult., v. 14; quinto ipso die ascensionis, quando videntibus illis elevatus est: Act. I, 9. Quamquam pluribus aliis vicibus apparuit eis per dies quadraginta licet non sit scriptum. 2613 The Evangelist summarizes the appearances by saying, This was now the third time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples. According to Augustine, if this third time refers to the number of times, it is not true. For as was said, on the first day Christ appeared five times, again on the eighth day when Thomas was present, again by the Sea as recorded here, again on the mountain in Galilee (Mt 28:16), again when they were at table (Mk 16:14), and again on the day of his ascension, when "as they were looking on, he was lifted up" (Acts 1:9). Further, he appeared to them many other times during the forty days, but these are not recorded (Acts 1:3). Est ergo hoc iam tertio, referendum ad dies quibus apparuit: quia prima die apparuit ipso die resurrectionis; secunda die in octava ipsius resurrectionis, supra XX: et post dies octo; et tertia die apparuit hic. Vel dicendum, quod etiam referendo ad vices salvatur veritas dicti; quia non legitur quod multis discipulis simul congregatis apparuit, nisi primo de sero, cum fores essent clausae etc.; et secundo post octo dies, quando erant discipuli congregati; et tertio hic: unde signanter dicit manifestatus est Iesus discipulis suis. Thus the third time must refer to the days on which Christ appeared. The first day he appeared was the day of the resurrection; the second day was eight days after the resurrection, eight days later (20:26); and the third day was the appearance by the lake mentioned here. Or, one could say, this statement can be true even if it is refereed to the number of times: for the only times we read that he appeared to a number of the disciples gathered together was on the first day in the evening, when the doors were shut; secondly, eight days later, when the disciples were gathered together; and thirdly, here at the Sea. Thus, he explicitly says, this was now the third time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples.
Lectio 3 LECTURE 3 15 ὅτε οὖν ἠρίστησαν λέγει τῷ Σίμωνι Πέτρῳ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Σίμων Ἰωάννου, ἀγαπᾷς με πλέον τούτων; λέγει αὐτῷ, ναί, κύριε, σὺ οἶδας ὅτι φιλῶ σε. λέγει αὐτῷ, βόσκε τὰ ἀρνία μου. 16 λέγει αὐτῷ πάλιν δεύτερον, Σίμων Ἰωάννου, ἀγαπᾷς με; λέγει αὐτῷ, ναί, κύριε, σὺ οἶδας ὅτι φιλῶ σε. λέγει αὐτῷ, ποίμαινε τὰ πρόβατά μου. 17 λέγει αὐτῷ τὸ τρίτον, Σίμων Ἰωάννου, φιλεῖς με; ἐλυπήθη ὁ Πέτρος ὅτι εἶπεν αὐτῷ τὸ τρίτον, φιλεῖς με; καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, κύριε, πάντα σὺ οἶδας, σὺ γινώσκεις ὅτι φιλῶ σε. λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ Ἰησοῦς], βόσκε τὰ πρόβατά μου. 15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs." 16 A second time he said to him, "Simon, Son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep" [Feed my lambs]. 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep." Supra posuit Evangelista quid dominus discipulis communiter exhibuit; hic ostendit quid specialiter duobus praedilectis, et primo ponit quid exhibuit Petro; secundo quid exhibuit Ioanni, ibi conversus Petrus vidit illum discipulum quem diligebat Iesus. Circa primum duo facit. Primo iniungit sibi pastorale officium; secundo praenuntiat sibi passionis martyrium, ibi amen, amen dico tibi et cetera. 2614 The Evangelist just showed what the Lord did for the disciples in general; here he shows him dealing with his two especially loved disciples: first, what he did for Peter; and how he dealt with John (v 20). He does two things with the first: first, he lays on Peter the pastoral office; secondly, he predicts that he will be martyred (v18). Pastorale autem officium iniungit, examinatione praemissa: et ideo qui ad hoc officium assumuntur, primo examinantur. I Tim. V, 22: manus nemini cito imposueris. Sed ter examinat eum et ideo secundum hoc, pars ista dividitur in tres partes secundum tres examinationes. Partes patent. In prima autem primo ponitur quaestio domini; secundo responsio Petri, ibi dixit ei: etiam, domine, tu scis quia amo te; tertio iniunctio officii, ibi dixit ei: pasce oves meas. Circa primum tria consideranda occurrunt. Primo ordo examinationis; secundo modus allocutionis; tertio de quo est examinatio. He imposes the pastoral office on Peter only after an examination. Thus, those who are to be raised to this office are first examined, "Do not be hasty in the laying on of hands" (1 Tim 5:22). Christ examined him three times, and so this part is divided into three parts. In the first part we see our Lord's question (v 15); Peter's answer; and the imposition of the office (v 15). Looking at the first, we can consider three things: the time of the examination; the tenor of the conversation; and on what Peter was examined. Ordo quidem, quia cum prandissent: in quo signatur spirituale convivium in quo etiam simul cum corpore anima per spiritualia dona reficitur. Apoc. III, 20: intrabo ad eum, et coenabo cum illo. Et ideo conveniens est ut qui ad hoc assumitur officium, primo sit isto felici convivio refectus, alias enim ipsi famelici quomodo alios reficere possent? Ier. XXXI, 14: inebriabo animas sacerdotum pinguedine: illa, inquam, de qua in Ps. LXII, 6: dicitur: sicut adipe et pinguedine repleatur anima mea. 2615 The order of this event is given as When they had finished the meal. This signifies the spiritual meal by which the soul is refreshed with spiritual gifts, even when it is united to the body: "I will come in to him and eat with him" (Rev 3:20). Therefore it is appropriate that one who is raised to this office be already refreshed with this joyous meal. Otherwise, how could he refresh the hungry ones that come to him: "I will feast the soul of the priests with abundance" (Jer 31:14), with that abundance mentioned in Psalm 63 (v 5): "My soul is feasted as with marrow and fat." Modus autem allocutionis ponitur cum dicit dixit Simoni Petro: ubi tria ponuntur quae necessaria sunt praelato. Obedientia, cum dixit Simoni, qui interpretatur obediens, quae est praelatis necessaria: nam qui nescit superioribus obedire, inferioribus nescit imperare. Prov. XXI, 28: vir obediens loquetur victorias et cetera. Item scientia cum dixit Petro, qui interpretatur agnoscens: quod necessarium est praelato, quia ponitur ut speculator; qui autem caecus est, malus speculator est. Is. LVI, v. 10: speculatores eius omnes caeci; Oseae c. IV, 6: quia tu scientiam repulisti, repellam te ego, ne sacerdotio fungaris mihi. Item gratia, cum dicit Ioannis, idest filius Ioannis: et haec est necessaria praelatis, quia sine ea nihil habent. I Cor. XV, 10: gratia Dei sum id quod sum; Gal. II, 9: cum cognovissent gratiam Dei, quae data est mihi, Petrus, Iacobus et Ioannes, qui videbantur columnae esse, dexteras dederunt mihi, et Barnabae societatis. 2616 The tenor of the conversation is seen when he says, Jesus said to Simon Peter. Three things are given here which are necessary for a prelate. First, obedience, when he says, Simon, which means obedient. A prelate needs to be obedient because one who does not know how to obey superiors does not know how to govern inferiors: "An obedient man will speak of victory" [Prv 21:28]. Secondly, a prelate needs knowledge, indicated by Peter, which means understanding. A prelate needs understanding for he is the appointed watchman, and one who is blind is a poor watchman: "His watchmen are blind" (Is 56:10); "Because you have rejected knowledge, I reject you from being a priest to me" (Hos 4:6). Thirdly, a prelate needs grace, for he says son of John. Prelates need grace because if they do not have grace they do not have anything: "By the grace of God I am what I am" (1 Cor 15:10); "And when they perceived the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship" (Gal 2:9). Examinatio autem est de dilectione: diligis me, inquit, plus his? Et hoc quidem satis convenienter. Petrus prius in peccatum ceciderat, ut patet supra, nec idoneus erat ut praeferretur, nisi prius eius culpa aboleretur: quod non fit nisi per caritatem. I Petr. IV, 8: caritas operit multitudinem peccatorum; Prov. X, 12: universa delicta operit caritas. Et ideo oportuit ut per examinationem manifestaretur eius caritas, non sibi qui scrutatur renes et corda, sed aliis: et ideo non quasi ignorans dicit diligis me plus his? Sed quia, ut dicitur I Io. IV, 18, perfecta caritas foras mittit timorem. Inde est quod Petro, qui cum dominus moreretur, timuit et negavit, resurgens dominus amorem inseruit, et fugavit timorem. Ideo qui tunc negavit timens mori, resurgente domino nil timuit. Quid enim timeret, cum iam mortem mortuam reperiret? 