אָנֹכִי תִכַּנְתִּי עַמּוּדֶיהָ Ego confirmavi columnas eius I have strengthened its pillars (Ps. 75:4)
Sicut dicit sapiens: non minor est virtus quam quaerere parta tueri, ideo non immerito commendatur apostolus, quia etsi Ephesios in fide non fundavit, tamen fundatos in fide confirmavit, ut ipse loquens de Ecclesia Ephesiorum, vere possit dicere: ego confirmavi columnas eius; ego videlicet, Israelita natione, Christianus religione, apostolus dignitate. Wisely has it been remarked that: “No less energy is spent in retaining possessions than in acquiring them.” Although St. Paul did not initiate the Ephesians into the faith, the Apostle is justly praised for having strengthened them in it. Of the Church at Ephesus he rightfully can claim: I have strengthened its pillars—I who am an Israelite in nationality, a Christian in religion, an Apostle in dignity. Israelita dico natione; nam et ego Israelita sum, ex semine Abrahae de tribu Beniamin II Cor. XI, 22. Item Christianus religione. Gal. II, 19 s.: ego enim per legem mortuus sum legi, ut Deo vivam: Christo confixus sum cruci: vivo ergo iam non ego, vivit vero in me Christus: quod autem nunc vivo in carne, in fide vivo filii Dei. Item apostolus dignitate. I Cor. XV, 9: ego sum minimus apostolorum. De his tribus II Cor. XI, 22: Israelitae sunt, et ego; semen Abrahae sunt, et ego; ministri Christi sunt, et ego; ut minus sapiens dico, plus ego. Talis debet esse praedicator sapientiae salutaris, scilicet Israelita quo ad contemplationem Dei, Christianus quo ad religionem fidei, apostolus quo ad auctoritatem officii. A Jew by birth, for I am an Israelite sprung from Abraham’s seed in the tribe of Benjamin (cf. 2 Cor. 11:22; Rom. 11: 1). A Christian in religion, “For I, through the law, am dead to the law, that I may live to God; with Christ I am nailed to the cross. And I live, now not I; but Christ lives in me. And [the life] that I live now in the flesh, I live in the faith of the Son of God” (Gal. 2:19-20). An Apostle in dignity since I am the least of the apostles” (1 Cor. 15:9). These three are found in 2 Corinthians 11 (22-23*): “They are Israelites: so am I. They are the seed of Abraham: so am I. They are the ministers of Christ, so am I. I speak as one less wise: I am more.” Everyone who proclaims saving wisdom, like Paul, must be an Israelite in his contemplation of God, a Christian in his religious faith, an Apostle in his function’s authority. Ego, ergo, Iudaeus per originem, quaerens Deum per fidem, apostolus Dei per imitationem, confirmavi, et cetera. Confirmavi ne a fide vacillarent, sicut artifex confirmat aedificium, ne cadat. Unde dictum est Petro Lc. XXII, v. 32: et tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres tuos, quod fecit Paulus. Unde ei competit illud Iob IV, 4: vacillantes confirmaverunt sermones tui. Confirmavit item ne pseudo timerent, sicut episcopus confirmat puerum ad robur contra pusillanimitatem, unde dictum est de David in Ps. LXXXVIII, 21: inveni David servum meum, oleo sancto meo unxi eum; manus enim mea auxiliabitur ei, et brachium meum confortabit eum, nihil proficiet inimicus in eo, et cetera. Ps. XXXII, 6: I, therefore, am a Jew by birth, seeking God through faith, and am an Apostle of God through following the example [of the twelve]. I have strengthened them lest they falter in their faith, as the workman will buttress a building against a fall. “And when you have turned back, strengthen your brothers” (Lk. 22:32), was spoken to Peter and accomplished by Paul. A verse in Job 4 (4) applies to him: “Your words have upheld the stumbler.” The bishop confirms a boy to fortify him against becoming spiritless; similarly, Paul has strengthened the Ephesians not to fear unreasonably. In this connection, Psalm 89 (21-22) says of David: “I have found David my servant: with my holy oil I have anointed him. For my hand shall help him: and my arm shall strengthen him.” verbo domini, per Paulum scripto, caeli, id est Ephesii, firmati sunt, etc., scilicet ne praemium gloriae amitterent, sicut praelatus vel princeps confirmat donum, ne postea auferatur. Ps. XL, 13: me autem propter innocentiam suscepisti, et confirmasti me in conspectu tuo in aeternum. Has confirmationes petebat Ps. LXVII, 29 dicens: confirma hoc, Deus, quod operatus es in nobis, et cetera. Has promittebat apostolus II Thess. ult.: fidelis autem Deus qui confirmabit vos, et custodiet a malo. “By the word of the Lord,” written through Paul, “the heavens,” applying to the Ephesians, “were established” (Ps. 33:6) lest they lose their prize of glory, just as a prelate or prince ratifies a gift to protect it against theft. Psalm 41 (13) prays: “Because of my perfection grasp me, and set me before you forever.” Psalm 68 (29) also asks for strengthening power: “Send, my God, your strength; strengthen, God, what you have built for us.” The Apostle promised these divine aids in 2 Thessalonians 3 (3): “But the Lord is faithful, who will strengthen and keep you from evil.” Ego, ergo, confirmavi columnas eius, scilicet fideles Ecclesiae Ephesiorum. Fideles enim Ecclesiae dicuntur columnae, quia debent esse recti, erecti, et fortes. Recti per fidem, erecti per spem, fortes per charitatem. Recti dico per fidem, fides enim ostendit rectam viam veniendi ad patriam, unde significatur per columnam nubis, de qua Ex. c. XIII, 21: dominus autem praecedebat eos, ad ostendendam viam per diem in columna nubis. Fides enim ad modum nubis habet obscuritatem, quia cum aenigmate; dissolutionem, quia evacuatur; humiditatem, quia excitat ad devotionem. Erecti per spem, spes enim dirigit ad superna, unde significatur per columnam fumi, de qua dicitur Iud. XX, 40: viderunt quasi columnam fumi de civitate ascendentem. Spes enim ad modum fumi ex igne, id est ex charitate, provenit, in altum ascendit, in fine deficit, id est in gloria. Fortes per charitatem, fortis enim est ut mors dilectio, ut dicitur Cant. VIII, 6; unde significatur per columnam ignis qui omnia consumit, de quo Sap. XVIII, 3: ignis ardentem columnam ducem habuerunt ignotae viae. Sicut enim ignis illuminat diaphana, examinat metalla, exterminat cremabilia, sic charitas illuminat opera, examinat intentionem, et omnia vitia exterminat. I have strengthened its pillars, namely, the Church’s faithful at Ephesus. They are referred to as pillars since they must be straightforward, upright, and strong—straightfoward through faith, upright through hope, and strong because of charity. I say straightforward through faith because faith reveals the straight and true way to arrive at the fatherland; it is symbolized by the pillar of cloud in Exodus 13 (21): “And the Lord went before them to show the way by day in a pillar of a cloud.” Faith, similar to clouds, is opaque with its mysteries, dissolves when it gives way to vision, and moistens by arousing devotion. [The faithful are] upright through hope, for hope points heavenwards; it is symbolized by the column of smoke in Judges 20 (40): “The signal rose from the city as a pillar of smoke.” Hope, like smoke from fire, springs from charity, ascends upward, and finally vanishes in glory. [The faithful must be] strong through charity, “for love is strong as death” (Cant. 8:6); hence, it is symbolized by a pillar of fire capable of consuming everything, as in Wisdom 18 (3): “Therefore, [they received] a burning pillar of fire for a guide on the unknown journey.” As fire makes the surroundings visible, puts metals to the test, and destroys what can burn, so charity enlightens human actions, examines one’s motives, and exterminates all vices. Iam apparet quae sit causa huius epistolae efficiens, quia Paulus, quod notatur ibi ego. Finalis, quia confirmatio, quod notatur ibi confirmavi. Materialis, quia Ephesii, quod notatur ibi columnas eius. Formalis patet in divisione epistolae, et modo agendi. The efficient cause of this letter is, of course, St. Paul; this cause was ascribed to the I of Psalm 75 (4). The final cause is to fortify, designated by the have strengthened. The material cause is the Ephesians, as noted under its pillars. The formal cause will be understood in the structural divisions of the letter and its method of presentation. Huic epistolae praemittit glossator prologum sive argumentum, ubi principaliter duo facit: A Glossator prefaces this letter with a prologue or summary expressing two main ideas:
primo describit eos,
secundo, rationem et modum scribendi subdit, ibi hos collaudat apostolus, et cetera.
First, he describes them [the recipients].
Secondly, he gives the reason and circumstances of writing, at “The Apostle praises them.”
Ephesinos vero quibus scribit, describit a tribus. Primo, a regione, quia Ephesii sunt Asiani ab Asia minore; secundo, a religione, quia hi acceperunt verbum veritatis Christianae; tertio a stabilitate, quia perstiterunt in fide. Primum respicit patriam; secundum, gratiam; tertium, perseverantiam. The Ephesians, to whom he wrote, are described in three ways: first, by their locality, “the Ephesians are Asians,” coming from Asia Minor; second, by their religion, “they have accepted the word” of Christian “truth”; third is their constancy, “they have remained steadfast in the faith.” The first has reference to their home country, the second to grace, and the third to perseverance. Hos collaudat apostolus, et cetera. Hic subdit etiam rationem et modum scribendi, ubi implicat quatuor. Primo, Scripturae rationem; secundo actorem, qui est apostolus scribens; tertio, locum a quo scribit, quia a Roma de carcere; quarto, nuntium per quem scribit, quia per Tychicum diaconum; littera satis patet. At “The Apostle praises them...” he adds the reason and circumstance for writing; secondly, the author is “the Apostle”; thirdly, the place from which he writes is “from a prison in Rome”; fourthly, the messenger through whom he writes is Tychius, a deacon” (cf. Eph. 6:21).
From Paul who by God’s decision is apostle of the Messiah Jesus, to the saints (in Ephesus) who are faithful to the Messiah Jesus. Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ!
With the full spiritual blessing of the heavens he has blessed us in Christ. For he chose us in him before the world’s foundation
to be holy and faultless before him in love.
He predesignated us to become his children, through Jesus Christ,
his very own, according to his favorable decision—
to the praise of his glorious grace,
[Read Marcus Barth, on “the Messiah Jesus” (p. 66), on “to be comprehended under one head” (p. 89). ]
1 παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν [ἐν ἐφέσῳ] καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ: 2 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 3 εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ, 4 καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ, 5 προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, 6 εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ 1. Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, to all the saints who are at Ephesus and to the faithful in Christ Jesus: 2 Grace be to you and peace, from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with spiritual blessings in heavenly places, in Christ, 4 As he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and unspotted in his sight in charity, 5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children through Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the purpose of his will, 6a Unto the praise of the glory of his grace. Hanc epistolam scribit apostolus ad Ephesios. Ephesii sunt Asiani ab Asia minore, quae est pars Graeciae. Hi non fuerunt per apostolum Paulum in fide fundati, sed confirmati. Iam enim antequam veniret ad eos, erant conversi, ut haberi potest Act. XIX, v. 1: factum est cum Apollo esset Corinthi, et cetera. Post conversionem vero suam et apostoli confirmationem, in fide perstiterunt, nec pseudo receperunt. Non ergo reprehensione, sed consolatione digni erant. Ideo Paulus eis non increpatoriam, sed consolatoriam scribit epistolam. Scribit autem eis ab urbe Roma per Tychicum diaconum. The Apostle writes this letter to the Ephesians who were Asians, coming from Asia Minor which is part of Greece. They were not initiated into the faith by the Apostle Paul but he did strengthen them in it. Even before he had met them, they had been converted, as can be gathered from Acts 19 (1): “It happened that, while Appollo was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus, where he found certain disciples.” Once they were converted and fortified by the Apostle, they were steadfast in the faith, not succumbing to false doctrine. Thus, they were entitled to encouragement rather than reprimand; and Paul’s letter has a tone of reassurance and not of rebuke. He wrote them from the city of Rome through the deacon, Tychicus.” Intentio vero eius est, eos in bonis habitis confirmare, et ad altiora provocare. Modus autem agendi patet in divisione epistolae. The Apostle’s intention is to strengthen them in good habits, and spur them on to greater perfection. The method of presentation can be seen in the division of the letter:
Primo ergo ponit salutationem, in qua suum affectum ad eos demonstrat;
secundo narrationem, in qua eos in bonis habitis confirmat, ibi benedictus Deus, etc., usque ad IV cap.;
tertio, exhortationem, in qua eos ad ulteriora bona provocat, a cap. IV usque ad locum illum cap. VI de caetero, fratres, confortamini in domino, etc.;
quarto epistolae conclusionem, in qua eos ad certamen spirituale confortat a loco isto de caetero, usque in finem.
First, the greeting, in which he shows his affection for them.
Secondly, the narrative, in which he strengthens them in good habits (1:3-3:21).
Thirdly, the exhortation, in which he urges them on to greater perfection (4:1-6:9).
Fourthly, the conclusion of the letter, in which he fortifies them for the spiritual combat (6:10-24).
In salutatione primo ponitur persona salutans;
secundo, personae salutatae, ibi sanctis omnibus, etc.;
tertio forma salutationis, ibi gratia vobis, et cetera. In prima, primo nominat personam, ibi Paulus;
secundo personae auctoritatem, ibi apostolus Christi;
tertio auctoritatis datorem, ibi per voluntatem Dei. Dicit ergo: Paulus apostolus. Paulus nomen est humilitatis, apostolus vero nomen dignitatis, quia qui se humiliat, exaltabitur, Lc. XIV, 11 et XVIII, 14. Apostolus, inquam, Iesu, non Satanae, sicut pseudo. V. 11: non est ergo magnum si ministri eius, scilicet Satanae, transfigurentur velut ministri iustitiae, et cetera. Apostolus, inquam, et hoc non meis meritis, sed per voluntatem Dei. Econtra est in multis. Os. VIII, 4: ipsi regnaverunt, et non ex me, et cetera.