2617 The questions are about love; and Jesus asks, Do you love me more than these? This was a suitable question, for Peter had previously fallen, as we saw before, and it was not appropriate that he be preferred to the others until his sin was forgiven ‑ which is only brought about by charity: "Love covers a multitude of sins" (1 Pet 4:8); "Love covers all offenses" (Prv 10:12). So it was fitting that his charity be made known by this questioning, not indeed to him who looks into the depths of our hearts, but to others. So Christ said, but not as one who did not already know, Do you love me more than these? Now we read that "perfect love casts out fear" (1 Jn 4:18). Thus it was that when our Lord was about to die, Peter was afraid and denied him; but the risen Lord restored love and banished his fear. So Peter, who before had denied Christ because he was afraid to die, now, after our Lord has arisen, feared nothing. Why should he be afraid, since he now realized that death had died? Congruit etiam haec examinatio officio. Multi enim pastorale officium assumentes, utuntur eo sicut seipsos amantes. II Tim. III, 1: instabunt tempora periculosa, et erunt homines seipsos amantes. Et qui non amat dominum, non est idoneus praelatus; sed magis ille qui non quaerit quae sua sunt, sed quae Iesu Christi, et hoc amore eius. II Cor. V, 14: caritas Christi urget nos. Congruit etiam officio quantum ad utilitatem proximorum: ex abundantia enim caritatis est quod aliqui diligentes interdum quietem propriae contemplationis intermittant, ut procurent proximorum utilitatem. Cum enim apostolus diceret, Rom. VIII, 39: certus sum enim, quod neque mors poterit nos separare a caritate Dei, subdit: optabam ego ipse anathema esse pro fratribus meis. Et ideo necessaria est examinatio de dilectione ad praelatum. 2618 This questioning was also appropriate for the office, since many who assume a pastoral office use it as self‑lovers: "In the last days there will come times of stress. For men will be lovers of self" (1 Tim 3:1). One who does not love the Lord is not a fit prelate. A fit prelate is one who does not seek his own advantage, but that of Christ's; and he does this through love: "The love of Christ controls us" (2 Cor 5:14). Love also becomes this office because it benefits others: for it is due to the abundance of love that those who love Jesus will at times give up the quiet of their own contemplation to help their neighbor. Although the: Apostle said, "I am sure that neither death nor life ... will be able to separate us from the love of God" (Rom 8:39), he added, "For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brethren" (Rom 9:3). Thus a prelate should be questioned about his love. Addit autem plus his, quia, ut etiam ex philosopho habetur in politica sua, naturali ordine ille qui praesidet et gubernat, debet excellentior esse: unde dicit, quod sicut anima se habet ad corpus quod regit, et ratio ad inferiores, similiter etiam homo ad animalia bruta. Sic se debet habere praelatus ad subditos. Unde secundum Gregorium, talis debet esse vita pastoris quod in comparatione eius subditi sint sicut sunt animalia ad comparationem sui pastoris. Et ideo dicit plus his, quia quanto plus diligit, tanto maior est. I Reg. X, 24: certe videtis quem elegit dominus, quoniam non sit similis ei in omni populo. 2619 He adds, more than these, for even as the Philosopher says in his Politics, it is the natural order of things that the one who cares for and governs others should be better. Thus he says that just as the soul is to the body that it rules, and reason is to our lower powers, so man is related to the irrational animals. And there ought to be a similar relation between prelates and their subjects. Thus, according to Gregory, the life of a pastor should be such that he is related to his subjects as a shepherd to his sheep. So Christ says, more than these, because the more Peter loves the better he is: "Do you see him whom the Lord has chosen? There is none like him among all the people" (1 Sam 10:24). Sed numquid necessarium est in electione semper eligere simpliciter meliorem etsi iura determinent quod sufficit bonum eligere? Ad quod dicendum, quod duplici distinctione opus est. Nam aliquid sufficit secundum iudicium humanum quod tamen non sufficit secundum iudicium divinum. Secundum iudicium humanum sufficit illud de quo homo non potest accusari, nec eius electio improbatur. Constat autem difficile esse fieri electiones, si possent reprobari ex hoc quod alius melior est quam ille qui electus est. Unde sufficit secundum iudicium humanum, ut habetur in decretali, quod electio sit recta, et eligatur idoneus. 2620 But in selecting someone [to rule] is it always necessary to choose the one who is unconditionally better, even if the laws say that it is enough to choose one who is merely good? To answer this two distinctions must be made. Some things are sufficient according to human judgment which are still not sufficient according to the divine judgment. According to human judgment, if a person cannot be reproached for something, this is sufficient for his election to stand. For it is obvious that it would be difficult to have elections if they could be nullified because someone was found who was better than the one actually chosen. So, according to our human judgment, it is sufficient if an election is honest and a suitable person is chosen. Secundum vero iudicium divinum et conscientiam, necessarium est eligere meliorem. Sed tamen aliquis dicitur melior simpliciter, et sic ille dicitur melior qui est sanctior, sanctitas enim facit bonum, sed non est melior quantum ad Ecclesiam. Et quo ad hoc aliquis est melior, inquantum est litteratior, competentior et discretior, et magis concorditer eligitur. Sed si, ceteris paribus, quae sunt ad utilitatem Ecclesiae et melioritatem quantum ad hoc, aliquis minus bonum simpliciter praeeligat alicui, peccat, quia de necessitate aliquid eum movet ad hoc. Aut ergo hoc pertinet ad honorem Dei et utilitatem Ecclesiae, aut ad aliquid privatum. Si quidem utilitas Ecclesiae et honor Dei movet eum, hoc bonum intelligitur in conditione electi, et facit meliorem quantum ad hoc. Si vero aliquid privatum, puta affectio carnalis, spes beneficii et commodi temporalis, est fraudulenta electio, et acceptio personarum. But, so far as concerns the divine judgment, and our own conscience, it is necessary to choose that person who is better. Now a person can be unconditionally better; and this is the way a holier person is said to be better, for holiness makes one good. Yet such a person might not be better for the Church. For this purpose, that person would be better who is better educated, more competent, more discerning, and chosen more unanimously. But if other things are equal, such as the benefit and welfare of the Church, one would sin if he were to choose a person who was less unconditionally good than another. There has to be a reason for such a choice. This is either the honor of God and the benefit of the Church, or some private motive. If the motive is the honor of God and the benefit to the Church, these goods will be regarded as linked to the one chosen, and will make him the better person, in these respects. If there is some private motive for the choice, such as some carnal love, the expectation of ecclesiastical advancement, or temporal advantage, the election is a fraud and there has been partiality. Hic ponitur responsio Petri: ex qua evidens signum correctionis de sua negatione apparet, et quod praedestinati semper corriguntur in melius, si quando labantur. Nam antequam negaret, Petrus superbivit contra ceteros apostolos, dicens: etsi omnes scandalizati fuerint, ego numquam in te scandalizabor. Item contra dominum: quia domino dicente: ter me negabis, ille subdit: si oportuerit me mori tecum, non te negabo. Sed modo de propriis viribus victus, non audet confiteri suum amorem, nisi sub testimonio et protestatione domini, humilians se Christo, et dicens domine, tu scis quia amo te. Iob XVI, 20: ecce in caelo est testis meus, et conscius meus in excelsis. Item humilians se apostolis, non dicit plus his sed simpliciter amo te. In quo instruimur quia non debemus nos aliis praeponere, sed alios nobis; Phil. II, 3: sed in humilitate superiores sibi invicem arbitrantes. 2621 Now we see Peter's answer, Yes, Lord; you know that I love you. This is a clear sign that he had retracted his previous denial. And it shows that if the predestined fall, they are always better after they are corrected. Before his denial, Peter thought that he was better than the other apostles, saying, "Though they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away" (Mt 26:33). And when Jesus said to him, "You will deny me three times," Peter went against this and even boasted that "Even if I must die with you, I will not deny you" (Mt 26:35). But now, Peter, having been conquered by his own weakness, does not presume to state his love unless it is attested to and confirmed by the Lord. He humbles himself before Christ, saying, You know that I love you: "My witness is in heaven, and he that vouches for me is on high" (Job 16:19). He also humbles himself in respect to the apostles, for he does not say that he loves Jesus more than they do, but simply, I love you. This teaches us not to rank ourselves before others, but others before ourselves: "In humility count others better than yourselves" (Phil 2:3). Notandum etiam secundum Augustinum, quod domino quaerente diligis me, non respondit Petrus diligo sed amo te; quasi idem sit amor et dilectio. Quod est verum secundum rem; sed differunt secundum nomen. Amor enim est motus appetitus, et si quidem reguletur appetitus ratione, sic est amor voluntatis, qui proprie est dilectio, quia sequitur electionem: et inde est quod bruta proprie non dicuntur diligere; si vero motus non reguletur ratione, dicitur amor. 2622 We can also notice, as Augustine points out, that when our Lord asks, Do you love (diligis) me, Peter does not answer with the same word, but says I love (amo) you, as if they were the same. And they are the same in reality, but there is some difference in meaning: Love (amor) is a movement of our appetitive power, and if this is regulated by our reason it is the will's act of love, which is called "direction" (dilectio) ‑ because it presupposes an act of election, choice (electio). This is why the brute animals are not said to love (diligere). For if the appetitive movement is not regulated by reason, it is called amor. Hic iam examinato Petro, iniungit ei officium, dicens pasce agnos meos, idest fideles meos, a me agno agnos vocatos; supra I, 29: ecce agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi; ut sic non possit dicit Christianus qui dicit se non esse sub cura istius pastoris, scilicet Petri. Ez. XXXVII, 24: pastor unus erat omnium vestrum; Oseae I, 11: ponent sibi caput unum. Congrue autem hoc officium, omnibus intermissis, Petro commisit, qui secundum Chrysostomum, eximius apostolorum erat, et os discipulorum, et vertex collegii. 2623 After this examination, Christ assigns Peter his office, saying, Feed my lambs, that is, my faithful, which I, the Lamb, call lambs: "Behold, the Lamb of God" (1:29). Thus, one should not be called a Christian who says he is not under the care of that shepherd, that is, Peter: "They shall all have one shepherd" (Ez 37:24); "They shall appoint for themselves one head" (Hos 1:11). It was appropriate that this office be assigned to Peter, the others being passed over, because, according to Chrysostom, he was the extraordinary apostle, the voice of the disciples, and the head of the group. Hic ponitur secunda examinatio. Ut autem non repetantur pluries eadem verba, nota, quod ter dicit pasce oves meas; quia ter debet pascere. Scilicet doctrinae verbo; Ier. III, 15: dabo vobis pastores secundum cor meum, qui pascent vos scientia et doctrina. Item vitae exemplo; I Tim. IV, 12: exemplum esto fidelium in verbo, in conversatione, in caritate, in fide, in castitate; Ez. c. XXXIV, 14: in montibus Israel, idest in sublimitate magnorum virorum, erunt pascua vestra. Item temporali subsidio; ibid. 2: vae pastoribus Israel qui pascebant semetipsos. Nonne greges pascuntur a pastoribus? 2624 Now we have the second examination. In order to avoid a lot of repetition, note that Christ says three times, Feed my lambs, because Peter ought to feed them three ways. First, they are to be fed by being taught: "And I will give you shepherds after my own heart, who will feed you with knowledge and understanding" (Jer 3:15). Secondly, they are to be fed by example: "Set the believers an example in speech and conduct, in love, in faith, in purity" (1 Tim 4:12); "Upon the mountain heights of Israel," that is, in the excellence of great men, "shall be their pasture" (Ez 34:14). Thirdly, they are to be fed by being offered temporal help: "Woe, shepherds of Israel who have been feeding yourselves! Should not shepherds feed the sheep?" (Ez 34:2). Sed attende quod tertia vice dicit ei pasce oves meas. Cuius ratio est, quia in Ecclesia sunt tria genera hominum, scilicet incipientium, proficientium et perfectorum. Et primi quidem duo sunt agni, quasi adhuc imperfecti; alii autem sicut perfecti dicuntur oves. Ps. CXIII, 4: montes, scilicet perfecti, exultaverunt ut arietes, et colles, idest alii, sicut agni ovium. Et inde est quod omnes praelati debent custodire subditos ut oves Christi, et non proprias. Sed heu, quia, ut dicit Augustinus in sermone paschali, extiterunt quidam servi infideles, qui dimiserunt gregem Christi, et furtis suis peculia gregem sibi fecerunt, et audis eos dicere: oves meae sunt illae. Quid quaeris oves meas? Non te inveniam ad oves meas. Sed si nos dicamus meas, et illi dicunt suas: perdidit Christus oves suas. 2625 The third time Christ says to him, Feed my sheep. This is because there are three types of people in the Church: beginners, those who have made some progress, and the perfect. The first two types are the lambs, since they are still imperfect. The others, since they are perfect, are called sheep: "The mountains," that is, the perfect, "skipped like rams," and "the hills," the others, "like lambs" (Ps 114:4). And so all prelates ought to guard their charges as Christ's sheep and not their own. But alas! As Augustine says in his Easter Sermon: "We witness the appearance of certain unfaithful servants who have abandoned Christ's flock and by their thefts have made gold their flock. You hear them say, 'These are my sheep. What do you want with my sheep? I will not let you come to my sheep.' But if we say "my sheep," and others talk about their sheep, then Christ has lost his own sheep." Notandum etiam, quod sicut ter iniungit, ita ter examinat. Primo quidem quia ter eum negaverat; et ideo exigitur trina confessio, ne minus amori lingua serviat quam timori, et plus vocis elicuisse videatur mors imminens, quam vita praesens, ut dicit Augustinus. Secundo, quia Petrus tenebatur Christum ex triplici causa diligere. Primo ex peccato dimisso: Lc. VII, 42: cui plus dimittitur, plus diligit. Secundo ex honore promisso, quia magnum, scilicet super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam, Matth. XVI, 18. Tertio ex officio commisso, ut hic, cum commisit sibi curam Ecclesiae; vel cum dicit pasce, propter hoc quod dominus praecepit, Deut. c. VI, 5: diliges dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo, ut scilicet totam intentionem tuam ad Deum dirigas, ex tota anima, scilicet ut tua voluntas tota in Deum per amorem quiescat, et ex tota fortitudine tua, ut tota executio operum tuorum Deo serviat. 2626 Note also that just as Peter was assigned his office three times, so he was examined three times. This was because he had denied Christ three times. As Augustine says: "A threefold profession was required so that Peter's tongue might show as much love as it had shown of fear, and that life gained would wrest more words than the threat of death." Another reason for this was because Peter was obligated to love Christ for three things. First, because his sin was forgiven, for the one who is forgiven more loves the more (cf. Lk 7:43). Secondly, because he was promised a great honor: "On this rock I will build my Church" (Mt 16:18). Thirdly, because of the office entrusted to him, as right here, when Christ entrusts the care of the Church to him, Feed. "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart," so that you will direct your entire intention to God, "and with all your soul," so that your entire will might rest in God through love, "and with all your might," so that the performance of all your actions will serve God. Notandum etiam, quod Petrus tertio interrogatus, contristatus est. Quia cum ante passionem prompte assereret Christum diligere, reprehensus fuit a domino, ut dictum est. Videns ergo quod toties de dilectione interrogatur, timet ne reprehendatur a domino, et contristatur. Et ideo dicit tu omnia nosti: tu scis quia amo te, quasi dicat: ego diligo te, quantum mihi videtur; sed tu omnia nosti, et forte scis an aliquid aliud debeat contingere. Et ideo Petro sic humiliato fit finalis commissio Ecclesiae. Et secundum quemdam doctorem Graecum, dicitur, quod ideo ter interrogantur baptizandi in Baptismo. 2627 Peter became sad because asked three times. As was seen, he was rebuked by our Lord before the passion when he so quickly asserted that he loved him. Now, seeing that he is questioned so many times about his love, he is afraid he will be rebuked again and becomes sad. Thus he says, Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you. He is saying in effect: I do love you; at least I think I do. But you know all things, and perhaps you know of something else that will happen. And so the final commitment of the Church is given to the humbled Peter. According to one of the Greek doctors, this is also the reason why catechumens are questioned three times during their baptism.