In the salutation, the person greeting comes first, second those greeted, and thirdly the formula of greeting. In reference to the first, he gives the name of the person, Paul; second, that person’s authority as an Apostle of Christ; lastly, the giver of this authority, by the will of God. He says Paul which is a name of humility, whereas the title of Apostle is one of dignity; the reason is that “he that humbles himself shall be exalted” (Lk. 14:11; 18:14). An Apostle, I mean, of Jesus and not one of the pseudo-apostles who are of Satan: “It is no great thing if his [Satan’s] ministers be transformed as the ministers of justice” (2 Cor. 11:15). I am an apostle, he says, not by my own merits but by the will of God. In many instances it is just the opposite—“They have reigned, but not by me” (Hos. 8:4). Sanctis omnibus, scilicet qui sunt Ephesi, et fidelibus, supple scribit. Vel ego Paulus scribo sanctis exercitio virtutum quo ad mores; fidelibus, rectitudine cognitionis quo ad fidem. Vel sanctis, id est maioribus et perfectis; fidelibus, id est minoribus et imperfectis. Et fidelibus, inquam, in Christo, non in factis suis. Gratia vobis et pax, et cetera. He writes to all the saints who are at Ephesus and to the faithful. Either [this could mean], I, Paul, write about morals to those who are holy through the exercise of virtues; and about faith to those who believe with true knowledge. Or, [it may mean], to the saints who are the elders and perfect [members], and to the faithful who are less experienced and imperfect. They are said to believe in Christ Jesus and not in their own deeds. Hic subditur salutationis forma, in qua implicantur tria, donum quodlibet gratificantia: doni sufficientia, ibi gratia vobis et pax, datoris potentia, ibi a Deo patre, mediatoris excellentia, ibi et domino Iesu Christo. Tunc enim gratum est donum quando sufficiens est quod datur; quando a potente datur, ut quando a rege, vel principe datur; quando per solemnem nuntium datur, ut per filium. He adds here the formula of greeting which indicates three qualities which make any gift pleasing: the sufficiency of the gift, in grace be to you and peace; the power of the giver, from God our Father; and the excellence of the mediator, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. For a gift is pleasing when what is given is sufficient and is offered by someone in power, as a king or prince, and is presented by a solemn messenger, for example, by his son. Dicit ergo: gratia, scilicet iustificationis a culpa, et pax, id est tranquillitas mentis, vel reconciliatio ad Deum, quoad liberationem a debita poena pro offensa. Vobis, supple sit, ex hoc, scilicet a Deo patre nostro, a quo bona cuncta procedunt. Iac. I, 17: omne datum optimum, et cetera. Et domino Iesu Christo, sine quo nulla bona dantur. Ideo fere omnes orationes finiuntur: per dominum nostrum Iesum Christum. Spiritum sanctum non nominat, quia cum sit nexus patris et filii, intelligitur in extremis, vel intelligitur in donis sibi appropriatis, quae sunt gratia et pax. He mentions grace meaning justification from sin, and peace which is calmness of mind, or reconciliation to God, in regard to the freedom from punishment due to sin. May this be to you from God our Father from whom every good comes: “Every good giving and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights” (Jam. 1:17). And the Lord Jesus Christ without whom no blessings are given. That is why nearly all the [liturgical] prayers are concluded “through our Lord Jesus Christ.” The Holy Spirit is not mentioned in the greeting form ula since he is the bond uniting Father and Son and is understood when they are mentioned; or he is understood in the gifts appropriated to him, grace and peace. Deinde cum dicit benedictus Deus, etc., hic, gratias agendo, eos in bono confirmat, et hoc tribus modis. Then when he says Blessed be God... (v. 3) in giving thanks, he strengthens them in good, and he does this in three ways:
Primo, ratione sumpta ex parte Christi, a quo multa bona adepti sunt, capite isto;
secundo, ratione sumpta ex parte ipsorum, qui de praeterito statu malo, ad bonum praesens translati sunt, cap. II, ibi et vos cum essetis mortui, etc.;
tertio, ratione sumpta ex parte apostoli, cuius ministerio et diligentia in bono statu positi, confirmati sunt, cap. III, ibi huius rei gratia, et cetera.
First, by giving as a reason Christ, from whom they have received so many gifts (Ch. 1).
Secondly, by reason of they themselves who have been transformed from a former evil condition to their present good one (Ch. 2).
Thirdly, because of the Apostle himself, whose ministry and solicitude has confirmed them in their good state (Ch. 3).
Iterum prima in tres dividitur, The first is divided into three sections:
quia primo gratias agendo, tangit beneficia generaliter;
secundo, beneficia exhibita ipsis apostolis specialiter, ibi quae superabundavit in nobis, etc.;
tertio, beneficia exhibita ipsis Ephesiis specialiter, ibi in quo et vos cum audivissetis, et cetera.
First, in giving thanks he touches on blessings in a general way.
Secondly, then the blessings given the Apostles in particular (1:8).
Thirdly, finally the blessings especially granted to the Epbesians themselves (1: 13).
Beneficia vero exhibita generaliter humano generi tangit sex. He treats of six blessings offered generally to the human race:
Primum benedictionis, in certitudine futurae beatitudinis, ibi benedictus, et cetera.
Secundum electionis, in praeordinata separatione a massa perditionis, ibi sicut elegit nos in ipso, et cetera.
Tertium praedestinationis, in praeordinata associatione cum bonis, scilicet cum filiis adoptionis, ibi qui praedestinavit nos, et cetera.
Quartum gratificationis, in collatione gratiae, ibi in quo gratificavit nos, et cetera.
Quintum redemptionis, in liberatione a poena, id est, a Diaboli servitute, ibi in quo habemus redemptionem, et cetera.
Sextum remissionis in deletione culpae, ibi remissionem peccatorum, et cetera.
First, that of praising [God] in the certainty of future beatitude (1:3).
Secondly, that of being chosen in the foreordained separation from those headed toward destruction: 4).
Thirdly, that of predestination in the foreordained community of the good, namely, of the adopted sons (1:5).
Fourthly, that of becoming pleasing [to God] through the gift of grace : 6b).
Fifthly, that of being redeemed, liberated from the punishment of diabolical slavery : 7a).
Sixthly, that of being pardoned by having sin blotted out (1:7b).
Circa beneficium benedictionis, tangit duo. Regarding the benefit of praise (v. 3) two aspects are touched on:
Primo, praeconium, quod debet impendi, ibi benedictus Deus, etc.;
secundo, beneficium, propter quod debet impendi, ibi qui benedixit nos, et cetera.
First, the praise itself which should be rendered, at Blessed be God.
Secondly, the blessing on account of which it should be rendered, at who hath blessed us.
Dicit ergo benedictus, scilicet a me, a vobis, et ab aliis, scilicet corde, et ore, et opere, id est laudatus, Deus et pater, id est ille, qui est Deus per essentiam divinitatis, et pater propter proprietatem generationis. Incidit autem copulatio, non ratione suppositionis, quia idem est suppositum, sed ratione significationis essentialiter et relative. Pater, inquam, domini nostri Iesu Christi, id est filii, qui est dominus noster secundum divinitatem, Iesus Christus secundum humanitatem. He says that God should be blessed or praised by you, me and others with our hearts, tongues and actions. He who is God by the divine essence and Father because of his property of generating [the Son]. The copula and is not placed between God and Father to designate two separate persons, for there is only one Father, but to denote what he is by his essence and what he is in relation to the Son. Father, I say, of our Lord Jesus Christ, that is, of the Son who is our Lord because of his divinity, and Jesus Christ according to his humanity. Qui, scilicet Deus, benedixit nos in spe in praesenti, sed in futuro benedicet in re. Ponit autem praeteritum pro futuro propter certitudinem. Benedixit, inquam, nos, licet nostris meritis maledictos, in omni benedictione spirituali, scilicet quantum ad animam, et quantum ad corpus. Tunc enim erit corpus spirituale. I Cor. XV, 44: seminatur corpus animale, resurget corpus spirituale. Benedictione, inquam, habita, in caelestibus, id est in caelo; et hoc, in Christo, id est per Christum, vel in Christo operante. Ipse enim est qui reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, etc., Phil. III, 21. God who has blessed us with hope in the present while in the future he will bless us with the reality. He puts [the verb] in the past tense, instead of the future, on account of his certainty. Even though by our own merits we were cursed, he blessed us with every spiritual blessing both for soul and for body. For then the body will be spiritual: “It is sown a natural body: it shall rise a spiritual body” (1 Cor. 15:44). [This will occur] by a blessing enjoyed in heavenly places, that is, in heaven, and in Christ since it will be through Christ or by Christ’s action: “For he himself will transform our lowly body” (Phil. 3:21). Valde appetenda est benedictio haec. Et ratione efficientis, quia Deus est benedictio haec; et ratione materiae, quia nos benedixit; et ratione formae, quia in omni benedictione spirituali benedicit; et ratione finis, quia in caelestibus benedicit. Ps. CXXVII, 4: ecce benedicetur homo, qui timet dominum. This blessing is greatly to be desired. And this by reason of its efficient cause since God is the one who blesses; and by reason of its material cause since he has blessed us; and because of the formal cause since he blessed us with every spiritual blessing; and on account of the end, he blessed us in heavenly places. “Behold, thus shall the man be blessed that feareth the Lord” (Ps. 127:4). Deinde cum dicit sicut elegit nos, etc., tangitur beneficium electionis, ubi commendatur electio ista, quia libera, ibi sicut elegit nos in ipso, quia aeterna, ibi ante mundi constitutionem, quia fructuosa, ibi ut essemus, etc., quia gratuita, ibi in charitate. Next (v. 4), he treats of the blessing of election; he sets forth the advantages of this election because: it is free, as he chose us in him; it is eternal, before the foundation of the world; it is fruitful, that we should be holy; and it is gratuitous, in charity. Dicit ergo: ita benedicet nos, non nostris meritis, sed ex gratia Christi, sicut elegit nos, et gratis, a massa perditionis separando, praeordinavit nos in ipso, id est per Christum. Io. XV, 16: non vos me elegistis, sed ego elegi vos, et cetera. Et hoc ante mundi constitutionem, id est ab aeterno, antequam fieremus. Rom. IX, 11: cum nondum nati fuissent, et cetera. Elegit, inquam, non quia sancti essemus, quia nec eramus, sed ad hoc elegit nos ut essemus sancti, virtutibus, et immaculati, a vitiis. Utrumque enim facit electio secundum duas partes iustitiae. Ps. XXXIII, v. 15: declina a malo, et fac bonum. Therefore he states: He blessed us in the same way—not through our merits but from the grace of Christ—as he chose us and, separating us from those headed to destruction, freely foreordained us in him, that is, through Christ. “You have not chosen me; but I have chosen you” (Jn. 15:16). This happened before the foundation of the world, from eternity, before we came into being. For when the children were not yet born, nor had done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election, might stand” (Rom. 9:11). He chose us, I say, not because we were holy—we had not yet come into existence—but that we should be holy in virtues and unspotted by vices. For election performs this twofold action of justice: “Turn away from evil and do good” (Ps. 33:15). Sancti, inquam, in conspectu eius, id est interius in corde, ubi ipse solus conspicit. I Reg. XVI, 7: Deus autem intuetur cor. Vel in conspectu eius, id est ut eum inspiciamus, quia visio est tota merces, secundum Augustinum. Et hoc fecit, non nostris meritis, sed in charitate sua, vel nostra, qua nos formaliter sanctificat. Saints, I assert, in his sight; interiorly in the heart where he alone can see: “The Lord sees the heart” (1 Sam. 16:7). Or, in his sight may mean that we may gaze on him since the [beatific] vision, according to Augustine, is the whole of our reward. He will accomplish this, not by our merits, but in his charity; or, by our [charity] with which he formally sanctifies us. Deinde cum dicit qui praedestinavit, etc., subdit tertium beneficium, scilicet praedestinationis, in praeordinata associatione cum bonis. Ubi circa praedestinationem implicat sex. Primo actum aeternum, ibi praedestinavit,
secundo, temporale obiectum, ibi nos,
tertio, praesens commodum, ibi in adoptionem, etc., quarto, fructum futurum, ibi in idipsum, quinto, modum gratuitum, ibi secundum propositum, sexto, effectum debitum, ibi in laudem gloriae, et cetera.
Then (v. 5) he adds the third blessing, that of predestination in the foreordained community of those who are good. Six characteristics of predestination are sketched here. First, it is an eternal act, having predestinated; secondly, it has a temporal object, us; thirdly, it offers a present privilege, the adoption of children through Jesus Christ; fourthly, the result is future, unto himself; fifthly, its manner [of being realized] is gratuitous, according to the purpose of his will; sixthly, it has a fitting effect, unto the praise of the glory of his grace. Dicit ergo qui, scilicet Deus, praedestinavit nos, id est sola gratia praeelegit, in adoptionem filiorum, id est ut associaremur cum aliis filiis adoptionis in bonis, quae habituri sunt; ideo dicit in adoptionem filiorum. Rom. VIII, 15: non enim accepistis spiritum servitutis iterum in timore, sed accepistis spiritum adoptionis filiorum; et infra: adoptionem filiorum expectantes. Hence he affirms that God, having predestinated us, has fore-chosen us by grace alone unto the adoption of children that we might share with the other adopted children the goods yet to come—thus he says unto the adoption of children. “For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but you have received the spirit of adoption of sons,” and further on, “waiting for the adoption of the sons of God, the redemption of our body” (Rom. 8:15 & 23). Quia vero illud quod fit ignitum, per ignem hoc oportet fieri, quia nihil consequitur participationem alicuius, nisi per id quod est per naturam suam tale: ideo adoptionem filiorum oportet fieri per filium naturalem. Et ideo addit apostolus per Iesum Christum. Et hoc est tertium, quod tangitur in isto beneficio, scilicet mediator alliciens. Gal. IV, 4-5: misit Deus filium suum factum ex muliere, factum sub lege, ut eos qui sub lege erant, redimeret; ut adoptionem filiorum reciperemus. Et hoc in ipsum, id est inquantum ei conformamur, et in spiritu servimus. I Io. III, 1: videte qualem charitatem dedit nobis Deus, ut filii Dei nominemur et simus. Et sequitur ibidem et scimus quoniam cum apparuerit, similes ei erimus. It must be through contact with fire that something starts to burn since nothing obtains a share in some reality except through whatever is that reality by its very nature. Hence the adoption of sons has to occur through the natural son. For this reason the Apostle adds through Jesus Christ, which is the third characteristic touched on in this blessing, namely, the mediator who draws all to himself. “God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, that he might redeem them who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons” (Gal. 4:4-5). This is accomplished unto himself, that is, inasmuch as we are conformed to him and become servants in the Spirit. “See what love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God; and so we are,” after which comes: “We know that when he shall appear we shall be like him” (1 Jn. 3:1-2). Ubi notandum est, quod duplex est similitudo praedestinatorum ad filium Dei, quaedam imperfecta, quae est per gratiam. Et dicitur imperfecta, primo quidem, quia solum est secundum reformationem animae, de qua Col. III: reformamini spiritu mentis vestrae, et induite novum hominem, etc.;
secundo, quia etiam secundum animam habet quamdam imperfectionem, ex parte enim cognoscimus, ut dicitur I Cor. c. XIII, 9. Alia vero similitudo erit perfecta, quae erit in gloria, et quantum ad corpus, Phil. III, v. 21: reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, configuratum, etc., et secundum animam, quia cum venerit quod perfectum est, evacuabitur quod ex parte est, I Cor. XIII, 10.