Lectio 4 LECTURE 4 18 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ὅτε ἦς νεώτερος, ἐζώννυες σεαυτὸν καὶ περιεπάτεις ὅπου ἤθελες: ὅταν δὲ γηράσῃς, ἐκτενεῖς τὰς χεῖράς σου, καὶ ἄλλος σε ζώσει καὶ οἴσει ὅπου οὐ θέλεις. 19 τοῦτο δὲ εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ δοξάσει τὸν θεόν. 18 "Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were young, you girded yourself and walked where you would, but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish to go." 19a (This he said to show by what death he was to glorify God.) Supra commisit dominus Petro pastorale officium; hic praenuntiat sibi passionis martyrium; et satis convenienter: nam ad bonum pastorem pertinet ut pro ovibus suis animam ponat, supra X, 11. Petro autem non fuit datum ut pro Christo iuvenis animam poneret, sed ut senex pro ovibus: et hoc ei praenuntiat. In hac autem praenuntiatione dominus primo commemorat conditionem vitae praeteritae; secundo praenuntiat perfectionem vitae futurae, ibi cum autem senueris, extendes manus tuas; tertio Evangelista exponit verba domini, ibi hoc autem dixit significans qua morte clarificaturus esset Deum. 2628 Above, our Lord entrusted the office of shepherd to Peter. Now he foretells his martyrdom. This was pertinent because a good shepherd should lay down his life for his sheep (10:11). It was not granted to the young Peter to lay down his life for Christ; but rather to the old Peter to lay down his life for his sheep. This is what Christ foretold to him. Christ first tells of Peter's past life; then he predicts the end of his future life (v 18). Thirdly, the Evangelist explains our Lord's words (v 19). Conditio autem Petri praeterita fuit cum defectu, quia in sua iuventute nimis praesumptuosus fuit, et propriae voluntatis: est hoc enim proprium iuvenum, ut dicit philosophus in sua rhetorica. Unde Eccle. XI, 9, quasi obiurgando dicitur: laetare, iuvenis, in adolescentia tua, et in bono sit cor tuum in diebus iuventutis, et ambula in viis cordis tui. Et ideo dominus hoc significans dicit cum esses iunior, cingebas te, et ambulabas ubi volebas. Et dicit cingebas te, idest ab aliquibus illicitis et superfluis cohibebas te, quasi tuo arbitrio non passus quod ab aliquo cohibereris; et etiam inde est quod in processu bonorum operum semper vis esse pro me in periculis. Non tamen datum est tibi quod iuvenis pro me patiaris, sed cum senueris, implebo tuum desiderium, ut quae non es passus iuvenis, patiaris senex: quia extendes manus tuas, et alius te cinget. Mirabilis praenuntiatio. Totum tempus et passionem exponit. Nam post tempus quo ista sunt dicta usque ad tempus mortis Petri fluxerunt fere triginta septem anni: unde patet quod satis senex erat. 2629 Peter's past life showed certain shortcomings, for as a young man he was too presumptuous and self‑willed. But this is characteristic of the young, as the Philosopher says in his Rhetoric. Thus we read in Ecclesiastes (11:9) a kind of reproach: "Rejoice, O young man, in your youth, and let your heart cheer you in the days of your youth; walk in the ways of your heart and the sight of your eyes." Our Lord refers to this trait of Peter and says, When you were young, you girded yourself and walked where you would. He says, you girded yourself, that is, you restrained yourself from certain unlawful and superfluous things, but walked where you would, not allowing yourself to be kept in check by anyone. That is why you always wanted to be in danger for my sake. But it was not granted to you that you suffer for me when young, but when you are old I will fulfill your desire because you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you. What a wondrous prediction! It gives both the time and the suffering. From the time these words were spoken until Peter's death, about thirty‑seven years went by. We can see from this that Peter was quite old. Dicit autem, secundum Chrysostomum cum autem senueris, quia aliter in humanis, aliter in divinis: in humanis enim negotiis iuvenes sunt utiles, senes vero inutiles; sed in divinis virtus non tollitur propter senectutem, immo aliquando magis roboratur. Ps. XCI, 11: senectus mea in misericordia uberi; Deut. XXXIII, 25: sicut dies iuventutis tuae, ita et senectus tua. Sed hoc intelligendum est in his qui in iuventute sua in bono exercitantur, ut Tullius dicit. Sed qui in iuventute sua dant se inertiae, non multum vel nihil valent senes. Intelligitur etiam per hoc, ut dicit Origenes super illud Matth. XXV, 19: post multum vero temporis reversus, quod raro inveniuntur utiles rectores et doctores Ecclesiae parvo tempore vivere, et inducit exemplum de Paulo, qui ut legitur Act. VII, 9, erat adolescens, et postea scribit ad Philemonem v. 9, cum sis talis ut Paulus senex. Et huiusmodi ratio est, quia cum pauci inveniantur ad hoc idonei, quando aliqui inveniuntur tales, conservantur a domino ut diutius vivant. 2630 According to Chrysostom, he says, when you are old, because human affairs are different than divine affairs: in human affairs the young are useful, and the old are not of much use; but in divine matters virtue is not taken away by old age, rather it sometimes becomes even stronger: "My old age is exalted in abundant mercy" [Ps 92:10]; "As the days of your youth, so shall your old age be" [Deut 33:25]. But this is to be understood only of those who have practiced virtue in their youth, as Cicero says. For those who have passed their youth in idleness will become of little or no value when old. This also teaches us that we rarely find rulers and teachers who are useful to the Church dying young, as Origen remarks in his explanation of Matthew (25:19): "Now after a long time the master of those servants came." He gives Paul as an example. In Acts (7:58) Paul is seen as "a young man," but in Philemon (1:9) he is "an old man." The reason for this is that people of this caliber are so rare, that when they are found, the Lord preserves them to a ripe old age. Item exponit passionis modum, quia extendes manus tuas: nam Petrus crucifixus fuit sed non cum clavis sed cum funibus, ut diutius viveret. Et hoc Christus vocat cincturam. 2631 He mentions the way he will suffer when he says, you will stretch out your hands, for Peter was crucified. Yet he was crucified using ropes, not nails, so he would not die so quickly. This is the girding spoken of by Christ. Sunt autem tria in passione sanctorum consideranda. Primo motus naturalis affectionis: nam inter animam et corpus est adeo naturalis amor quod numquam vellet anima a corpore separari, nec e converso. II Cor. V, v. 4: nolumus expoliari, sed supervestiri; Matth. XXVI, 38: tristis est anima mea usque ad mortem. Et ideo dicit quo tu non vis, scilicet naturae instinctu, qui sic est naturalis ut nec ipsa senectus potuerit eum auferre Petro. Sed desiderium gratiae hoc minuit: unde ad Phil. I, 23: cupio dissolvi, et esse cum Christo; II Cor. V, 8: audemus autem, et bonam voluntatem habemus magis peregrinari a corpore, et praesentes esse ad Deum. Secundo diversitas intentionis persecutorum ab intentione sanctorum: et ducet quo tu non vis. Tertio quod debemus prompti esse ad patiendum, non tamen occidere nos: unde dicit extendes manus tuas. Et hoc patet de Petro: quia cum populus vellet suscitare seditionem contra Neronem, et eruere Petrum, ipse repressit. I Petr. II, 21: Christus passus est pro nobis, vobis relinquens exemplum. Three things can be considered in the sufferings of the saints. First, there is a natural affection: there is such a natural love between the soul and the body that the soul never desires to be separated from the body, nor the body from the soul: "For while we are still in this tent, we sigh with anxiety; not that we would be unclothed, but that we would be further clothed" (2 Cor 5:4); "My soul is very sorrowful, even to death" (Mt 26:38). This is why Christ says, where you do not wish to go, that is, by the impulse of nature, which is so rooted in nature that even old age could not destroy it in Peter. Yet, the desire due to grace weakens this: "My desire is to depart and be with Christ" (Phil 1:23); "We are of good courage, and we would rather be away from the body and at home with the Lord" (2 Cor 5:8). Secondly, the intentions of the persecutors and the saints are different, and carry you where you do not wish to go. Thirdly, we see that we should be prepared to suffer, but not to kill ourselves. Thus Christ says, you will stretch out your hands. This clearly was the case with Peter: for when the people wanted to rebel against Nero and deliver Peter, he forbade it: "Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example" (1 Pet 2:21). Sed notandum, quod hoc quod dicit ducet, debet praecedere hoc quod dicit alius cinget te; quasi dicat cinget, quia ducet te quo non vis. Sed ne credatur hoc quasi vane dictum, scriptum est post mortem Petri. Nam Petrus occisus fuit tempore Neronis, sed Ioannes hoc Evangelium scripsit postquam revocatus est ab exilio, ad quod relegatus fuerat tempore Domitiani, inter quem et Neronem fuerunt plures alii imperatores. 2632 The words another will gird you rightly come before and carry you, the thought being that another will gird you because he will carry you where you do not wish to go. Lest one think this statement was lightly written, it was written after the death of Peter. Peter was killed during Nero's lifetime; and John wrote this Gospel after he returned from the exile to which he had been banished during the reign of Domitian, there being several other emperors between Nero and Domitian. Et ideo exponit hoc quasi adhuc futurum, dicens hoc autem dixit significans qua morte clarificaturus esset Deum: mors enim sanctorum via est ad gloriam Christi. Phil. I, 20: magnificabitur Christus in corpore meo; I Petr. IV, 15: nemo vestrum patiatur quasi fur aut homicida (...). Si autem ut Christianus, non erubescat; glorificet autem Deum in isto nomine. Ex hoc enim ostenditur magnitudo domini, quo pro eius veritate et fide sancti exponunt se morti. 2633 John mentions this as something in the future, saying, This he said to show by what death he was to glorify God, for the death of the saints gives glory to Christ: "Christ will be honored in my body, whether by life or by death" (Phil 1:20); "But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief ... yet if one suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but under that name let him glorify God" (1 Pet 4:15). Indeed, the greatness of the Lord is shown by the fact that the saints brave death for his truth and faith.
Lectio 5 LECTURE 5 19b καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν λέγει αὐτῷ, ἀκολούθει μοι. 20 ἐπιστραφεὶς ὁ Πέτρος βλέπει τὸν μαθητὴν ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀκολουθοῦντα, ὃς καὶ ἀνέπεσεν ἐν τῷ δείπνῳ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος αὐτοῦ καὶ εἶπεν, κύριε, τίς ἐστιν ὁ παραδιδούς σε; 21 τοῦτον οὖν ἰδὼν ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ, κύριε, οὗτος δὲ τί; 22 λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἐὰν αὐτὸν θέλω μένειν ἕως ἔρχομαι, τί πρὸς σέ; σύ μοι ἀκολούθει. 23 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν οὗτος ὁ λόγος εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὅτι ὁ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος οὐκ ἀποθνῄσκει. οὐκ εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι οὐκ ἀποθνῄσκει, ἀλλ', ἐὰν αὐτὸν θέλω μένειν ἕως ἔρχομαι [, τί πρὸς σέ]; 19b And after this he said to him, "Follow me." 20 Peter turned and saw following them the disciple whom Jesus loved, who had lain close to his breast at the supper and had said, "Lord, who is it that is going to betray you?" 21 When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man?" 22 Jesus said to him, "If [So] it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Follow me!" 23 The saying spread abroad among the brethren that this disciple was not to die; yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die, but, "If [So] it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you?" Postquam proposuit Evangelista quid dominus exhibuit Petro, hic narrat quid exhibuit Ioanni, scilicet sibi ipsi, et primo ponitur commendatio discipuli; secundo commendatio sui Evangelii, ibi sunt autem et alia multa quae fecit Iesus. Circa primum primo ponitur commendationis occasio; secundo subditur ipsius discipuli commendatio, ibi conversus Petrus vidit illum discipulum quem diligebat Iesus. 2634 After the Evangelist showed what our Lord had in mind for Peter, he now tells about John. First, we see the commendation of the disciple, John; secondly, his gospel is commended (v 25). In regard to the first, we see the occasion for John's commendation; and then the commendation itself, the disciple whom Jesus loved. Occasio autem commendationis Ioannis fuit invitatio Christi invitantis Petrum ad sequendum: quia cum haec dixisset, scilicet de officio et martyrio, dixit, Iesus Petro, sequere me, secundum Augustinum, quantum ad martyrium, patiendo scilicet pro me: quia non sufficit qualitercumque pati, sed solum sequendo Christum, idest propter ipsum. Lc. VI, 22: beati eritis cum vos oderint homines propter filium hominis; I Petr. c. II, 21: Christus passus est pro nobis, vobis relinquens exemplum. 2635 The occasion for John's commendation was Christ's invitation to Peter to follow him. And after he said this to him, that is, after Christ told Peter about his office and martyrdom, he said to him, Jesus said to Peter, Follow me. For Augustine, this means follow me in martyrdom, by suffering for me; for it is not enough just to suffer in some way, but this must be done by following Christ, that is, by suffering for his sake: "Blessed are you when men hate you ... on account of the Son of man" (Lk 6:22); "Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps" (1 Pet 2:21). Sed cum alii multi qui ibi aderant passi fuerint propter Christum, et praecipue Iacobus, qui prius occisus fuit, Actor. c. XII, 2: occidit autem Iacobum fratrem Ioannis gladio, quare specialiter Petro dicitur sequere me? Ideo scilicet, secundum Augustinum, quia non solum mortem passus est pro Christo, sed etiam in specie mortis, scilicet crucis, secutus est Christum. Matth. XVI, 24: si quis vult post me venire, abneget semetipsum, tollat crucem suam, et sequatur me. Vel, secundum Chrysostomum, dicitur sequere me, in praelationis officio; quasi dicat: sicut habeo a Deo patre curam Ecclesiae, Ps. II, 8: postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes haereditatem tuam, ita ut loco mei sis super totam Ecclesiam. 2636 Many others who were present would also suffer for Christ, especially James, who was the first to be killed: "He killed James the brother of John with the sword" (Acts 12:2). Why then does Christ say to Peter in particular, Follow me? The reason, according to Augustine, was that Peter not only suffered death for Christ, but also followed Christ even in the kind of death, that is, death by the cross: "If any man would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me" (Mt 16:24). Or, according to Chrysostom, in saying Follow me, Christ means in your office as prelate, leader. He was saying in effect: As I have the care of the Church, received from my Father ‑ "Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage" (Ps 2:8) ‑ so will you be, in my place, over the whole Church. Sed quare post Christum Iacobus habuit primatum in Ierusalem post ascensionem Christi? Ad quod dicendum, quod habuit quidem specialem loci illius. Petrus autem universale dominium totius Ecclesiae fidelium. 2637 But after Christ's ascension, why did James hold first place in Jerusalem? We can say that James had a special jurisdiction over that place, but Peter had the universal authority over the whole Church of believers. Hic ponitur commendatio Ioannis, et primo quantum ad praeterita; secundo quantum ad futura, ibi hunc ergo cum vidisset et cetera. Commendatur Ioannes quantum ad praeterita ex triplici privilegio. 2638 Now we see that John is commended: first, as to his past; then with respect to his future (v 21). John is commended on three points in his past. Primo specialis dilectionis Christi; unde dicit conversus Petrus, qui iam sequi etiam specialiter corporaliter inceperat Iesum, vidit illum discipulum quem diligebat Iesus: in quo datur intelligi quod Petrus iam pastor effectus, ad curam aliorum intendebat. Lc. XXII, 32: et tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres tuos. Diligebat autem Ioannem Iesus non exclusis aliis, quia supra XV, 9 dixit: sicut dilexit me pater, et ego dilexi vos. Sed eum speciali dilectione prae ceteris dilexit: et hoc propter tria. Primo propter intellectus eius perspicacitatem; magistri enim specialiter diligunt intelligentes discipulos. Prov. XIV, 35: acceptus est regi minister intelligens. Secundo propter munditiae puritatem, quia virgo fuit. Prov. XXII, 2: qui diligit cordis munditiam, propter gratiam labiorum habebit amicum regem. Tertio propter teneram aetatem: pueris enim et deficientibus magis compatimur, et signa familiaritatis ostendimus, sic et Christus Ioanni iuveni converso. Oseae XI, 1: puer Israel, et dilexi eum. In quo datur intelligi quod Deus specialiter diligit illos qui a iuventute serviunt ei. Mich. VII, 1: praecoquas ficus desideravit anima mea. 2639 First, John had the privilege of having Christ's special love. The Evangelist says, Peter turned, for he had begun to follow Jesus even bodily, and saw following them the disciple whom Jesus loved. Here we see that Peter, already made a shepherd, was intent on the care of others: "And when you have turned again, strengthen your brethren" (Lk 22:32). Now Jesus loved John without excluding the others, for above he said, "As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you" (15:9). But he loved John above the others with a special love. There were three reasons for this. First, because of his penetrating understanding: for teachers especially love their intelligent students: "A servant who deals wisely has the king's favor" (Prv 14:35). Secondly, because of his purity, for he was a virgin: "He who loves purity of heart, and whose speech is gracious, will have the king as his friend" (Prv 22:11). Thirdly, because of his youth, for we have tender feelings for the young and the weak, and act with friendship towards them. And this is the way Christ acted with the youthful John: "When Israel was a child, I loved him" (Hos 11:1). We can see from this that God especially loves those who serve him from their youth: "My soul desires the first ripe figs" [Mic 7:1]. Sed contra. Prov. VIII, 17: ego diligentes me diligo. Sed Petrus diligebat plus Christum; supra: diligis me plus his? Ergo Christus plus debuit Petrum diligere quam Ioannem. Responsio. Posset dici, quod Ioannes quia plus dilectus, fuit felicior, sed Petrus quia plus diligens, fuit melior. Sed hoc esset contra iustitiam. Et ideo hoc refertur ad mysterium: nam per hos duos duplex vita significatur, scilicet activa et contemplativa, et utriusque finis et obiectum est Christus. Sed vita activa, quae signatur per Petrum, plus diligit Deum quam vita contemplativa, quae significatur per Ioannem: quia magis sentit praesentis vitae angustias, et aestuantius ab eis liberari desiderat et ad Deum ire. Contemplativam vero vitam Deus plus diligit, quia eam magis conservat; non enim simul finitur cum vita corporis, sicut vita activa. Ps. LXXXVI, 2: diligit dominus portas Sion super omnia tabernacula Iacob. 2640 But this seems to go against Proverbs (8:17): "I love those who love me." Peter loved Christ more than the others: "Do you love me more than these?" (21:15). Therefore, Christ should have loved Peter more than John. I answer: it could be said that John, because he was more loved, was happier; while Peter, because he loved more, was better. But this would be a violation of justice. Consequently, this refers to a mystery: that is, Peter and John stand for two kinds of life, the active and the contemplative, and the end and object of each is Christ. The active life, which Peter signifies, loves God more than the contemplative life (which is signified by John) because it feels more keenly the difficulties of this present life, and more intensely desires to be freed from them and to go to God. But God loves the contemplative life more, because he preserves it longer: it does not come to an end with death, as does the active life: "The Lord loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwelling places of Jacob" (Ps 87:2). Sed aliqui secundum litteram hoc solvere volentes distinguunt in Christo duplicem dilectionem, secundum duplicem voluntatem, divinam scilicet et humanam, et dicunt quod Christus dilexit plus Petrum dilectione divina, Ioannem vero plus dilectione humana. Sed contra hoc est quod voluntas humana in Christo totaliter conformis erat voluntati divinae: unde quem plus diligebat voluntate divina, plus etiam dilexit voluntate humana. Dicendum ergo, quod illum plus diligebat cui magis bonum volebat. Petrum autem plus diligebat ad hoc ut faceret eum magis suum dilectorem; Ioannem autem diligebat ad aliud, scilicet ad perspicacitatem intellectus. Eccli. c. XV, 5: implevit eum dominus spiritu sapientiae et intellectus. Et secundum hoc Petrus est melior, quia caritas supereminet scientiae, I Cor. XIII, 8; Ioannes vero melior secundum perspicacitatem intellectus. Sed merita ipsorum ponderare solius Dei est. Prov. c. XVI, 1: spirituum ponderator est dominus. 