Here it should be noted that the likeness of the predestined to the Son of God is twofold. One is imperfect, it is [the likeness] through grace. It is called imperfect, firstly, becatise it only concerns the reformation of the soul. Regarding this Ephesians 4 (23-24) states: “Be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new man, who according to God is created in justice and holiness of truth.” Secondly, even with the soul it retains some imperfection, “for we know in part” (1 Cor. 13:9). However, the second likeness, which will be in glory, will be perfect; both as regards the body—“He will transform our lowly body to be like his glorious body.” (Phil. 3:21)—and in regard to the soul—“when the perfect comes, the imperfect shall pass away” (1 Cor. 13:10). Quod ergo dicit apostolus, quod praedestinavit nos in adoptionem filiorum, potest referri ad imperfectam assimilationem filii Dei, quae habetur in hac vita per gratiam; sed melius est quod referatur ad perfectam filii Dei assimilationem, quae erit in patria, de qua adoptione dicitur Rom. VIII, 23: ingemiscimus adoptionem filiorum Dei expectantes. What the Apostle says, therefore, about his predestinating us unto the adoption of children can refer to the imperfect assimilation to the Son of God possessed in this life through grace. But it is more probable that it refers to the perfect assimilation to the Son of God which will exist in the fatherland. In reference to this adoption Romans 8 (23) asserts: “Even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption of the sons of God.” Causa praedestinationis divinae non est necessitas ex parte Dei, nec debitum ex parte praedestinatorum, sed magis est secundum propositum voluntatis suae. In quo, quarto, commendatur beneficium, quia ex amore puro proveniens, quia praedestinatio secundum rationem praesupponit electionem et electio dilectionem. Duplex tamen hic causa huius beneficii immensi assignatur. Una est efficiens, quae est simplex Dei voluntas, ibi secundum propositum voluntatis suae. Rom. IX, 18: cuius vult miseretur, et quem vult indurat. Iac. I, v. 18: voluntarie enim nos genuit verbo veritatis suae. Alia vero causa est finalis, quae est, ut laudemus et cognoscamus bonitatem Dei, quae notatur ibi in laudem gloriae gratiae suae. Et hoc iterum est, a quo commendatur istud excellens beneficium, scilicet servitium sibi conveniens. Causa enim divinae praedestinationis est voluntas mera Dei, finis vero cognitio eius bonitatis. Divine predestination is neither necessitated on God’s part nor due to those who are predestined; it is rather according to the purpose of his will. This is the fourth characteristic which recommends the blessing to us, for it springs from pure love. Predestination, according to [how man] conceives it, presupposes election, and election love. A twofold cause of this immense blessing is designated here. One is the efficient cause— which is the simple will of God—according to the purpose of his will. “Therefore, he has mercy on whomever he wills; and whomever he wills he hardens” (Rom. 9:18). “Of his own will he has given us birth by the word of truth (Jam. 1:18). Unto the praise of the glory of his grace specifies the final cause which is that we may praise and know the goodness of God. Once again this eminent blessing is recommended inasmuch as the homage [it results in] is in accord with itself. For the [efficient] cause of divine predestination is simply the will of God, while the end is a knowledge of his goodness. Unde notandum est, quod Dei voluntas nullo modo habet causam, sed est prima causa omnium. Nihilominus tamen potest ei aliqua ratio assignari dupliciter, scilicet vel ex parte volentis, et sic quaedam ratio divinae voluntatis est eius bonitas, quae est obiectum voluntatis divinae, et movet eam. Unde ratio omnium eorum quae Deus vult, est divina bonitas. Prov. XVI, 4: universa propter semetipsum operatus est Deus. Ex parte autem voliti, ratio divinae voluntatis potest esse aliquod esse creatum, sicut dum vult coronare Petrum, quia legitime certavit; sed hoc non est causa volendi sed est causa quod ita fiat. Whence it should be realized that Gods will in no way has a cause but is the first cause of everything else. Nevertheless, a certain motive can be assigned to it in two ways. On the part of the one willing, the motive for the divine will is his own goodness which is the object of the divine will, moving it to act. Hence, the reason for everything that God wills is his own goodness: “Yahweh has made everything for his own purpose” (Prov. 16:4). On the side of what is willed, however, some created existent can be a motive for the divine will; for example, when he wills to crown Peter because he has fought well (cf. 2 Tim. 4:7-8). But this latter is not the cause of [God’s] willing; rather it is a cause of it happening the way it did. Sciendum tamen est, quod effectus sunt ratio voluntatis divinae ex parte voliti, ita scilicet quod effectus prior sit ratio ulterioris; sed tamen cum venitur ad primum effectum, non potest ultra assignari aliqua ratio illius effectus, nisi voluntas divina; puta, Deus vult hominem habere manum, ut serviat rationi, et hominem habere rationem, quia voluit eum esse hominem, et hominem esse voluit propter perfectionem universi. Et quia hic est primus effectus in creatura, non potest assignari aliqua ratio universi ex parte creaturae, sed ex parte creatoris, quae est divina voluntas. Nonetheless, it should be acknowledged how, in the realm of what is willed, effects are a motive for the divine will in such a way that a prior effect is the reason for a later one. But when the primary effect [i.e., the perfection of the Universe] is arrived at, no further reason can be given for that effect except the divine will. For instance, God wills that men should have hands that they might be of service to his mind; and [he wills] man to possess a mind since he wills him to be a man; and he wills man to exist for the sake of the perfection of the Universe. Now since this is what is primarily effected in creation, no further reason for the Universe can be assigned within the domain of creatures themselves; [it lies] rather within the domain of the Creator, which is the Divine Will. Ergo secundum hunc modum, nec praedestinationis potest ex parte creaturae ratio aliqua assignari, sed solum ex parte Dei. Nam, effectus praedestinationis sunt duo, scilicet gratia et gloria. Effectuum autem qui ad gloriam ordinantur, potest quidem ex parte voliti assignari ratio, scilicet gratia; puta, Petrum coronavit quia legitime certavit, et hoc quia fuit firmatus in gratia; sed gratiae, quae est primus effectus, non potest aliqua ratio assignari ex parte hominis, quod sit ratio praedestinationis; quia hoc esset ponere, quod principium boni operis sit in homine ex seipso et non per gratiam, quod est haeresis Pelagiana, quae dicit principium boni operis esse ex parte nostra. Sic ergo patet, quod ratio praedestinationis est simplex Dei voluntas; propter quod dicit apostolus secundum propositum voluntatis suae. In this perspective, neither can predestination find any reason on the part of the creature but only on the part of God. For there are two effects of predestination, grace and glory. Within the realm of what is willed [by God], grace can be identified as a reason for the effects which are oriented towards glory. For example, God crowned Peter because he fought well, and he did this because he was strengthened in grace. But no reason for the grace, as a primary effect, can be found on the part of man himself which would also be the reason for predestination. This would be to assert that the source of good works was in man by himself and not by grace. Such was the heretical teaching of the Pelagians who held that the source of good works exists within ourselves. Thus it is evident that the reason for predestination is the will of God alone, on account of which the Apostle says according to the purpose of his will. Qualiter autem intelligatur, quod Deus omnia facit et vult propter suam bonitatem, sciendum est, quod aliqua operari propter finem, potest intelligi dupliciter. Vel propter finem adipiscendum, sicut infirmus accipit medicinam propter sanitatem; vel propter amorem finis diffundendi, sicut medicus operatur propter sanitatem alteri communicandam. Deus autem nullo exteriori a se bono indiget, secundum illud Ps. XV, 2: bonorum meorum non eges. Et ideo cum dicitur, quod Deus vult et facit omnia propter bonitatem suam, non intelligitur quod faciat aliquid propter bonitatem sibi communicandam, sed propter bonitatem in alios diffundendam. To understand how God creates everything and wills it because of his own goodness, it should be realized that someone can work for an end in two ways. [A person may act] either in order to attain an end, as the sick take medicine to regain their health; or [he may act] out of a love of spreading the end, as a doctor will work to communicate health to others. But God needs absolutely nothing external to himself, according to Psalm 16 (2): “Yahweh, you are my Lord; you are my Good; there is none above you. [Vul: you have no need of my goods].” Therefore, when it is said that God wills and performs everything on account of his own goodness, this should not be understood as though he acted in order to confer goodness on himself but rather to communicate goodness to others. Communicatur autem divina bonitas creaturae rationali proprie, ut ipsa rationalis creatura eam cognoscat. Et sic omnia quae Deus in creaturis rationalibus facit, creat ad laudem et gloriam suam, secundum illud Is. c. XLIII, 7: omnem, qui invocat nomen meum, in gloriam meam creavi eum, ut scilicet cognoscat bonitatem, et cognoscendo laudet eam. Et ideo subdit apostolus in laudem gloriae gratiae suae, id est ut cognoscat quantum Deus sit laudandus et glorificandus. This divine goodness is properly communicated to rational creatures in order that the rational creature himself might know it. Thus, everything that God performs in reference to rational creatures is for his own praise and glory, according to Isaiah 43 (7): “Everyone called by my name, whom I have created for my glory, whom I have formed and made” so that he may know what goodness is, and in this knowledge praise it. The Apostle thus adds unto the praise of the glory of his grace, that man might realize how much God must be praised and glorified. Non dicit autem in laudem iustitiae; nam iustitia ibi locum habet ubi invenitur debitum, vel etiam redditur; quod autem praedestinatur ad vitam aeternam, non est debitum, ut dictum est, sed gratia pure gratis data. Nec solum dicit gloriae, sed addit gratiae, quasi gloriosae gratiae, quae est gratia, in qua ostenditur magnitudo gratiae, quae consistit etiam in magnitudine gloriae, et modo dandi, quia nullis meritis praecedentibus, sed adhuc immeritis existentibus eam dat. Unde Rom. V, 8 s., commendat autem Deus suam charitatem in nobis, quoniam si cum adhuc peccatores essemus, secundum tempus Christus pro nobis mortuus est, etc., et parum post, cum inimici essemus, reconciliati sumus Deo. Nor does he say “unto the praise of justice.” For justice enters into the picture only where a debt is present or is to be returned. But for man to be predestined to eternal life is not due to him—as was said, it is a grace given in perfect freedom. Nor does he simply say of the glory, but annexes of his grace as though it were of a glorious grace. And grace is just this; the greatness of grace is revealed in that it consists in the greatness of glory. [Its grandeur is shown] also in the way it is bestowed; for he gives it without any preceding merits when men are unworthy of it. “God proves his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us”; and a little further on, “when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son” (Rom. 5:8 & 10). Patet ergo quod praedestinationis divinae nulla alia causa est, nec esse potest, quam simplex Dei voluntas. Unde patet etiam, quod divinae voluntatis praedestinantis non est alia ratio, quam divina bonitas filiis communicanda. By now it must be clear how divine predestination neither has nor can have any cause but the will of God alone. This, in turn, reveals how the only motive for God’s predestinating will is to communicate the divine goodness to others.
with which he graced us in the Beloved!
In him we possess freedom, through his blood, and forgiveness of our lapses.
So rich is God’s grace.
ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ, 7 ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ, 6b. In which he hath graced us in his beloved Son. 7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, the remission of sins, according to the riches of his grace. Hic ponit apostolus quartum beneficium, scilicet gratificationis in collatione gratiae. Circa quod duo facit. Now the Apostle writes of the fourth blessing (cf. 1:3), that of becoming pleasing [to God] through the gift of grace. Regarding this he does two things:
Primo tangit huius beneficii collationem;
secundo ostendit conferendi modum et conditionem, ibi in quo habemus redemptionem, et cetera.
First, he touches on the giving of this blessing.
Secondly, he shows the manner and conditions of its bestowal (1:7).
Dicit ergo primo: ego dico, quod praedestinati sumus in adoptionem filiorum, in laudem gloriae gratiae suae, et dico gratiam, in qua gratificavit nos, et cetera. Circa quod sciendum est quod idem est aliquid esse gratum alicui et esse dilectum ei. Ille enim est mihi gratus quem diligo. Cum ergo Deus dilexerit nos ab aeterno, nam elegit nos ante mundi constitutionem in charitate, sicut dictum est, quomodo ergo in tempore gratificavit? Et dicendum est quod illos quos ab aeterno in seipso dilexit, in tempore prout sunt in naturis propriis gratificat, et illud quidem quod ab aeterno est, factum non est; quod vero in tempore est, fieri dicitur. Unde hic apostolus dicit gratificavit, id est gratos fecit, quod simus digni dilectione sua. I Io. III, v. 1: videte qualem charitatem dedit nobis Deus pater, ut filii Dei nominemur, et simus. Hence he first asserts: We are predestined unto the adoption of sons, for the praise of the glory of his grace—that grace, I say, in which he hath graced us in his beloved Son. In this respect, it should be noted that to be loved by someone is identical to being pleasing to him. For he is pleasing to ine whom I love. Now, since God loved us from eternity—he chose us before the foundation of the world in love, as has been said (1:4)—how has he made us pleasing to himself in time? A reply is that those whom he loves eternally in himself, he renders pleasing [to himself] in time according as they exist in their own natures. The former [his love] is from eternity and is not created, the latter happens in time and is said to come into being. Hence the Apostle says that he hath graced us, that is, made us pleasing that we should be worthy of his love. “See what love the Father has bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God; ans so we are” (1 Jn. 3:1). Consuevit autem distingui duplex gratia, scilicet gratis data, quae sine meritis datur, Rom. XI, 6: si autem gratia, iam non ex operibus, alioquin gratia, iam non est gratia, et gratia gratum faciens, quae nos facit Deo gratos et acceptos, de qua dicitur hic. Two types of grace are customarily distinguished: charismatic grace freely given without being merited—“And, if by grace, it is now not by works; otherwise grace is no more grace.” (Rom. 11:6)—and sanctifying grace which makes us pleasing and acceptable to God. The latter is the grace dealt with here. Notandum est autem, quod aliqui diliguntur propter alium, et aliqui propter seipsos. Cum enim aliquem multum diligo, diligo illum, et quidquid ad illum pertinet; nos autem a Deo diligimur, sed non propter nos ipsos, sed in eo, qui per seipsum dilectus est patri. Et ideo apostolus addit in dilecto filio, pro quo, scilicet, nos diligit, inquantum sumus ei similes. Dilectio enim fundatur super similitudine. Unde dicitur Eccli. c. XIII, 19: omne animal diligit sibi simile. Filius autem est per naturam suam similis patri, et ideo principaliter et per se dilectus est, et ideo naturaliter et excellentissimo modo est patri dilectus. Nos autem sumus filii per adoptionem, inquantum scilicet sumus conformes filio eius, et ideo quamdam participationem divini amoris habemus. Io. XIII, v. 35: pater diligit filium, et omnia dedit in manu eius; qui credit in filium, habet vitam aeternam. Col. I, 13: transtulit nos in regnum filii dilectionis suae. Notice how persons can be loved for the sake of others, or for their own sake. For when I love someone very much, I love him and whatever belongs to him. We are loved by God, not for what we are in ourselves, but in him who by himself is beloved of the Father. Thus the Apostle adds in his beloved Son on account of whom he loves us and to the degree that we are like him. For love is based on similarity: “Every beast loves its like: so also every man his neighbor” (Sir. 13:15). By his own nature, the Son is similar to the Father, he is beloved before all else and essentially. Hence he is naturally, and in a most excellent way, loved by the Father. We, on the other hand, are sons through adoption to the degree that we are conformed to his Son; in this way we enjoy a certain participation in the divine love. “The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. He who believes in the Son has life everlasting” (Jn. 3:35-36). “He has transferred us into the kingdom of the Son he loves” (Col. 1: 13). Deinde cum dicit in quo habemus redemptionem, etc., ponit modum ipsius. Circa hoc autem duo facit. Next (1:7), he sets down the way itself [that grace is given]. Concerning this he does two things:
Quia primo proponit modum ex parte Christi;
secundo ex parte Dei, ibi secundum divitias gratiae eius, et cetera.