2641 Some try to solve this problem using the literal sense. They distinguish two kinds of love in Christ, according to his two wills, his human and divine will. They say that Christ loved Peter more with his divine love, but he loved John more with his human love. The objection to this is that Christ's human will was entirely conformed to his divine will; and so the more he loved one with his divine will, so also he loved that one more with his human will. Therefore, we should say that he loves that one the more to whom he wills more good. He loved Peter more in the sense that he made Peter love him [Christ] more; Christ loved John more in another sense, that is, by giving him a keener understanding. "The Lord will fill him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding" [Sir 15:3]. Accordingly, Peter is better because charity is better than knowledge (cf. 1 Cor 13:8); but John is better in keenness of understanding. However, only God can weigh their merits: "The Lord weighs the spirit" (Prv 16:2). Et ideo alii dicunt, et melius, quod Petrus plus dilexit Christum in membris, et sic etiam fuit plus a Christo dilectus, et ideo ei Ecclesiam commendavit, Ioannes vero plus Christum in seipso, et sic ab eo plus fuit dilectus, unde ei matrem commendavit. Vel dicendum, quod Petrus dilexit Christum quantum ad promptitudinem et fervorem, Ioannes vero plus fuit dilectus quantum ad familiaritatis indicia, quae ei Christus magis demonstrabat propter eius iuventutem et puritatem. And so others say, and this is better, that Peter loved Christ more in his members; and in this way he was also more loved by Christ. For this reason the Church was entrusted to him. But John loved Christ more in Himself, and in this way was more loved by Christ, who entrusted his mother to John's care. Or, one could say that Peter loved Christ more readily and fervently. While John was more loved by being given tokens of intimate friendship, which Christ gave him on account of his youth and purity. Et ideo consequenter cum subiungit qui et recubuit in coena super pectus eius, commendatur ex secundo privilegio, scilicet specialis familiaritatis ad Christum; et hoc est supra expositum. 2642 John adds, who had lain close to his breast at the supper, which commends him to us on the second point, his special intimacy with Christ. This was just explained. Tertio commendatur ex privilegio specialis fiduciae quam habebat de Christo, ita ut confidentius prae omnibus aliis eum interrogaret; unde dicit et dixit ei: domine, quis est qui tradet te? Quod similiter expositum est. 2643 Thirdly, John is commended on account of the special confidence he had in Christ, so that he could question Christ with more assurance than all the others. Thus he adds that this disciple had said, Lord, who is it that is going to betray you? This was also explained before (13:25). Causam autem quare Ioannes commemorat huiusmodi privilegia sua, dixit Chrysostomus esse ad commendationem Petri. Posset enim credi quod Petrus propter hoc quod Christum negaverat, non fuisset admissus ad pristinam familiaritatem, et ideo ut hoc excludat, ostendit quod ad maiorem admissus est. Qui in coena non audebat interrogare, sed Ioanni interrogationem commisit, post passionem fratrum praepositura committitur, et non solum pro se interrogat, sed pro Ioanne. In quo datur intelligi, quod lapsi in peccatum quandoque in maiorem gratiam resurgunt. Bar. IV, 28: sicut enim fuit sensus vester ut erraretis a Deo, decies tantum iterum convertentes requiretis eum. Et ideo statim Evangelista primo subdit interrogationem, dicens hunc ergo cum vidisset Petrus, dixit Iesu: hic autem quid? John is recalling his own privileges in order to exalt Peter. One might suppose that because Peter had denied Christ he would not be allowed back to his former intimacy. To reject this, John shows that he was admitted to a greater intimacy. The one who did not dare to question Christ at the supper, but asked John to do it, was made head over his brethren after the passion, and is now questioning Christ not only for himself, but also for John. We can understand from this that those who fall into sin sometimes rise in greater grace: "For just as you purposed to go astray from God, return with tenfold zeal to seek him" (Bar 4:28). Ubi ponitur commendatio Ioannis quantum ad futura, et primo ponitur interrogatio Petri; secundo responsio Christi, ibi dixit ei Iesus: sic eum volo manere donec veniam; tertio ponitur intellectus huius responsionis, ibi exivit ergo sermo inter fratres et cetera. 2644 And so the Evangelist immediately shows Peter asking a question, When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, Lord, what about this man? This concerns the future of John. First, we have Peter's question; Christ's answer; and then the interpretation of the answer (v 23). Sciendum est autem circa primum, quod domino dicente Petro sequere me, Petrus gressu corporali coepit eum sequi, et Ioannes etiam secum: quem videns Petrus sequentem, interrogat pro eo Christum, dicens hic autem quid? Quasi dicat: ecce ego sequor te in passione, sed hic numquid morietur? De quo etiam Ioannes interrogasset, sed non audebat. 2645 Regarding the first point, note that when our Lord said to Peter, "Follow me" (v 19), Peter did begin to follow him with bodily steps, and so did John. When Peter noticed John following he asked Christ about him, saying, Lord, what about this man? This was like saying: I am following you in your suffering. But this man, will he die also? John would have asked the same question had he dared. Secundum autem Chrysostomum Petrus non intendebat quaerere de passione, sed de praelatione. Petrus enim super omnes alios condiscipulos diligebat Ioannem, et semper leguntur esse simul et in Evangelio et Act. c. III, 1, et ideo volebat eum habere socium in officio praedicationis per orbem: unde dicit hic autem quid, supple: faciet? Veniat mecum. But according to Chrysostom, Peter was questioning about the leadership [of the Church], not about John's martyrdom. For Peter loved John more than all the other disciples, and they are always found together in the Gospel and in the Acts of the Apostles. So Peter wanted to have John as his companion in the work of preaching. Peter says, Lord, what about this man? as if to say, "Let him come with me." Consequenter ponitur responsio Christi, cum dicit dicit ei Iesus: sic eum volo manere donec veniam. Sed sciendum, quod in Graeco non habetur sic, sed si eum volo manere et cetera. Sed non multum refert: qualitercumque enim dicatur, occurrit a principio sensus ille horum verborum, qui ipsis apostolis visus est, scilicet quod non moritur. Dicit enim sic eum volo manere donec veniam, quasi dicat: non morietur usque ad adventum meum. 2646 Christ's answer is given, So it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Notice that the Greek text does not have "So" but If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Yet the difference is not too important, for whatever the expression, the meaning understood by the apostles from the beginning was that John was not going to die. So it is my will that he remain until I come, was [for them] the same as saying, John will not die until I come. Sed hoc excluditur per hoc quod subditur et non dixit Iesus, quia non moritur: sed, sic eum volo manere donec veniam: quid ad te? But this interpretation is rejected by what follows: yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die, but, So it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Sed quidam hunc sensum sustinere volentes, dicunt quod Ioannes hoc subdit, non ut excluderet praedictum intellectum, sed ut ostenderet quod dominus hunc intellectum per haec verba non expressit, sed per illa tantum sic eum volo manere. Et propter hoc dicunt, quod Ioannes nondum est mortuus. 2647 Those who defend the first interpretation, claim that John added this not to exclude the first interpretation but to show that our Lord did not convey that meaning by these words, but only by the words, So it is my will that he remain. This is the reason they say that John has not yet died. Sed diversimode opinatum est de eius sepultura. Verum est enim, secundum omnes, quod sepulcrum intravit, et adhuc illud apparet. Quidam autem dicunt, quod sepulcrum vivens intravit, et divina virtute exivit translatus ad locum Enoch et Eliae, ubi reservatur usque ad finem mundi. Et secundum hoc exponitur sic: sic eum, vivum, volo manere, usque ad finem mundi; et tunc pro me patietur martyrium ab Antichristo cum illis duobus. Nam inconveniens est quod non moriatur: quidquid enim oritur, moritur. Hebr. c. IX, 27: statutum est omnibus hominibus semel mori. There are various opinions about John's burial. All say that it is true that he was buried in a tomb which still exists. But some say he entered his tomb while still alive, and then left it by divine power, transported to the region of Enoch and Elias, and he is being kept there until the end of the world. According to this, the meaning is: So it is my will that he remain alive until the end of the world; and then, under the Antichrist, he will be martyred along with those other two. For it is not right that he should not die, for whatever is born dies: "It is appointed for men to die once" (Heb 9:27). Alii vero dicunt, quod sepulcrum suum, quod est apud Ephesum, vivens intravit, et in eo adhuc vivit dormiens donec veniat Christus; habentes in argumentum huiusmodi, quod illic terra sursum quasi ebulliens scaturit quod eius anhelitu fieri dicunt. Sed hoc excludit Augustinus, dicens, quod minus est si dormiens vivit, quam si viveret beatus. Cur ergo Christus discipulo quem prae ceteris diligebat, pro magno munere longum donasset somnum, et privasset eum tanto bono, pro quo apostolus cupiebat dissolvi et cum Christo esse? Phil. I, 23. Et ideo non est hoc credendum; sed quod mortuus fuit, et resurrexit etiam in corpore. Et huiusmodi signum est, quia corpus eius non invenitur, et sic beatus manet cum Christo, secundum quod invitavit eum. Apoc. c. ult., 20: dicit qui testimonium perhibet istorum: etiam venio cito. Others say he entered his tomb at Ephesus alive, and he remains there still alive, but sleeping, until the Lord comes. They base their theory on the fact that the soil there moves up and down in rhythm with John's breathing. Augustine rejects this by saying that it is not as good to be alive and sleeping as to be alive and blessed. Why then would Christ reward the disciple he loved above the others with a long sleep and deprive him of that great good for the sake of which the apostle wanted to be dissolved and to be with Christ (Phil 1:23). Thus, we should not believe this. Rather, we should say that he died and arose with his body indicated by the fact that his body cannot be found ‑ and remains happy with Christ, as Christ invited him: "He who testifies to these things says, Surely I am coming soon" (Rev 22:20). Est ergo exponendum mystice, secundum Augustinum, ut intelligatur per hoc quod dicit manere, idest permanere, sive expectare, secundum illud Lc. XXIV, 49: manete in civitate donec induamini virtute ex alto. Et sic dominus de Ioanne, idest de vita contemplativa dicit sic eum volo manere, idest expectare, donec veniam, vel in fine mundi, vel in morte cuiuslibet contemplativi: quia contemplativa hic inchoata non perficitur; sed inchoata manet, et expectat donec Christus veniat, perficienda cum venerit. Apoc. c. VI, 11: dictum est illis ut requiescerent tempus adhuc modicum donec compleatur numerus conservorum eorum; Lc. X, 43: Maria optimam partem elegit, quae non auferetur ab ea; Prov. III, 16: longitudo dierum in dextera eius, et in sinistra illius divitiae et gloria. Sed activa vita perfecta, et informata eius passionis exemplo, interim sequitur Christum, patiendo pro eo. 2648 Augustine explains this passage mystically. Then the word remain means "continue on," or "persist," as in "Remain in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high" [Lk 24:49]. Consequently, our Lord is saying about John, that is, about the contemplative life, So it is my will that he remain, that is, continue on, until I come, either at the end of the world, or at the death of any contemplative; for the contemplative life although begun here is not completed here. It remains incomplete and continues on till Christ comes to complete it: "Then they were ... told to rest a little longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brethren should be complete" (Rev 6:11); "Mary has chosen the good portion, which shall not be taken away from her" (Lk 10:42); "Long life is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor" (Prv 3:16). Meanwhile, the active life, completed and vivified by the example of Christ's passion, follows him by suffering for him. Sed, secundum Chrysostomum, legitur sic: sic eum volo manere, idest remanere in Iudaea, et in hac terra ad praedicandum, et te volo me sequi habendo sollicitudinem totius orbis, et patiendo pro me, et hoc donec veniam, ad delendum Iudaeos, quid ad te? Quasi dicat: meum est ordinare. Nam, sicut habetur in historiis, Ioannes non recessit de Iudaea usque ad tempus quo Vespasianus veniens in Iudaeam cepit Ierusalem, et tunc inde discedens venit ad Asiam. 2649 Chrysostom understands it this way: So it is my will that he remain, that is, to remain in Judea, and to preach on this earth; and I want you [Peter] to follow me by having a concern for the entire world, and by suffering for me; and John is to remain until I come, to destroy the Jewish nation. What is that to you? means "These things are for me to decide." For we do see from history that John did not leave Judea until Vespasian came to Judea and took Jerusalem; then John set out for Asia. Vel, secundum Hieronymum, tu me sequere, idest per passionem, et sic scilicet Ioannem, volo manere, absque passione martyrii et mortis, donec veniam, ad vocandum eum ad me; supra XIV, 3: iterum veniam, et accipiam vos ad meipsum. Quid ad te? Scilicet de hoc privilegio. Unde in legenda beati Ioannis dicitur, quod cum nonaginta esset annorum, apparuit ei dominus Iesus Christus, et invitavit eum ad convivium suum. 2650 Then there is the interpretation of Jerome: Follow me! Peter, by your martyrdom; and so, now speaking about John, it is my will that he remain, without the sufferings of martyrdom and death, until I come, to call him to myself ‑ "I will come again and take you to myself" (14:3) ‑ what is that, this privilege, to you? And so in the stories about blessed John it is said that when he was ninety years old our Lord Jesus Christ appeared to him and invited him to his banquet. Consequenter cum dicit exiit ergo sermo iste inter fratres quia discipulus ille non moritur, ponitur quomodo discipuli praedicta verba domini intellexerunt, scilicet quod non moreretur. Et hoc est quod dicit exiit sermo, idest vulgatum est, inter fratres, idest inter discipulos, Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum habitare fratres in unum, quod discipulus ille, scilicet Ioannes, non moritur. Sed hunc intellectum corrigit, dicens et non dixit Iesus, non moritur; Matth. XV, 16: adhuc et vos sine intellectu estis? Alia omnia exposita sunt. 2651 Then the Evangelist shows how the disciples understood these words of our Lord. They thought that John would not die. The saying spread abroad among the brethren, the disciples ‑ "Behold, how good and pleasant it is when brothers dwell in unity!" (Ps 133:1) ‑ that this disciple, John, was not to die. But he corrects this error, saying, Yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die: "Are you also still without understanding?" (Mt 15:16). The rest has been explained.
Lectio 6 LECTURE 6 24 οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ μαρτυρῶν περὶ τούτων καὶ ὁ γράψας ταῦτα, καὶ οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς αὐτοῦ ἡ μαρτυρία ἐστίν. 25 ἔστιν δὲ καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ ἃ ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἅτινα ἐὰν γράφηται καθ' ἕν, οὐδ' αὐτὸν οἶμαι τὸν κόσμον χωρῆσαι τὰ γραφόμενα βιβλία. 24 This is the disciple who is bearing witness to these things, and who has written these things; and we know that his testimony is true. 25 But there are also many other things which Jesus did; were every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could not contain the books that would be written. Hic ponitur ultima pars Evangelii, quae est quasi epilogus, et primo ponitur commendatio Evangelii; secundo superexcessus rei quae in Evangelio narratur, ibi sunt autem et alia multa quae fecit Iesus. Evangelium autem commendatur dupliciter. Primo quidem ex auctore; secundo vero ex veritate, ibi et scimus quia verum est testimonium eius. Circa auctorem tria ponit. 2652 Now we have the last part of this Gospel, which is a kind of epilogue. First, the Gospel is commended; and then the vastness of the subject treated (v 25). The Gospel is commended because of two things: its author, and its truth. Three things are mentioned about the author. Primo eius auctoritatis privilegium, quia hic est discipulus ille, supple replicando: praedilectus, familiaris, fideliter interrogans, et cui datum est ut sic maneat donec veniam, quae omnia ad auctoritatis privilegium spectant. 2653 First, there is the authority of the author, because This is the disciple ‑ understanding what was mentioned before who was loved above the others, intimate with Christ, able to question him with confidence, and to whom it was granted to remain until Christ came. All these things refer to the authority of the author. Dicitur Ioannes specialiter praedilectus propter specialitatem caritatis. Supra XIII, 35: in hoc cognoscent omnes quod mei estis discipuli, si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem. De dilectione autem fraterna nullus apostolorum tantum loquitur quantum ipse in epistolis suis. Legitur etiam de eo, quod iam senex effectus portabatur ad Ecclesiam a discipulis suis ut instrueret fideles, quibus dicebat hoc tantum: filioli, diligatis invicem. Et in hoc est perfectio disciplinae Christianae. John is said to have been loved more than the others because of his unique charity: "By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another" (13:35). None of the other apostles speak so much of love for others as does John in his letters. We also read that as an old man he was carried to the church by his followers to teach the faithful. He taught only one thing: "Little children, love one another." This is the perfection of the Christian life. Secundo propter eius officium, quod est perhibere testimonium, unde dicit et testimonium perhibet de his. Hoc est proprium apostolorum officium; Actor. I, 8: eritis mihi testes; Is. XLIV, 8: vos testes mei, dicit dominus. 2654 Secondly, John's office is mentioned, which was to give testimony, for he says, who is bearing witness to these things. This is the special office of apostles: "You shall be my witnesses" (Acts 1:8); "You are my witnesses!" (Is 44:8). Tertio subdit eius studium, cum dicit et scripsit haec: qui enim ex officio apostolatus praesentibus testificatus est de gestis Christi, ipsemet ex studio, praedicta gesta ad utilitatem futurorum et absentium scripsit. Is. VIII, 1: sume tibi librum grandem, et scribe in eo stylo hominis: velociter spolia detrahe, cito praedare; Eccli. XXXVIII, 25: sapientiam scribet in tempore vacuitatis; et qui minoratur actu, sapientiam percipiet; qua sapientia replebitur. Datum est enim ipsi Ioanni ut viveret usque ad tempus quo Ecclesia in pace erat; et tunc haec omnia scripsit. Sed ideo addit hoc, ne videatur hoc Evangelium, propter hoc quod scriptum fuerat post mortem omnium apostolorum, et alia Evangelia approbata fuerant ab eis, et specialiter illud Matthaei, minoris esse auctoritatis quam alia tria Evangelia. 