First, the part of Christ in the way it is given.
Secondly, the part of God in it, at according to the riches of his grace : 7b).
Ex parte Christi ponit duplicem modum, nam Christus per duo nos gratificavit. Sunt enim duo in nobis quae repugnant gratificationi divinae, scilicet peccati macula, et poenae noxa. Et sicut mors repugnat vitae, ita peccatum repugnat iustitiae, ita ut per hoc elongati a Dei similitudine, Deo grati non essemus. Sed per Christum nos gratificavit. Primo quidem ablata poena, et quantum ad hoc dicit, quod in Christo habemus redemptionem, scilicet a servitute peccati. I Petr. I, 18: non corruptibilibus auro vel argento redempti estis de vana vestra conversatione paternae traditionis, sed pretioso sanguine, et cetera. Apoc. V, 9: redemisti nos Deo in sanguine tuo. On the part of Christ he writes of two ways through which Christ has made us pleasing [to God]. For within us there exists two antagonisms to the divine good pleasure, the stains of sin and the punishing injuries [sin inflicts]. justice is as opposed to sin as life is to death, so that through sin, having departed from our likeness to God, we cease being pleasing to God. But through Christ he has made us pleasing. First, indeed, by abolishing the punishment; and in reference to this he says that in Christ we have redemption from the slavery of sin. “You know that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, as gold or silver, from the vain manner of life handed down from your fathers: but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb unspotted and undefiled” (1 Pet. 1:18-19). “You have redeemed [us] for God, by thy blood” (Apoc. 5:9). Secundo dicimur redempti, quia a servitute, qua propter peccatum detinebamur, nec per nos plene satisfacere poteramus, per Christum liberati sumus, quia moriendo pro nobis satisfecit Deo patri, et sic abolita est noxa culpae. Unde dicit in remissionem peccatorum. Io. I, 29: ecce agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi. Lc. ult. 46: oportebat Christum pati et resurgere a mortuis die tertia, et praedicari in nomine eius poenitentiam et remissionem peccatorum. Secondly, we are said to be redeemed because through Christ we are freed from a slavery in which we were caught as a result of sin without ourselves being capable of fully making satisfaction. By dying for us, Christ has satisfied the Father and thus the penalty of sin was abolished. Whence he says unto the remission of sins. “Behold the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world” (Jn. 1:29). “It is written that Christ should suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and that penance and remission of sins should be preached in his name” (Lk. 24:46-47). Modus autem ex parte Dei ponitur, cum dicit secundum divitias, etc., quasi dicat, quod Deus gratificans nos, non solum culpam remisit nobis, sed filium suum dedit, qui pro nobis satisfecit. Et hoc fuit ex superabundanti gratia, qua voluit per hoc honorem humanae naturae conservare, dum, quasi per iustitiam, homines a servitute peccati et mortis voluit liberare per mortem filii sui. Et ideo dicit secundum divitias gratiae eius, quasi dicat: hoc quod redempti sumus et gratificati sumus per satisfactionem filii eius, fuit ex abundanti gratia et misericordia, prout immeritis tribuitur misericordia et miseratio. The way [we are blessed with grace] on God’s part is set down in according to the riches of his grace. As though he said: In making us pleasing to himself, God not only forgave us our sins, but be gave his own Son to make reparation on our behalf. This was from an overflowing graciousness by which he willed to preserve the human race’s honor while, as though in justice, willing men to be freed from the slavery of sin and death through the death of his own Son. Thus, in saying according to the riches of his grace he seems to state: That we were redeemed and made pleasing [to God] through the satisfaction of his Son comes from an overflowing grace and mercy since mercy and compassion are bestowed on those having no claim to it. Haec autem, quae dicta sunt, prosecuti sumus secundum expositionem Glossae, quae quidem expositio videtur extorta, quia idem continetur in uno, quod in alio. Nam idem est dictu elegit nos et praedestinavit nos. Et idem dicitur per hoc, quod dicit ut essemus sancti et immaculati, et per hoc quod dicit in adoptionem filiorum. In what has been said so far we have followed the interpretation of a Gloss which seems to be a far-fetched exposition since the same idea expressed in one phrase occurs in another. He chose us is the same as to say he predestinated us. And the same idea is expressed in that we should be holy and unspotted as in unto the adoption of children. Propter quod sciendum est, quod est consuetudo apostoli, ut cum loquitur in aliqua difficili materia, quae immediate sequuntur, sunt praemissorum expositio, nec est ibi inculcatio verborum, sed expositio, et hunc modum servat hic apostolus. Unde, servato eodem verborum pondere, aliter a principio dividamus, et dicamus, quod pars ista, benedictus Deus, etc., dividitur primo in tres partes, In this regard it should be known that the customary procedure of the Apostle, when speaking of a difficult subject, is to explain what went before by what immediately follows. This is not verbal proliferation but an exposition; and this is the method the Apostle uses here. Retaining the same import of the words, we may divide it differently from the beginning (v. 3) into three sections:
quia apostolus primo reddit gratiarum actionem, ibi benedictus Deus, etc.;
secundo recitat omnium beneficiorum simul largitionem, ibi qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spirituali, etc.;
tertio ponit divinorum beneficiorum in speciali apertam expressionem, ibi sicut elegit, et cetera.
First, the Apostle gives thanks in Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Secondly, he mentions conjointly the bestowal of all blessings in who hath blessed us with spiritual blessings in heavenly places, in Christ.
Thirdly, he gives a clear expression of the divine blessings in particular (v. 4 ff.).
Et haec dividitur in duas partes, This latter is divided into two parts:
quia primo beneficia distincte exprimit;
secundo ea exponit, ibi qui praedestinavit nos, et cetera.
First, he distinctly formulates the blessings.
Secondly, he interprets them (v. 5).
Explicat autem beneficia: He formulates the blessings:
primo quantum ad electionem;
secundo quantum ad ea quae sequuntur, ibi ut essemus sancti, et cetera.
First, as regards election, in as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world.
Secondly, as regards its consequences, that we should be holy and unspotted in his sight.
Exponit autem primo de electione. Est enim duplex electio, scilicet praesentis iustitiae, et praedestinationis aeternae. De prima Io. VI, 71: nonne duodecim vos elegi, et unus ex vobis Diabolus est? Et de hac apostolus non intendit hic, quia ista non fuit ante mundi constitutionem, et ideo statim manifestat de qua intelligit, quia de secunda, scilicet de aeterna praedestinatione; propter quod dicit praedestinavit nos, et cetera. Et quia dicit in Christo, scilicet ut Christo essemus similes et conformes, secundum quod adoptamur in filios, ideo subdit in adoptionem filiorum per Iesum Christum. Hoc vero, quod dicit in charitate, exponit cum dicit in quo habemus redemptionem per sanguinem eius, quasi dicat: nos habemus, et cetera. Quod vero dicit et immaculati, exponit cum dicit in remissionem peccatorum. Hoc vero quod dicit in conspectu eius, exponit, dicens in laudem gloriae gratiae suae. First, he treats of election, for there are two types of election, one involving a present justification and another an eternal predestination. Concerning the first John 6 (71) states: “Have not I chosen you twelve? And one of you is a devil?” But this is not what the Apostle refers to since it did not occur before the foundation of the world. So he immediately clarifies what he means, that it is the second type, eternal predestination. Thus he says Who hath predestinated us... (v. 5). As he said in Christ (v. 3) to signify that we are assimilated and conformed to Christ in proportion as we are [God’s] adopted children, so he adds unto the adoption of children through Jesus Christ. What he means by in charity he explains when he says In whom we have redemption through his blood. As though he affirmed: We have, etc. Unspotted is expounded by unto the remission of sins; while in his sight is explained by unto the praise of the glory of his grace.
which he lavished on us with perfect wisdom and insight.
God has made known to us the secret of his decision:
– for his favor he first placed on Christ to administer the completion of the ages –
to bring everything together under Christ as head, all in heaven and all on earth.
[Read: Marcus Barth, “Mystery or secret?” (p. 123), “Christ the administrator” (p. 127), “Days of fulfillment” (p. 128).]
8 ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει 9 γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ 10 εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς: ἐν αὐτῷ, 8 Which hath superabounded in us, in all wisdom and prudence, 9 That he might make known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed in him, 10 In the dispensation of the fulness of times, to re-establish all things in Christ, that are in heaven and on earth, in him. [Thomas mistakenly restricts this section to the Apostles, but he is right in affirming the lofty role of the Apostles. In 2 Cor 3 Paul compares his ministry with that of Moses and ascribes to his own vocation a surpassing glory.] Positis beneficiis communiter omnibus collatis, hic apostolus ponit beneficia specialiter apostolis collata. Dividitur autem haec pars in duas, Having set down the blessings generally given to all, the Apostle now turns to those favors especially granted to the Apostles. This section is divided into two parts:
quia primo proponit beneficia singulariter apostolis collata;
secundo ostendit causam eorum, ibi in quo et nos sorte vocati, et cetera.
First, be proposes the special blessings given the Apostles.
Secondly, he indicates their cause : 11 ).
Circa primum tria facit, quia primo proponit singularia apostolorum beneficia In reference to the first he does three things: He sets down the particular blessings of the Apostles:
quantum ad excellentiam sapientiae;
secundo quantum ad specialem revelationem sacramenti absconditi, ibi ut notum faceret, etc.;
tertio exponit quid sit illud sacramentum, ibi secundum beneplacitum, et cetera.
First, as regards the excellence of their wisdom.
Secondly, as regards a unique revelation of the hidden mystery (1:9a).
Thirdly, he suggests what this mystery is (1:9b-10).
Dicit ergo primo: dico quod secundum divitias gratiae eius omnes fideles communiter, tam vos quam nos, habemus redemptionem et remissionem peccatorum per sanguinem Christi; quae quidem gratia superabundavit in nobis, id est abundantius fuit, quam in aliis. Ex quo apparet temeritas illorum (ut non dicam error), qui aliquos sanctos praesumunt comparare apostolis in gratia et gloria. Manifeste enim patet ex verbis istis, quod apostoli habent gratiam maiorem quam aliqui alii sancti, post Christum et virginem matrem. Si vero dicatur alios sanctos tantum mereri posse quantum et apostoli meruerunt et per consequens tantam gratiam habere, dicendum est quod bene argueretur si gratia pro meritis daretur; quod si ita esset, iam non esset gratia, ut dicitur Rom. XI, 6. He first states: According to the riches of his grace all the faithful together, both you and we, possess redemption and the remission of sins through the blood of Christ. This grace has superabounded in us who, [as Apostles], have it more fully than others. Whence the rashness—not to say error—of those who dare equate the grace and glory of some saints with that of the Apostles. For this passage openly asserts that the Apostles are more fully graced than the other saints, except for Christ and his Virgin Mother. However, should it be claimed that other saints were able to merit as much as the Apostles merited, and consequently would have as much grace, it must be said that this would be a good argument if grace was given according to merits—but if that were the case, “grace is no more grace” (Rom. 11:6). Et ideo sicut Deus praeordinavit aliquos sanctos ad maiorem dignitatem, ita et abundantiorem gratiam eis infudit, sicut Christo homini, quem ad unitatem personae assumpsit, contulit gratiam singularem. Et gloriosam virginem Mariam, quam in matrem elegit et quantum ad animam et quantum ad corpus gratia implevit; et sic apostolos, sicut ad singularem dignitatem vocavit, ita et singularis gratiae privilegio dotavit; propter quod dicit apostolus Rom. VIII, 23: nos ipsi primitias spiritus habentes. Glossa: tempore prius, et caeteris abundantius. Temerarium est ergo aliquem sanctum apostolis comparare. Greater dignity was preordained by God to some saints, and hence he infused grace more abundantly into them. For example, he imparted a unique grace to Christ as man when he assumed [the humanity] into the unity of the [Second] Person. He endowed with special graces in both her body and soul, the glorious Virgin Mary whom he chose to be his mother. Similarly, those God called to a unique dignity, the Apostles, were gifted with a corresponding favor of grace. Thus the Apostle states in Romans 8 (23): “ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit.” And a Gloss comments: “their share is first in time and more copious than others.” What rashness, therefore, to put some later saint on the same level with the Apostles. Superabundavit ergo gratia Dei in apostolis in omni sapientia. Nam apostoli praepositi sunt Ecclesiae sicut pastores. Ier. c. III, 15: dabo vobis pastores secundum cor meum, et pascent vos scientia et doctrina. Duo autem spectant ad pastores, scilicet ut sint sublimes in cognitione divinorum, et industrii in actione religionis. Nam subditi instruendi sunt in fide, et ad hoc necessaria est sapientia, quae est cognitio divinorum, et quantum ad hoc dicit in omni sapientia. Lc. XXI, 15: ego dabo vobis os et sapientiam, cui non poterunt resistere nec contradicere omnes adversarii vestri. Item, gubernandi sunt subditi in exterioribus, et ad hoc necessaria est prudentia; dirigit enim in temporalibus, et quantum ad hoc dicit prudentia. Matth. X, 16: estote ergo prudentes, et cetera. Sic ergo apparet beneficium apostolorum quantum ad excellentiam sapientiae. God’s grace has superabounded in the Apostles, [enriching them] with all wisdom. For the Apostles are set over the Church to be her pastors: “And I will give you pastors according to my own heart: and they shall feed you with knowledge and doctrine” (Jer. 3:15). Two qualities should characterize pastors: a profound knowledge of divine truths and an assiduous fulfillment of religious actions. They must teach those trusted to them the true faith; this requires that wisdom which consists in a knowledge of the divine, concerning which he remarks in all wisdom. “For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to resist and gainsay” (Lk. 21:15). They also need prudence to guide their subjects in external and temporal affairs: “Be therefore prudent as serpents and simple as doves” (Mt. 10:16). Thus the special blessing of wisdom given to the Apostles is clearly expressed. Sequitur eorum beneficium quantum ad excellentiam revelationis, ibi ut notum faceret sacramentum, etc., quasi dicat: sapientia nostra non est ut sciamus naturas rerum et siderum cursus et huiusmodi, sed in solo Christo. I Cor. II, 2: non enim iudicavi me scire aliquid inter vos, nisi Christum Iesum, et cetera. Unde hic dicit ut notum faceret sacramentum, id est sacrum secretum, scilicet mysterium incarnationis, quod fuit ab initio absconditum. Causam autem huius sacramenti absconditi subdit, dicens voluntatis. Nam effectus futuri non cognoscuntur, nisi cognitis causis, sicut eclipsim futuram non cognoscimus, nisi cognoscendo causam eius. The reception of an uncommon revelation is their next blessing, that he might make known unto us the mystery of his will. As if he had said: Our wisdom does not consist in discovering the natures of material realities, nor the course of the stars, or such like; rather, it concerns Christ alone. “I decided not to know any thing among you, but Jesus Christ, and him crucified” (1 Cor. 2:2). Hence he says that he might make known the mystery, that is, the sacred secret, hidden from the beginning, the mystery of the Incarnation. He adds the cause of this hidden mystery when he says his will. Future events are known only if their causes are; for example, we can determine a future eclipse only by knowing what causes an eclipse. Cum ergo causa mysterii incarnationis sit voluntas Dei: quia propter nimiam charitatem quam Deus habuit ad homines, voluit incarnari, Io. III, v. 16: sic enim Deus dilexit mundum, ut filium suum unigenitum daret, voluntas autem Dei occultissima est, I Cor. II, 11: quae Dei sunt, nemo novit, nisi spiritus Dei, causa ergo incarnationis occulta fuit, nisi quibus Deus revelavit per spiritum sanctum, sicut apostolus dicit I Cor. II, 10. Dicit ergo ut notum faceret sacramentum, id est sacrum secretum, quod ideo est secretum, quia voluntatis suae. Matth. XI, 25: confiteor tibi, domine, pater caeli et terrae, quia abscondisti haec a sapientibus et prudentibus, et revelasti ea parvulis. Item Col. c. I, 26: mysterium, quod absconditum fuit a saeculis et generationibus; nunc autem manifestatum est sanctis eius, quibus voluit Deus notas facere divitias gloriae sacramenti huius. Now the mystery of the Incarnation has God’s will as its cause since he willed to become incarnate on account of his intense love for men: “For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son” (Jn. 3:16). Yet God’s will is more hidden than anything else: “No one knows what pertains to God, but the Spirit of God” (1 Cor. 2:11). So, the cause of the Incarnation was concealed from everyone except those to whom God revealed it through the Holy Spirit, as the Apostle mentions: “God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God” (1 Cor. 2:10). Hence he affirms that he might make known the mystery which is a sacred secret—a secret because it is of his will. “I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for hiding these things from the wise and clever and revealing them to little children” (Mt. 11:25). “The mystery, hidden from ages and generations, and now made manifest to his saints, to whom God would make known the riches of the glory of this mystery.” (Col. 1:26-27). Quid autem sit hoc sacramentum, exponit dicens secundum beneplacitum, et cetera. Quae quidem sententia intricata est, et debet sic construi: ut notum faceret, etc., quod quidem sacramentum est instaurare omnia in Christo, id est per Christum. Omnia dico, quae in caelis et in terra sunt. Instaurare, inquam, in eo, scilicet Christo, cum dispensatione plenitudinis temporum, et hoc secundum beneplacitum eius. Ubi tria tangit, scilicet sacramenti causam, temporis congruitatem, et sacramenti utilitatem. He then explains something about this mystery (vv. 9-10). His thought is involved and should be construed as: that he might make known unto us the mystery of his will, which mystery is to re-establish all things in Christ, that is, through Christ. All, namely, that are in heaven and on earth. This re-establishment in Christ must be in the dispensation of the fulness of times which, in turn, is according to his good pleasure. Thus, three aspects of the mystery are touched on; the mystery’s cause, the temporal fitness [of its appearance], and its purpose. Causam quodam modo tangit, cum dicit secundum beneplacitum. Licet autem quidquid Deo placet, bonum sit, hoc tamen beneplacitum Dei anthonomastice bonum dicitur, quia per ipsum ad perfectam fruitionem bonitatis perducimur. Ps. CXLVI, 11: beneplacitum est domino super timentes eum, et cetera. Rom. XII, 2: ut probetis quae sit voluntas Dei bona, et beneplacens, et perfecta. According to his good pleasure briefly sums up the cause. Although whatever pleases God is good, goodness is preeminently (antonomostice) suited to God’s pleasure in this [effecting of the Incarnation] because through it we are led to perfectly enjoy goodness. As Psalm 146 (11) declares: “Yahweh is pleased with those who fear him, who rely on his strength”; and Romans 12 (2): “that you may prove what is the good and the acceptable and the perfect will of God.” Congruitas temporis fuit in dispensatione plenitudinis, de qua dicitur Gal. c. IV, 4: at ubi venit plenitudo temporis, misit Deus filium suum factum ex muliere. Unde apostolus hic excludit quaestionem frivolam, quam gentiles quaerere consueverunt. Ut enim dicitur Iob XXIV, 1, ab omnipotente non sunt abscondita tempora, unde sicut omnia ordinat et dispensat, ita et tempora, dispensando et accommodando ea effectibus quos producit secundum congruentiam eorum. Sicut autem aliis effectibus ab eo productis tempora ordinata sunt, ita et certum tempus praeordinavit ab aeterno mysterio incarnationis. Quod quidem tempus, secundum Glossam, existens fuit postquam homo convictus fuit de sua insipientia ante legem scriptam, dum scilicet creaturas colebat ut creatorem, ut dicitur Rom. I, 22: dicentes se esse sapientes, stulti facti sunt; et de impotentia per legem scriptam, quam implere non poterat. Ut sic homines adventum Christi, de sua sapientia et virtute non praesumentes, non contemnerent, sed, quasi infirmi et quodammodo ignari, Christum avidius affectarent. The suitable time was in that dispensation of the fulness of times which Galatians 4 (4-5) speaks of: “But when the fulness of the time came, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, that he might redeem them who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.” The pointless problem pagans used to raise is thus brushed aside by the Apostle. For as Job 24 (1) remarks: “Why are times not hidden from Shaddai? [Vul: Times are not hidden from the Almighty.]” He orders and arranges everything, including time; for he manages and accommodates the passage of time to those events which he wills to exist at the right moment. Just as other events effected by him bad their specified time, likewise he eternally preordained a time for the mystery of the Incarnation. This time, a Gloss points out, occurred after man was convinced of his own stupidity before the written [Mosaic] Law, when he worshiped creatures instead of the Creator—“For, professing themselves to be wise, they became fools” (Rom. 1:22)—and of his own absolute inability to live up to the prescriptions of the written Law. Thus men, no longer trusting in their own wisdom and power, would not consider Christ’s advent as unimportant. Weak, and to a certain extent ignorant, they would eagerly desire the Christ. Et effectus huius sacramenti est instaurare omnia. Nam inquantum facta sunt propter hominem, omnia instaurari dicuntur. Amos IX, 11: suscitabo tabernaculum David quod cecidit, et reaedificabo aperturas murorum eius, et ea quae corruerant, instaurabo. Omnia, inquam, quae in caelis, id est Angelos: non quod pro Angelis mortuus sit Christus, sed quia redimendo hominem, reintegratur ruina Angelorum. Ps. CIX, 6: implevit ruinas, et cetera. Ubi cavendus est error Origenis, ne per hoc credamus Angelos damnatos redimendos esse per Christum, ut ipse finxit. Et quae in terris, inquantum caelestia terrenis pacificat. Col. I, 20: pacificans per sanguinem crucis eius, sive quae in terris, sive quae in caelis sunt; quod est intelligendum quantum ad sufficientiam, etsi omnia non restaurentur quantum ad efficaciam. The mystery’s purpose is to re-establish all things. Inasmuch as everything is made for mankind, everything would be re-established [when man was redeemed]: “In that day I will raise up the booth of David that had fallen; I will close up its breaches and rebuild it as long ago” (Am. 9:11). Everything that is in heaven, namely, the angels. Christ did not die for the angels, but in redeeming mankind “he shall fill the ruins” (Ps. 109:6) left by the sin of the angels. Beware of the error Origen fell into, as if the damned angels were to be redeemed through Christ; this was only a figment of his imagination. And what is on earth [will be re-established in Christ] insofar as he reconciles heavenly and earthly realities: “Making peace through the blood of his cross, both as to the things that are on earth and the things that are in heaven” (Col. 1:20). This must be understood in reference to the sufficiency [of his redeeming actions], even though, with respect to its efficacy, everything will not be re-established.
As resolved by him who carries out all things after his will and decision, we [Jews] were first designated and appropriated in the Messiah. We, the first to set our hope upon the Messiah, were to become a praise of God’s glory.
[Read: Marcus Barth on verse 11 (“lot”, p. 92), “Jews and Gentiles” (p. 130).]
11 ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἐκληρώθημεν προορισθέντες κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, 12 εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ τοὺς προηλπικότας ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ: 11 In whom we also are called by lot, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things according to the counsel of his will; 12 That we may be unto the praise of his glory; we who before hoped in Christ Supra posuit apostolus abundantiam gratiae, quam ipse et alii apostoli a Christo receperunt. Ne autem crederet aliquis eos propriis meritis eam recepisse, ideo consequenter ostendit, quod gratis eam receperunt, vocati a Deo non propriis meritis. Dividitur autem pars ista in tres: Previously the Apostle wrote of how he and the other Apostles received an abundance of grace from Christ (1:8). Lest anyone imagine they had it coming to them the Apostle quickly affirms that they were called by God gratuitously, not for their personal merits. This section is divided into three parts:
quia primo proponit gratuitam vocationem;
secundo voluntariam Dei praedestinationem, ibi praedestinati secundum propositum eius, etc.;
tertio utriusque finem, ibi ut simus in laudem gloriae eius, et cetera.
First, the gratuity of the [Apostolic] call.
Secondly, God’s freedom in predestination (1:11b).
Thirdly, what is the end of both [vocation and pre destination] (1: 12).
Dicit ergo: dixi quod huiusmodi gratia superabundavit in nobis, et quod in Christo omnia restaurata sunt. In quo etiam, id est per quem Christum, nos sorte sumus vocati, id est non nostris meritis, sed divina electione. Col. I, 12: gratias agentes Deo et patri, qui dignos nos fecit in partem sortis sanctorum, in lumine, et cetera. Ps. XXX, 16: in manibus tuis sortes meae. I have indicated, he says, that grace has superabounded in us and that everything has been re-established in Christ. The same Christ In whom we also are called by lot, not by our own merits but by a divine choice: “Giving thanks to God the Father, who hath made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light” (Col. 1:12) because “my lots are in thy hands” (Ps. 30:16). Ad huius autem intellectum sciendum est quod multa fiunt inter homines, quae fortuita videntur et contingentia; quae tamen sunt secundum divinam providentiam ordinata. Sors nihil aliud est, quam exquisitio providentiae divinae de aliquo contingenti et humano. Unde Augustinus super illud Ps. XXX, 16: in manibus tuis sortes meae, dicit quod sors non est aliquod malum, sed in rebus dubiis divinam exquirens voluntatem. Est autem in sortibus triplex peccatum vitandum. To understand this it should be realized that many human events which seem to occur by fate and chance, in reality are arranged according to divine providence. Casting, lots is no more than a search for divine guidance in contingent and human affairs. Augustine, commenting on Psalm 30 (16), teaches that casting lots is not an evil but a means of discovering God’s will in a doubtful issue. Primo quidem superstitionis; nam omnis vana et illicita religio superstitio est. Tunc ergo in sortibus incurritur peccatum illicitae superstitionis, quando in eis initur aliquod pactum cum Daemonibus. Unde dicitur Ez. XXI, 21: stetit rex Babylonis in bivio in capite duarum viarum divinationem quaerens, commiscens sagittas. Interrogavit idola, exta consuluit. Commiscere enim sagittas, ad sortilegium pertinet et interrogare idola ad superstitionem. Et ibi sortilegium damnatur inter peccata ad superstitionem pertinentia. Nonetheless, three sins must be avoided. First, is superstition; for any religion which is shallow and immoral is superstition. The forbidden sin of superstition would be incurred when the casting of lots is performed in league with the devil. For instance, Ezechiel 21 (26) relates how: “the king of Babylon stood in the highway, at the head of two ways, seeking divination, shuffling arrows: he consulted the idols and looked at the liver.” The shuffling of the arrows is related to sortilege, and the questioning of idols belongs to superstition. Sortilege, moreover, is condemmed there (Ez. 21) among sins pertaining to superstition. Secundo vitandum est peccatum tentationis Dei; nam quamdiu per se homo aliquid potest facere et scire quid debeat facere, si tunc a Deo sorte, vel aliquo alio loco tali exploret quid facere debeat, Deum tentat. Quando autem necessitas imminet, neque ipse per seipsum iuvari potest, tunc licite a Deo inquirit quid facere debeat. II Par. XX, 12: cum ignoremus quid agere debeamus, hoc solum habemus residui, ut oculos nostros dirigamus ad te.
tertio vitandum est peccatum vanitatis, quod fit si de inutilibus et impertinentibus ad nos inquiramus, ut puta de futuris contingentibus. Unde dicitur Act. I, 7: non est vestrum nosse tempora, vel momenta, quae pater posuit in sua potestate.