2655 Thirdly, he refers to his zeal when he says, and who has written these things. As an apostle he testified to the actions of Christ to those who were present; and in his zeal he recorded these actions in writing for those who were not with him and were to come after him: "Take a large tablet and write upon it in common characters" (Is 8:1); "The wisdom of the scribe depends on the opportunity of leisure; and he who has little business may become wise" (Sir 38:24). For it was granted to John to live until the time when the Church was at peace; and this is the time when he wrote all these things. John mentions such things so that we will not think that his gospel has less authority than the other three, seeing that he wrote after the death of all the other apostles, and the other gospels, especially that of Matthew, had been approved by them. Hic ponitur veritas Evangelii. Et loquitur in persona totius Ecclesiae a qua receptum est hoc Evangelium. Prov. VIII, 7: veritatem meditabitur guttur meum. Notandum autem, quod cum multi scriberent de Catholica veritate, haec est differentia, quia illi, qui scripserunt canonicam Scripturam, sicut Evangelistae et apostoli, et alii huiusmodi, ita constanter eam asserunt quod nihil dubitandum relinquunt. Et ideo dicit et scimus quia verum est testimonium eius; Gal. I, 9: si quis vobis evangelizaverit praeter id quod accepistis, anathema sit. Cuius ratio est, quia sola canonica Scriptura est regula fidei. Alii autem sic edisserunt de veritate, quod nolunt sibi credi nisi in his quae vera dicunt. 2656 Now John states that his Gospel is true, and he speaks in the person of the entire Church which received it: "My mouth will utter truth" (Prv 8:7). We should note that although many have written about Catholic truth, there is a difference among them: those who wrote the canonical scriptures, such as the evangelists and apostles and the like, so constantly and firmly affirm this truth that it cannot be doubted. Thus John says, we know that his testimony is true: "If any one is preaching to you a gospel contrary to that which you received, let him be accursed" (Gal 1:9). The reason for this is that only the canonical scriptures are the standard of faith. The others have set forth this truth but in such a way that they do not want to be believed except in those things in which they say what is true. Hic ponitur insufficentia Scripturae suae quantum ad rem quam scribit, ut quasi removeat quod haec scripsit quasi volens praestare gratiam dilectori suo: quia non solum ista fecit, sed etiam multa alia quae non sunt scripta in libro hoc. 2657 Now John states the incompleteness of his Gospel as compared with the reality, because Christ not only did these things but there are also many other things which Jesus did. Hoc autem quod sequitur quae si scribantur per singula, nec ipsum arbitror mundum posse capere eos qui scribendi sunt libros, potest dupliciter exponi. Uno modo, ut capere referatur ad capacitatem intellectus; quasi dicat: tot possent dici de Christo quod nec mundus caperet eos libros qui de his scriberentur. Supra XVI, 12: multa habeo vobis dicere, sed non potestis portare modo, idest capere. Alio modo, ut sit locutio hyperbolica: et significat excessum operum Christi. 2658 His statement, were every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could not contain the books that would be written, can be understood in two ways. First, the word contain can refer to the capacity of our minds to understand. So the meaning is: So much could be said about Christ that the world could not understand all that could be written: "I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now," that is, understand them (16:12). We could also regard this statement as a deliberate exaggeration; and it then indicates the abundance of Christ's works. Sed quid est hoc quod dicit? Praemisit enim: et scimus quia verum est testimonium eius, et statim subdit hyperbolicam locutionem. Sed, secundum Augustinum, sacra Scriptura utitur quibusdam figuratis locutionibus, sicut: vidi dominum sedentem super solium excelsum et elevatum, et tamen non sunt falsae: ita quando in sacra Scriptura est aliqua locutio hyperbolica. Non enim est intentio dicentis ut credatur quod dicit, sed quod intendit significare, scilicet excessum operum Christi. Hoc tamen non fit quando aliquid quod erat obscurum vel dubium exponitur, sed quando id quod est apertum augetur vel attenuatur; puta cum quis volens copiam alicuius rei commendare, dicit: hoc sufficit centum personis vel mille. Volens autem vituperare dicit: hoc vix sufficeret tribus. Nec tamen falsum dicit: quia sic verba rem quae indicatur excedunt, ut ostendatur quod non intendit mentiri, sed ostendere esse parum vel multum. 2659 How reconcile this? He had just said, we know that his testimony is true, and then immediately resorts to hyperbole, exceeding the truth. According to Augustine, Scripture does use figures of speech, such as "I saw the Lord seated on a high and lofty throne" [Is 6:1], and such statements are not false. This is so when hyperbole is used. The desire of the speaker is not that we accept the literal meaning of the words, but what they were intended to mean, that is, the great number of Christ's works. Hyperbole is not used to explain what is obscure or doubtful, but to exaggerate or minimize what is obvious. For example, to emphasize how plentiful something is, one can say that there is enough for a hundred or a thousand people. And to minimize something, one could say that there is hardly enough for three. This is not speaking falsely, because it is so obvious that the words contort the reality that they show that one does not intend to lie, but to indicate that something is great or small. Vel potest referri ad virtutem Christi, qui signa faciebat: ut fiat vis in hoc quod dicit per singula. Scribere enim per singula, signa et dicta Iesu Christi, est dictorum singulorum et factorum enucleare virtutem. Verba autem et facta Christi sunt etiam Dei. Si quis autem vellet eorum rationem per singula scribere vel narrare, nullo modo posset; immo etiam nec totus mundus hoc potest. Infinita enim verba hominum non possunt attingere unum Dei verbum. A principio enim Ecclesiae semper scripta sunt de Christo, nec tamen sufficienter; immo si duraret mundus per centum millia annorum, possent libri fieri de Christo, nec ad perfectionem per singula, facta et dicta sua enuclearentur. Eccle. ult., 12: faciendi plures libros nullus est finis; Ps. XXXIX, 5: annuntiavi, et locutus sum: multiplicati sunt super numerum. 2660 Or, this statement could be understood to refer to the power of Christ, who performed these signs; and the emphasis is on every one of them. For to write about each and every word and deed of Christ is to reveal the power of every word and deed. Now the words and deeds of Christ are also those of God. Thus, if one tried to write and tell of the nature of every one, he could not do so; indeed, the entire world could not do this. This is because even an infinite number of human words cannot equal one word of God. From the beginning of the Church, Christ has been written about; but this is still not equal to the subject. Indeed, even if the world lasted a hundred thousand years, and books written about Christ, his words and deeds could not be completely revealed: "Of making many books there is no end" (Eccl 12:12); The works of God "are multiplied above number" [Ps 50:5].
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 21:6 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 44, a. 4, ad 1.
 Tract. in Io., 122, ch. 1, col. 1959; cf. Catena Aurea, 20:1-11.
 Tract. in Io., 122, ch. 2, col. 1959-60; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:1-11.
 XL homiliae in Evangelista; PL 76; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:1-11.
 Tract. in Io., 122, ch. 7, col. 1962; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:1-11.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 21:12 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 53, a. 2, obj. 3.
 In Ioannem hom., 87, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 475; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:1-11.
 Tract. in Io., 123, ch. 1, col. 1965; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:1-11.
 In Ioannem hom., 87, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 475; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:1-11.
 Tract. in Io., 123, ch. 3, col. 1966; also De consensus evangelistarum, 3, ch. 26; PL 34; cf. Catena Aurea,
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 21:17 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 7, a. 3, s. c.
 Aristotle, Politics.
 Tract. in Io., 123, ch. 5, col. 1968; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:15-17.
 In Ioannem hom., 88, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 478; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:15-17.
Serm. Pasch.; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:15-17.
 Tract. in Io., 123, ch. 5, col. 1967; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:15-17.
 Greek Doctor.
 Aristotle, Rhetoric.
 In Ioannem hom., 88; PG 59, col. 479; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:18-19.
 Origen, Explanation of Matthew.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 21:21 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 83, a. 4, ad 2.
 Tract. in Io., 124, ch. 1, col. 1969; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:19-23.
 Ibid., col. 1970; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:19-23.
 In Ioannem hom., 88, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 480.
 In Ioannem hom., 88, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 480; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:19-23.
 Tract. in Io., 124, ch. 2, col. 1970; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:19-23.
 Ibid.; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:19-23.
 In Ioannem hom., 88, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 480.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 21:25 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 42, a. 4; q. 83, a. 4, ad 2.
 Tract. in Io., 124, ch. 8, col. 1976; cf. Catena Aurea, 21:24-25.