Secondly, the sin of tempting God must be shunned. As long as a man can discover and accomplish by himself what he ought to do, he tempts God if he resorts to lots, or any other such method, to ascertain what he should do. Only when unavoidably threatened by situations where one is powerless by himself can a man licitly resort to [extraordinary ways of] questioning God concerning what he must do. “But as we know not what to do, we can only turn our eyes to you” (2 Par. 20:12). Vanity is the third sin. It is committed if we inquire into futile matters not pertaining to us; for example, contingent events in the future. “It is not for you to know the times or moments, which the Father hath put in his own power” (Ac. 1:7). Potest ergo secundum hoc triplex sors accipi, scilicet quaedam divisoria, quaedam consultoria et quaedam divinatoria. Relative to this [purpose for which they are cast], there are three types of lots: some are divisory, others are consultatory, while still others are divinatory. Divisoria est cum aliqui dividentes haereditatem et concordare non valentes, mittunt sortes, puta annulum, vel chartam, vel aliquid tale ostendendo, dicentes: ille cuicumque evenerit, habebit partem istam in haereditate. Et huiusmodi sortes possunt mitti licite. Prov. XVIII, 18: contradictiones comprimit sors: et inter potentes quoque diiudicat, id est inter volentes dividere. Divisory lots are those which people cast when they are dividing an inheritance and cannot agree. Using a certain slip of paper, or the like they declare: Whoever it will fall to shall have this part of the inheritance. Such lots can be cast lawfully: “The lot puts an end to disputes, and decides between powerful contenders” (Prov. 18:18) when they wish to divide in this way. Consultoria autem fit, quando quis dubitans quid facere debeat, consulit Deum, mittens sortes. Ionae I, 7 dicitur, quod quando supervenit tempestas illa in mari, consuluerunt Deum, sortem mittentes, ut scirent cuius peccato tempestas illa venisset. Et hic modus licitus est, maxime in necessitatibus et in electionibus potestatum saecularium. Unde faciunt rotulos de cera, in quorum quibusdam ponunt aliquas chartas, et in quibusdam non, quos bussulos vocant, ut illi quibus veniunt bussuli cum chartis, habeant voces in electione. Sed hoc, ante adventum spiritus sancti, apostoli fecerunt etiam in electione spirituali, Act. I, 26, quando sors cecidit super Mathiam; sed hoc post adventum spiritus sancti amplius non licet in praedictis electionibus, quia hoc faciendo iniuriaretur spiritui sancto. Credendum est enim, quod spiritus sanctus providet Ecclesiae suae de bonis pastoribus. Unde post adventum spiritus sancti quando apostoli elegerunt septem diaconos, non miserunt sortes; et ideo in nulla electione ecclesiastica hoc modo licet. Consultatory lots are used when someone doubts what he should do and consults God by casting lots. Jonas 1 (7) recounts how, when the great storm came upon them at sea, they cast lots to seek information from God that they might know for whose sin the tempest had occurred. This method is licit, especially in necessities and in the elections of secular rulers. Hence, men will make small wax balls called “bussuli,” of which some contain slips of paper and others none. Whoever draws a “bussulus” with the paper inside has a voice in the election. This was done also, previous to the Holy Spirit’s coming, in spiritual elections, evidenced in the choice of Mathias by lot (Ac. 1:26). Now that the Holy Spirit has come, however, it is no longer lawful in these elections since making. use of them would be an insult to the Holy Spirit. It must be believed, after all, that the Holy Spirit will provide his Church with good pastors. After the Holy Spirit’s advent, therefore, when the Apostles chose the seven deacons (cf. Ac. 6), they did not cast lots. Thus, this method is not lawful in any ecclesiastical election. Divinatoria autem sors est inquisitio de futuris soli divinae cognitioni reservatis. Et haec semper habet vanitatem admixtam, nec potest sine vitio curiositatis fieri. Divinatory lots augur future events reserved to the divine knowledge alone. They always are colored by vainglory, nor can they be resorted to without a sinful curiosity. Quia ergo sors nihil aliud est quam inquisitio rerum quae ex divina voluntate fiunt, gratia autem eius ex sola divina voluntate dependet, inde est, quod gratia divinae electionis dicitur sors, quia Deus per modum sortis secundum occultam providentiam, non ex alicuius meritis, per gratiam internam vocat. Lots, therefore, are nothing other than a questioning concerning realities whose occurrence depends on the divine will. Since grace depends on the divine will alone, the grace of divine election is termed a lot. For God, as though by lot, according to his hidden providence, calls men through an inner grace and not on account of anyone’s merits. Deinde cum dicit praedestinati, etc., ponit voluntariam Dei praedestinationem, de qua dicitur Rom. VIII, 30: quos praedestinavit, hos et vocavit. Cuius quidem praedestinationis ratio non sunt merita nostra, sed mera Dei voluntas, propter quod subdit secundum propositum eius. Rom. c. VIII, 28: scimus quoniam diligentibus Deum omnia cooperantur in bonum, his qui secundum propositum vocati sunt sancti. Next, when he says predestined according to his purpose, he writes of the free predestination of God concerning which Romans 8 (30) deals: “And those he predestinated he has also called.” The reason for this predestination is not our merits but the will of God alone, on account of which he adds according to the purpose of him. “And we know that to those who love God, all things work together unto good; to those who are called according to his purpose” (Rom. 8:28). Quod autem secundum propositum praedestinaverit, probat, quia non solum hoc, sed etiam omnia alia, quae Deus facit, operatur secundum consilium voluntatis suae. Ps. CXXXIV, 6: omnia quaecumque voluit dominus fecit. Is. XLVI, 10: consilium meum stabit, et omnis voluntas mea fiet. Non autem dicit secundum voluntatem, ne credas quod sit irrationabilis, sed secundum consilium voluntatis suae, id est secundum voluntatem suam quae est ex ratione, non secundum quod ratio importat discursum, sed secundum quod designat certam et deliberatam voluntatem. He approves of what he has predestined according to his purpose since not only this, but also everything else that God does he worketh according to the counsel of his will. “Whatever he wills Yahwe does, in heaven and on earth, in the seas and in all the depths” (Ps. 135:6). “My counsel shall stand, and what I like I shall do” (Is. 46: 10). He did not say “according to his will” lest you would believe it was irrational, but according to the counsel of his will. This means, according to his will which arises from reason; not that reason here implies any transition in his thoughts, it rather indicates a certain and deliberate will. Ultimo autem tangit finem utriusque, scilicet praedestinationis et vocationis, scilicet laudem Dei. Unde dicit ut simus in laudem gloriae eius nos, qui ante speravimus in Christo, et per nos, qui credimus in Christo, laudetur gloria Dei. Is. LV, 12: montes et colles cantabunt coram Deo laudem. Laus autem gloriae Dei, ut dicit Ambrosius, est cum multi acquiruntur ad fidem, sicut gloria medici est cum multos acquirit et curat. Eccli. II, 9: qui timetis dominum, sperate in illum, et in oblectatione veniet vobis misericordia. Finally, he briefly mentions the end of one’s predestination and vocation, namely, the praise of God. Thus he states that we may be unto the praise of his glory, we who before hoped in Christ. Through us, who believe in Christ, the glory of God is extolled. “The mountains and hills shall sing praise before you” (Is. 55:12). The praise of God’s glory, as Ambrose remarks, occurs when many persons are won over to the faith, as a doctor’s glory is in a large clientele and their cure. “You who fear the Lord, hope for good things, for everlasting joy and mercy” (Sir. 2:9).
You [Gentiles] too are [included] in him. For you have heard the true word, the message that saves you. And after you came to faith you, too, have been sealed with his seal, the promised Holy Spirit. He is the guarantee of what we shall inherit [to vouch] for the liberation of God’s own people, to the praise of his glory. 13 ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς σωτηρίας ὑμῶν, ἐν ᾧ καὶ πιστεύσαντες ἐσφραγίσθητε τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ, 14 ὅ ἐστιν ἀρραβὼν τῆς κληρονομίας ἡμῶν, εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ. 13 In whom you also, after you had heard the word of truth, the of your salvation, in whom also believing, you were signed with the holy Spirit of promise. 14 Who is the pledge of our inheritance, unto the redemption of acquisition, unto the praise of his glory. Postquam enarravit apostolus beneficia collata communiter omnibus fidelibus, exhibita specialiter apostolis, hic consequenter enumerat beneficia ipsis Ephesiis collata. Dividitur autem pars ista in duas, Once the Apostle has enumerated the blessings offered generally to all the faithful, then those especially given the Apostles (1:8), he begins to recount those granted to the Ephesians themselves. This section is divided into two parts:
quia primo proponit beneficia eis exhibita;
secundo insinuat affectum suum ex ipsis beneficiis excitatum, ibi propterea et ego audiens, et cetera.
First, he sets down the favors shown them.
Secondly, he describes his feelings aroused by the favors (1:15).
Prima iterum in tres dividitur, secundum tria beneficia eis exhibita; The first is divided into three parts according to the three blessings granted to them:
quia primo proponit beneficium praedicationis;
secundo beneficium conversionis ad fidem, ibi in quo et credentes signati estis;
tertio beneficium iustificationis, ibi signati estis, et cetera.
First, the blessing of preaching.
Secondly, the blessing of conversion to the faith (1:13).
Thirdly, the blessing of justification : 13-14).
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum in quo, scilicet Christo, et vos cum audivissetis, id est cuius beneficio et virtute audivistis, verbum veritatis, id est verbum praedicationis, in quantum ipse Christus ad vos praedicatores misit. Rom. X, 14: quomodo audient sine praedicante? Quomodo vero praedicabunt, nisi mittantur? Item infra eodem: ergo fides ex auditu, auditus autem per verbum Dei. Eius ergo beneficio audiunt, qui praedicatores eis mittit. Lc. XI, 28: beati qui audiunt verbum Dei, et custodiunt illud. In reference to the first point he says: Christ in whom you also, after you had heard, that is, by whose favor and power you have heard the proclamation of the word of truth since Christ himself has sent those who preach it to you. “How shall they believe him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear, without a preacher? And how shall they preach unless they be sent?... Faith, then, comes by hearing; and hearing by the word of Christ” (Rom. 10:14-15, 17). They hear through the blessing of him who sends them the preachers: “Blessed are they who hear the word of God and keep it” (Lk. 11: 28). Hoc verbum praedicationis tripliciter commendat apostolus. Primo a veritate cum dicit verbum veritatis quippe quia accipit originem a Christo, de quo dicitur Io. c. XVII, 17: sermo tuus veritas est; Iac. I, v. 18: voluntarie genuit nos verbo veritatis suae.
secundo quia est Annuntiatio bona. Unde dicit Evangelium, quod quidem annuntiat summum bonum et vitam aeternam; et anthonomastice verbum fidei, Evangelium dicitur, quasi Annuntiatio summi boni. Is. LII, 7: quam pulchri pedes annuntiantis et praedicantis pacem, annuntiantis bonum, praedicantis salutem, eodem 41, super montem excelsum ascende tu qui evangelizas Sion. Et hoc est quantum ad futura bona.
tertio describitur et commendatur quantum ad bona praesentia, quia salvat. Unde dicit salutis vestrae, id est quod creditum dat salutem. Rom. I, 16: non enim erubesco Evangelium: virtus enim Dei est in salutem omni credenti. I Cor. XV, 1: notum autem vobis facio, fratres, Evangelium, quod praedicavi vobis, quod et accepistis, in quo et statis, per quod et salvamini.
The Apostle mentions the threefold recommendation of this preached word. It is, first of all, true; a word of truth. Indeed, it could be nothing else since its source is Christ concerning whom John 17 (17) states: “Your word is truth.” And James 1 (18): “For of his own will he has begotten us by the word of truth.” Secondly, it is a proclamation of good news. Hence he says the gospel: it announces the highest good and eternal life. “Word of faith” is preeminently (antonomastice) applicable to the Gospel as the communication of the highest good. “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news and preaches salvation... Go up on a high mountain, lady-messenger of Sion (Is. 52:7; 40:9). This refers to future goods. The present goods are what describe and recommend [Christian preaching] in the third place, for it saves. Thus he says of your salvation; if believed in, it gives salvation. “I am not ashamed of the gospel. For it is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe” (Rom. 1:16). “Now I make known unto you, brothers, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received and wherein you stand, by which also you are saved” (1 Cor. 15:1). Quantum autem ad beneficium conversionis ad fidem, dicit in quo, scilicet Christo, id est, in cuius operatione vos credentes, signati estis. Quod quidem beneficium ideo apponitur fidei, quia fides necessaria est audientibus. Frustra enim quis audiret verbum veritatis, si non crederet, et ipsum credere est per Christum. Infra II, 8: gratia enim estis salvati per fidem. Et hoc non ex vobis, donum enim Dei est. Regarding the blessing of conversion to the faith, he states in whom, namely, Christ, by whose action you also believing, were signed. This blessing is applied to faith since faith is necessary for those who listen. In vain would anyone listen to the word of truth if he did not believe, and the believing itself is through Christ. “By grace you are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, for it is the gift of God” (Eph. 2:8). Quantum vero ad beneficium iustificationis dicit signati estis, et hoc per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est vobis, de quo dicit tria, scilicet quod est signum, et quod est spiritus promissionis, et quod est pignus haereditatis. Concerning the blessing of justification he mentions that you were signed with the Holy Spirit who was given to you. Concerning this [Spirit] three things are said; he is a sign, the spirit of the promise, and the pledge of our inheritance. Signum quidem est inquantum per eum infunditur charitas in cordibus nostris, qua distinguimur ab his qui non sunt filii Dei. Et quantum ad hoc dicit signati estis, scilicet divisi a grege Diaboli. Infra cap. IV, v. 30: nolite contristare spiritum sanctum Dei, in quo signati estis, et cetera. Sicut enim homines gregibus suis apponunt signa, ut ab aliis distinguantur, ita dominus gregem suum, id est populum suum, spirituali signo voluit signari. Dominus autem populum peculiarem habuit, in veteri quidem testamento Iudaeos. Ez. XXXIV, 31: vos autem greges mei, greges pascuae meae homines estis. Unde Ps. XCIV, v. 7: nos autem populus eius, et oves pascuae eius. Sed quia hic grex in pascuis corporalibus pascebatur, scilicet in doctrina corporali et in bonis temporalibus, Is. I, 19: si volueritis et audieritis me, bona terrae comedetis, ideo eum dominus corporali signo, scilicet circumcisionis, ab aliis separavit et distinxit. Gen. XVII, 13: eritque pactum meum in carne vestra. Prius autem dicitur: circumcidetis carnem praeputii vestri, ut sit signum foederis inter me et vos. He is a sign inasmuch as through him charity is infused into our hearts, thereby distinguishing us from those who are not the children of God. Relating to this be says you were signed, set apart from Satan’s fold. “Grieve not the holy Spirit of God; whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption” (Eph. 4:30). Just as men brand a mark on their own herds to differentiate them from others, so the Lord willed to seal his own flock, his people, with a spiritual sign. The Lord had the Jews as his own people in the Old Testament. “And you, my flocks, the flocks of my pastures are men” (Ez. 34:31 ). “And we are the people of his pasture and the sheep of his hand” (Ps. 95:7). This flock was fed on the earthly pastures of material teachings and temporal goods: “If you be willing and obedient, you shall eat the good things of the land” (Is. 1:19). The Lord, therefore, differentiated and set them apart from others by means of the bodily sign of circumcision. “And my covenant shall be in your flesh” (Gen. 17:13); before this it says, “You shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, that it may be for a sign of the covenant between me and you” (Gen. 17:11). In novo autem testamento gregem habuit populum Christianum. I Petr. II, 25: conversi estis nunc ad pastorem et episcopum animarum vestrarum. Io. X, 27: oves meae vocem meam audient, et cetera. Sed grex iste pascitur in pascuis doctrinae spiritualis et spiritualibus bonis, ideo eum signo spirituali ab aliis dominus distinxit. Hoc autem est spiritus sanctus, per quem illi qui Christi sunt, distinguuntur ab aliis qui non sunt eius. Quia autem spiritus sanctus amor est, ergo tunc spiritus sanctus datur alicui, quando efficitur amator Dei et proximi. Rom. V, 5: charitas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, et cetera. Signum ergo distinctionis est charitas, quae est a spiritu sancto. Io. XIII, 35: in hoc cognoscent omnes, quia mei discipuli estis, si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem. Spiritus ergo sanctus est quo signamur. In the New Testament the flock he had is the Christian people: “You have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls” (1 Pet. 2:25). “My sheep hear my voice; and I know them; and they follow me” (Jn. 10:27). This flock is fed on the pastures of spiritual doctrine and spiritual favors; hence the Lord differentiated it from others by a spiritual sign. This is the Holy Spirit through whom those who are of Christ are distinguished from the others who do not belong to him. But since the Holy Spirit is love, he is given to someone when that person is made a lover of God and neighbor. “God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us” (Rom. 5:5). Therefore, the distinctive sign is charity which comes from the Holy Spirit: “By this shall all men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another” (Jn. 13:35). The Holy Spirit is he by whom we are signed. Spiritus vero promissionis dicitur triplici ratione. Primo quia promissus est fidelibus. Ez. XXXVI, 26: spiritum novum ponam in medio vestri. Et Ez. XXXVII, 6: dabo vobis spiritum novum.
secundo quia datur cum quadam promissione; ex hoc enim ipso quod datur nobis, efficimur filii Dei. Nam per spiritum sanctum efficimur unum cum Christo, Rom. VIII, 9: si quis autem spiritum Dei non habet, hic non est eius, et per consequens efficimur filii Dei adoptivi, ex quo habemus promissionem haereditatis aeternae, quia si filii, et haeredes Rom. VIII, 17.
The Spirit is described as a promise for three reasons. First, he is promised to those who believe: “I will put a new spirit within you... And I will give you a new spirit” (Ez. 36:26, 37:6). Secondly, he is given with a certain promise, by the very fact that he is given to us we become the children of God. For through the Holy Spirit we are made one with Christ: “Anyone who does not have the Spirit of God, does not belong to him” (Rom. 8:9). As a result of being made adopted children of God, we have the promise of an eternal inheritance since “if sons, heirs also” (Rom. 8:17). Tertio dicitur pignus, inquantum facit certitudinem de promissa haereditate. Nam spiritus sanctus inquantum adoptat in filios Dei, est spiritus promissionis, et ipsemet est signum promissionis adipiscendae. Thirdly, he is termed a pledge inasmuch as he makes us certain of the promised inheritance. Adopting us into the children of God, the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of promise who also is the seal of the promise yet to be attained. Sed, ut dicitur in Glossa, alia littera habet qui est arra haereditatis, et forte melius, quia pignus est aliud a re pro qua datur, et redditur postquam ille, qui pignus recipit, rem sibi debitam recipit. Arra autem non est aliud a re pro qua datur, nec redditur; quia datur de ipso pretio, quod non est auferendum, sed complendum. Deus autem dedit nobis charitatem tamquam pignus, per spiritum sanctum, qui est spiritus veritatis et dilectionis. Et ideo huiusmodi non est aliud, quam quaedam particularis et imperfecta participatio divinae charitatis et dilectionis, quae quidem non est auferenda, sed perficienda, ideo magis proprie dicitur arra quam pignus. However, as is mentioned in a Gloss, a variant reading has who is the earnest of our inheritance, and perhaps this is a better rendering. For a pledge differs from the object in place of which it is given, and it must be returned once he who has received the pledge obtains the object due him. An earnest, however, does not differ from the object in place of which it is given, nor is it returned since it is a partial payment of the price itself, which is not to be withdrawn but completed. God communicates charity to us as a pledge, through the Holy Spirit who is the spirit of truth and love. Hence, this is nothing else than an individual and imperfect participation in the divine charity and love; it must not be withdrawn but brought to perfection. More fittingly, therefore, it is referred to as an earnest rather than as a pledge. Tamen potest nihilominus et pignus dici. Nam per spiritum sanctum Deus nobis diversa dona largitur, quorum quaedam manent in patria, ut charitas, quae nunquam excidit, I Cor. XIII, 8; quaedam vero propter sui imperfectionem non manent, sicut fides et spes, quae evacuabuntur ut ibidem dicitur. Sic ergo spiritus sanctus dicitur arra per respectum ad ea quae manent, pignus vero per respectum ad ea quae evacuabuntur. Nevertheless, it can also be called a pledge. For through the Holy Spirit God grants us a variety of gifts. Some of these will remain in the fatherland, as charity which “never comes to an end” (1 Cor. 13:8); while others will not last on account of their imperfection, such as faith and hope “which shall be done away” with (ibid., v. 10). Hence, the Spirit is called an earnest in reference to what will remain, and a pledge with respect to what will be done away with. Ad quid autem signati sumus, subdit, dicens in redemptionem. Nam si aliquis de novo aliqua animalia acquireret et adderet gregi suo, imponeret eis signa acquisitionis illius. Christus autem acquisivit populum ex gentibus. Io. X, 16: alias oves habeo, quae non sunt ex hoc ovili, et illas oportet me adducere, et cetera. Et ideo impressit eis signum acquisitionis. I Petr. II, 9: gens sancta, populus acquisitionis. Act. XX, 28: quam acquisivit sanguine suo. He adds the purpose for which we are signed as unto the redemption. For when a man buys new animals and adds them to his flock, he puts a mark on them to the effect that he has purchased them. Now Christ has purchased a people from the Gentiles. “Other sheep I have that are not of this fold; them also I must bring. And they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold and one shepherd” (Jn. 10:16). And on them he imprints a sign of purchase: “A holy nation, a purchased people” (1 Pet. 2:9) “which he has purchased with his own blood” (Ac. 20:28). Sed quia Christus acquisivit populum istum, non sic quod nunquam fuerit suus, sed quia aliquando fuerat suus, sed opprimebatur a servitute Diaboli, in quam peccando se redegit, ideo non dicit simpliciter acquisivit, sed addit in redemptionem, quasi dicat: non simpliciter de novo acquisiti, sed quasi a servitute Diaboli per sanguinem eius redempti. I Petr. I, 18: non corruptibilibus auro et argento redempti estis, et cetera. Acquisivit ergo Christus nos redimendo, non quod accrescat inde aliquid Deo; quia bonorum nostrorum non indiget. Iob XXXV, 7: si iuste egeris, quid donabis ei? Aut quid de manu tua recipiet? Ad quid autem acquisiverit nos Christus, subdit in laudem gloriae ipsius, id est ut ipse Deus laudetur. Is. XLIII, 7: qui invocat nomen meum, in gloriam meam creavi eum. Christ acquired this people, not because they never were his, but because they previously belonged to him and yet, by sinning, had sold themselves into a diabolical slavery which oppressed them. So it does not simply state that he acquired them but adds unto redemption, as though to say: You are not strictly a new acquisition; you are re-purchased from the slavery of the devil through his blood. “You were not redeemed with corruptible things as gold or silver, from the vain manner of life handed down from your fathers, but with the precious blood of Christ” (1 Pet. 1:18-19). Christ purchased us, therefore, through a redemption; not that this added anything to God since he needs none of our goods. “If you are rigtheous, what do you give him [God], or what does he receive of thy hand?” (Job 35:7). The purpose for which Christ acquired us is unto the praise of his glory, that God himself be praised since “everyone who is called by my name, I have created him for my glory” (Is. 43:7).
Therefore, after hearing of the faithfulness [shown] among you to the Lord Jesus and (of the love) toward all the saints, I, for my part, never cease to give thanks for you. When mentioning you in my prayers [I ask] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the all-glorious Father, give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation so that you may know him. [I ask] that he illumine the eyes of your hearts so that you may become aware of the hope to which he is calling you, what glorious riches are to be inherited among the saints, and how exceedingly great is his power over us believers. 15 διὰ τοῦτο κἀγώ, ἀκούσας τὴν καθ' ὑμᾶς πίστιν ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τὴν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους, 16 οὐ παύομαι εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν μνείαν ποιούμενος ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου, 17 ἵνα ὁ θεὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, δώῃ ὑμῖν πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως ἐν ἐπιγνώσει αὐτοῦ, 18 πεφωτισμένους τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας [ὑμῶν] εἰς τὸ εἰδέναι ὑμᾶς τίς ἐστιν ἡ ἐλπὶς τῆς κλήσεως αὐτοῦ, τίς ὁ πλοῦτος τῆς δόξης τῆς κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις, 19 καὶ τί τὸ ὑπερβάλλον μέγεθος τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ εἰς ἡμᾶς τοὺς πιστεύοντας 15 Wherefore, I also, hearing of your faith that is in the Lord Jesus and of your love towards all the saints, 16 Cease not to give thanks for you, making commemoration of you in my prayers, 17— That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and of revelation, in the knowledge of him; 18 The eyes of your heart enlightened, that you may know what the hope is of his calling and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, 19a And what is the exceeding greatness of his power towards us, who believe. Postquam enumeravit apostolus beneficia Ephesiis collata per Christum, hic ostendit quomodo affectus suus crevit ad eos. Dividitur autem haec pars in tres partes, After enumerating the blessings conferred on the Ephesians through Christ (1:13), the Apostle now reveals how his affection for them has grown. This section is divided into three parts:
quia primo praemittitur bonorum, quae audivit de eis, commemoratio;
secundo de perceptis beneficiis gratiarum debita actio, ibi non cesso gratias agens, etc.;
tertio subditur pro futuris beneficiis eius oratio, ibi memoriam vestri faciens, et cetera.
First, he begins by relating the good reports he has heard concerning them.
Secondly, he gives the thanks due for the blessings they have received : 16a).
Thirdly, he adds a prayer for future blessings (1: 16b-19a).
Bona autem quae de eis audivit, sunt duo, unum quo ordinantur ad Deum, et hoc est fides, et quantum ad hoc dicit propterea et ego audiens fidem vestram, quae est in Christo Iesu, quae quidem facit habitare Deum in homine. Infra III, 17: habitare Christum per fidem in cordibus vestris. Item, corda purificat. Act. XV, 9: fide purificans corda eorum. Item, sine lege iustificat. Rom. III, 28: arbitramur iustificari hominem per fidem sine operibus legis. Secundum quo ordinantur ad proximum, et hoc est dilectio, et quantum ad hoc dicit et dilectionem, id est opera charitatis, quae quidem dilectio est spirituale signum, quod homo sit discipulus Christi. Io. XIII, 35: in hoc cognoscent omnes, quia mei estis discipuli, si dilectionem, et cetera. Et ibidem XIII, 34: mandatum novum do vobis, ut diligatis invicem, et cetera. Dilectionem, dico, in omnes sanctos. Nam omnes quos ex charitate diligimus, debemus eos diligere vel ideo quia sancti sunt, vel ut sancti sint. Gal. VI, 10: dum tempus habemus, operemur bonum ad omnes, maxime autem ad domesticos fidei, et cetera. There were two good things which he heard about them. One was their faith by which they were properly orientated toward God; regarding this he remarked: Wherefore, I also, hearing of your faith that is in the Lord Jesus. Indeed, faith makes God dwell in man: “That Christ may dwell by faith in your hearts” (Eph. 3:17). Again, it purifies hearts: “purifying their hearts by faith” (Ac. 15:9). Moreover, it justifies without recourse to the Law: “for we account a man to be justified by faith, without the works of the law” (Rom. 3:28). The second good is love by which they are properly orientated toward their neighbor; in reference to this he says and of your love consisting in works of charity. This love is a spirittial sign that a man is a disciple of Christ: “A new commandment I give you: that you love one another, as I have loved you, so also you must love one another. By this shall all men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another” (Jn. 13:34-35). This love, I say, is towards all the saints. For everyone whom we love with charity, we ought to love either because they are holy or in order that they become holy. “While we have time, let us work good to all men, but especially to those who are of the household of the faith” (Gal. 6:10). Deinde cum dicit non cesso, etc., agit apostolus gratias de bonis et beneficiis huiusmodi auditis, dicens non cesso gratias agens, et cetera. Contra, quia non semper poterat continue pro eis gratias agere. Respondeo. Apostolus dicit non cesso, id est horis debitis; vel non cesso quia affectus gratias agendi pro vobis sine cessatione habitualiter est in me. Col. I, 9: non cessamus pro vobis orantes, et postulantes, et cetera. Rom. I, 9-10: sine intermissione memoriam vestri facio semper in orationibus meis. Next (1:16a), the Apostle gives thanks for these goods and blessings he has heard about, saying I cease not to give thanks for you. On the contrary, however, he could not have continually offered thanks for them. I reply. In saying I do not cease, the Apostle means at the required times; or, I do not cease because my attitude of thanksgiving for you is withmit intermission habitually with me. “We do not cease to pray for you, and to beg that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will, in all wisdom and spiritual understanding” (Col. 1:9). “I remember you constantly, always in my prayers making request” (Rom. 1:9-10). Consequenter orat apostolus pro beneficiis eis in futurum concedendis, et quantum ad hoc dicit memoriam vestri, et cetera. Et haec dividitur in tres, Consequently, the Apostle prays for the blessings that must be given them in the future. This has three divisions:
quia primo proponit quaedam quae eis petit;
secundo exponit ea, ibi in agnitionem eius, etc.;
tertio ostendit exemplar et formam illorum, ibi secundum operationem potentiae, et cetera.
First, he sets down certain ones that he asks for them.
Secondly, he explains these : 17b-19a).
Thirdly, he discloses the exemplar and form of these blessings (1: 19b ff.).
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: non solum gratias ago quantum ad beneficia praeterita, quae recepistis, et quantum ad bona audita de vobis, sed etiam oro ut omnino in futurum accrescant. Memoriam vestri faciens in orationibus meis, pro his scilicet, ut Deus domini nostri Iesu Christi, pater gloriae, et cetera. In regard to the first he says: Not only do I give thanks for past benefits which you have received and for the good reports concerning you, but I also pray that, by all means, these increase in the future, making commemoration of you in my prayers in behalf of these to the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory. Ubi sciendum quod dominus noster Iesus Christus et Deus et homo est. Et inquantum homo est, Deum habet, cum sit compositus ex anima et corpore, quorum utrique, cum sint creaturae, competit Deum habere; secundum autem quod Deus est, patrem habet. Io. XX, 17: ascendo ad patrem meum et patrem vestrum; Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Similiter etiam secundum quod est Deus, est gloria patris. Hebr. I, 3: qui cum sit splendor gloriae, et cetera. Est etiam gloria nostra, quia ipse est vita aeterna. I Io. c. ult., 20: simus in vero filio eius, hic est verus Deus, et vita aeterna. Sic ergo dicit ut Deus domini nostri Iesu Christi, secundum quod est homo, et pater eiusdem, secundum quod est Deus; pater, inquam, gloriae, scilicet Christi, qui est gloria eius, Prov. X, 1: gloria patris filius sapiens, etc., et gloriae nostrae, inquantum dat omnibus gloriam. It must be acknowledged, at this point, that our Lord Jesus Christ is both God and man. Insofar as be is man, be is related to God, since he is composed of body and soul, both of which, being creatures, are necessarily related to God. But according as he is God, he is related to the Father. “I ascend to my Father and to your Father, to my God and to your God” (Jn. 20:17). Likewise, as God he is the glory of the Father: “who, being the brightness of his glory, and the figure of his substance” (Heb. 1:3). He is also our glory because he himself is life eternal: “We are in his true Son, Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life” (1 Jn. 5:20). Therefore, he states the God of our Lord Jesus Christ in relation to him as man, and his Father in reference to him as God. I say the Father of glory, that is, of Christ who is his glory. “A wise son makes his father glad [Vul: is the glory of the father]” (Prov. 10:1); and of our glory, inasmuch as he communicates glory to all. Deinde cum dicit det vobis, etc., ponit ea quae petit, quae sunt duo. Ubi sciendum est, quod quaedam sunt dona communia omnibus sanctis, scilicet illa quae sunt necessaria ad salutem, ut fides, spes, charitas, et haec habebant, ut iam patet. Alia autem sunt dona specialia, et quantum ad hoc pro eis orat; primo quidem pro dono sapientiae, et quantum ad hoc dicit ut det vobis spiritum sapientiae, quem nullus potest dare, nisi Deus. Sap. IX, 17: sensum autem tuum quis sciet, nisi tu dederis sapientiam, et miseris spiritum sanctum tuum de altissimis?
secundo orat pro dono intellectus, et hoc consistit in revelatione spiritualium secretorum, propter quod dicit et revelationis, quae etiam a solo Deo est. Dan. II, 28: est Deus in caelis revelans mysteria.
Then he writes down the two things he asks for: the spirit of wisdom and of revelation. It must be realized here that certain gifts are common to all the saints and are necessary for salvation, such as faith, hope and charity. These they already possessed, as is evident. Then there are other special gifts; be prays that they receive these. First is the gift of wisdom when be says the spirit of wisdom whom no one can bestow except God: “Who ever knew your counsel, unless you had given wisdom, and sent thy Holy Spirit from above” (Wis. 9:17). The second gift prayed for is that of understanding which consists in the revelation of spiritual mysteries that God alone can give: “There is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries” (Dan. 2:28). Exponit autem quae sint ista quae petit, Next, he explains what he asks for:
et primo quod pertinet ad donum sapientiae;
secundo quod pertinet ad donum intellectus, ibi ut sciatis, quae sit spes, et cetera.
First, what pertains to the gift of wisdom.
Secondly, what pertains to the gift of understanding (1: 18b).
Ad donum autem sapientiae pertinet cognitio divinorum. Unde petere donum sapientiae est petere quod habeant cognitionem Dei, et hoc petit ibi in agnitionem Dei, etc., quasi dicat: hoc peto ut per spiritum sapientiae habeatis illuminatos oculos cordis vestri in agnitionem, scilicet clariorem, eius, scilicet Dei. Ps. XII, 4: illumina oculos meos, et cetera. Hoc est contra eos, qui habent oculos illuminatos tantum ad temporalia cognoscenda, cum magis tamen sit necessarium et etiam gloriosum cognoscere Deum. Ier. III, 23 s.: non glorietur sapiens in sapientia sua, et non glorietur dives in divitiis suis; sed in hoc glorietur, qui gloriatur, scire et nosse me. To the gift of wisdom belongs the knowledge of divine realities. Hence, to ask for the gift of wisdom is to ask that they enjoy a knowledge of God. He begs for this in saying in the knowledge of him, as if to say: I ask that, through the spirit of wisdom, you may have the eyes of your heart enlightened in a clearer knowledge of God. “Look at me, answer me, Yahweh my God! Enlighten my eyes; turn away the sleep of death” (Ps. 12:4). This is the opposite of those whose eyes are enlightened only with respect to temporal reality when it is more necessary and more glorious to know God. “Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom... and let not the rich man glory in his riches: but let anyone who boasts glory in this, that he understands and knows me” (Jer. 9:23-24). Ad donum autem intellectus tria pertinentia ponit: unum quantum ad statum praesentem, et duo quantum ad futurum. Ad statum vero praesentem pertinet spes, quae est necessaria ad salutem. Rom. VIII, v. 24: spe enim salvi facti sumus, et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc dicit ut sciatis quae, id est quanta, sit spes vocationis eius, id est virtus spei, et de quanta re sit. Quae quidem et maxima est, quia de maximis. I Petr. I, v. 3: regeneravit nos in spem vivam per resurrectionem Iesu Christi ex mortuis, et cetera. Et fortissima virtutum. Hebr. VI, 18: fortissimum solatium habeamus, qui confugimus ad tenendam propositam spem; quam sicut anchoram habemus animae, et cetera. Three aspects pertain to the gift of understanding, one of which has reference to the present life, and two to the future. Hope, which is necessary for salvation, belongs to the present condition: “for we are saved by hope” (Rom. 8:24). Concerning this he says that you may know what, that is, how great the hope is of his calling, meaning the virtue of hope and what an immense reality it is concerned with. This [hope] is of the utmost importance because it concerns the greatest realities: “He hath given us a new birth to a living hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead” (1 Pet. 1:3). It is also the strongest of the virtues: “that we who have fled for refuge may have strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us. This we have as a sure and firm anchor of the soul, which enters [the sanctuary] behind the veil” (Heb. 6:18-19). Sed quia ea quae speramus, sunt de futura vita, ideo alia duo pertinent ad vitam futuram; unum quidem pertinet ad omnes iustos communiter, quod est praemium essentiale, et quantum ad hoc, dicit et quae divitiae gloriae, et cetera. Ubi ponit quatuor ad illa dona pertinentia. Primum est, quod sunt copiosissima, et quantum ad hoc, dicit divitiae. Prov. I, 33: abundantia perfruetur, terrore malorum sublato. Ps. CXI, 3: gloria et divitiae in domo eius, et cetera. Prov. c. VIII, 18: mecum sunt divitiae et gloria, et cetera.
secundo quod sunt clarissima, et quantum ad hoc dicit gloriae. Rom. II, 10: gloria autem, et honor, et pax omni operanti bonum, et cetera.
tertio quod sunt stabilissima, et quantum ad hoc dicit haereditatis. Ea enim quae haereditaria sunt, stabiliter possidentur. Eccli. XXXI, 11: stabilita sunt bona illius in domino. Ps. XV, 5: dominus pars haereditatis meae et calicis, et cetera. Quarto, quod erunt intima, et quantum ad hoc dicit in sanctis. Rom. VIII, 18: non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis, et cetera. II Cor. IV, 17: supra modum in sublimitate gloriae pondus operatur in nobis.
Yet, since what we hope for concerns the future life, the other two aspects [of the gift of understanding] pertain to the future. One, the essential reward, is common to all the just; regarding which he says what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints. Here he writes down four characteristics of those gifts. First, they are most abundant, which he implies in riches. “He who obeys me will dwell secure, and be at ease without fear of evil” (Prov. 1:33); “Glory and wealth shall be in his house” (Ps. 112:3); “Riches and honor are with me, enduring wealth and prosperity” (Prov. 8:18). Secondly, they have the greatest clarity, regarding which he says of glory, “Glory, honor and peace to everyone who does good” (Rom. 2:10). Thirdly, they are the most enduring, in reference to which he states of his inheritance, for what is hereditary is possessed permanently. “His goods will be established” (Ecclus. 31:11); “Yahweh, you have portioned my cup of smooth wine; you have cast my lot. The lines have fallen on rich land for me; the Most High has marked out my estate.” (Ps. 16:5). Fourthly, he indicates that they will be most profound, as in the saints. “The sufferings of this time are not worthy to be compared with the glory to come that shall be revealed in us” (Rom. 8:18); “for this slight momentary affliction is preparing for us an incomparable eternal weight of glory” (2 Cor. 4:17). Aliud quod ponit pertinens ad futuram gloriam, est quod specialiter pertinet ad apostolos, unde dicit et quae sit (supple sciatis) supereminens magnitudo virtutis eius in nos, scilicet apostolos. Quasi dicat: licet omnibus sanctis abundanter divitias gloriae tribuat, supereminentius tamen tribuet apostolis. Magnitudo enim virtutis ostenditur in effectu. Unde quanto magis effectus virtutis divinae in aliquo invenitur, tanto ibi virtus divina maior ostenditur, licet in seipsa sit una et indivisa. Et ideo, quia maior effectus virtutis divinae est in apostolis, ideo magnitudo virtutis erit in eis. The other aspect [of the gift of understanding] which be sets down in reference to the future glory pertains especially to the Apostles. Hence he asks that you may know... what is the exceeding greatness of his power towards us, the Apostles. He seems to say: Although he bestows the riches of his glory abundantly on all the saints, he grants them in an exceedingly great measure to the Apostles. For the greatness of a power is gauged by what it does. Hence, the more the divine power accomplishes in someone, the more is that divine power revealed there—even though it is one and undivided in itself. Therefore, since a greater effect of the divine power is present in the Apostles, the greatness of this power will reside in them. Et quod maior sit in eis effectus ostendit, dicens qui credimus, id est qui sumus primitiae credentium. II Cor. IV, 13 s.: nos credimus, propter quod et loquimur, scientes quod ille, qui suscitavit Iesum, et nos cum Iesu suscitabit. Propter quod dicebat II Tim. c. I, 12: scio cui credidi, et cetera. He shows what this greater effect present in them is by saying we who believe; we who are the first-fruits among those who believe. “We also believe. For which cause we speak also, knowing that he who raised up Jesus will raise us up also with Jesus” (2 Cor. 4:13). “I know whom I have believed and I am certain that he is able to keep what I have committed unto him until the last day” (2 Tim. 1: 12). Ideo illi inter vos per quos alii instructi sunt et vocati ad fidem, sicut doctores, praeeminentius praemiabuntur; quia, ut dicitur in Glossa quoddam incrementum gloriae habebunt summi doctores ultra illud quod communiter omnes habebunt propter quod Dan. XII, 3 docti assimilantur splendori firmamenti, sed doctores assimilantur stellis: qui autem docti fuerint, fulgebunt quasi splendor firmamenti, et qui ad iustitiam erudiunt multos, quasi stellae in perpetuas aeternitates. Those among you, therefore, through whom others are taught and called to the faith—such as the doctors [of the sacred sciences]—will be rewarded in a preeminent way. Thus a Gloss states how “the great doctors will enjoy a certain increase in glory above that commonly possessed by all.” For the same reason, in Daniel 12 (3), the educated are likened to the brightness of the sky, while the doctors are the stars themselves: “Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the sky: and those who turn many to justice, as stars for all eternity.”
For that mighty strength is at work which God exerted in the Messiah when:
He has raised him from the dead.
He has enthroned him at his right hand in the heavens
above every government and authority,
power and dominion, and any title bestowed,
not only in this age but also in the age to come.
[Read Marcus Barth, “Principalities, Powers, and All things” (p. 170).]
19b κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ 20 ἣν ἐνήργησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ ἐγείρας αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν, καὶ καθίσας ἐν δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις 21 ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως καὶ κυριότητος καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι: 19b According to the operation of the might of his power, 20 Which he wrought in Christ, raising him up from the dead and setting him on his right hand in the heavenly places, 21 Above all principality and power and virtue and dominion and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. Enumeratis beneficiis, quae apostolus conferenda optat Ephesiis in futurum, hic consequenter ponit formam et exemplar illorum beneficiorum. Sicut autem vita Christi est forma et exemplar iustitiae nostrae, ita et gloria et exaltatio Christi est forma et exemplar gloriae et exaltationis nostrae. Ideo hic apostolus duo facit, Once he has listed the blessings which he hopes will be granted to the Ephesians in the future (1:16 ff.), the Apostle discusses the exemplar and form of those benefits. As the life of Christ is the model and form of our justice, so Christ’s glory and exultation is the form and exemplar of our glory and exaltation. Here the Apostle makes two points:
quia primo proponit formam exaltationis beneficiorum et donorum in generali;
secundo manifestat eam in speciali, ibi suscitans illum a mortuis, et cetera.
First, he proposes in a general manner the form of our exaltation with its blessings and gifts.
Secondly, he discusses it in detail (1:20b ff.).
Forma autem et exemplar operationis divinae in nos, est operatio divina in Christo. Et quantum ad hoc dicit secundum operationem, id est ad similitudinem operationis, potentiae virtutis eius, id est virtuosae potentiae Dei, quam operatus est in Christo, exaltans caput illud, supple: ita virtuose operabitur in nobis. Phil. III, 20 s.: salvatorem expectamus dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, qui reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, et cetera. Nos autem exaltari ad similitudinem exaltationis Christi frequenter legimus in Scriptura. Rom. VIII, 17: si compatimur, ut et glorificemur. Item Apoc. III, 21: qui vicerit, dabo ei sedere mecum in throno meo, sicut et ego vici et sedi cum patre meo in throno eius. The divine activity in Christ is the form and exemplar of the divine activity in us. In reference to this he states according to the operation, that is, in the likeness of the operation, of the might of his power, meaning the virtuous power of God, which he wrought in Christ exalting him who is the head. Understand that in this way he will mightily act in us. “We await a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transfigure our wretched body to be like his glorious body by the power which enables him to subject all things to himself” (Phil. 3:20-21). In Scripture we frequently read that we will be exalted in the likeness of Christ’s exaltation. For example, Romans 8 (17): “...provided we suffer with him, so as also to be glorified with him.” Or the Apocalypse 3 (21): “He who conquers I will grant him to sit with me in my throne; as I myself have conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.” Consequenter explicat formam et exemplar in speciali, manifestans ea quae pertinent ad exaltationem Christi, loquendo de Christo inquantum est homo, dicens suscitans illum, et cetera. Circa quod tria beneficia ponit exaltationis Christi. As a result, he specifies the form and exemplar in more detail, showing what pertains to the exaltation of Christ while speaking of him inasmuch as he is man (v. 20b ff.). He writes of three favors in the exaltation of Christ: Primum est transitus de morte ad vitam, et quantum ad hoc dicit suscitans illum a mortuis.
Secundum est exaltatio ad gloriam altissimam, et quantum ad hoc dicit constituens illum ad dexteram suam.
Tertium est sublimatio ad potentiam maximam, et quantum ad hoc dicit et omnia subiecit sub pedibus eius.
First, the transition from death to life, by raising him up from the dead.
Secondly, the exaltation to the utmost heights of glory, setting him on his right hand... (1:20b-21).
Thirdly, an elevation to the greatest of power, and he hath subjected all things under his feet... (1:22-23).
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: dico quod hoc erit secundum operationem quam operatus est in Christo, scilicet Deus pater eadem virtute, quam habet cum Christo. Unde et ipse Christus seipsum resuscitavit, et Deus pater eum resuscitavit. Rom. c. VIII, 11: si spiritus eius, qui suscitavit Iesum a mortuis habitat in vobis, qui suscitavit Iesum a mortuis, vivificabit et mortalia corpora vestra. Concerning the first he states that it was according to the operation which God the Father wrought in Christ by the same power which he shares with Christ. Christ both restored himself to life and was restored to life by the Father. “And, if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you; he that raised up Jesus Christ from the dead shall quicken also your mortal bodies, because of his Spirit that dwelleth in you” (Rom. 8: 11). Quantum vero ad secundum dicit constituens illum, et cetera. Quae quidem celsitudo gloriae potest tripliciter considerari, scilicet per comparationem ad Deum, per comparationem ad corporales creaturas, et per comparationem ad creaturas spirituales. Si ergo consideretur per comparationem ad Deum, sic constitutus est ad dexteram suam, quae quidem dextera non est intelligenda pars corporalis, quia, ut dicitur Io. IV, v. 24, spiritus est Deus, sed metaphorice dicitur, ut sicut per dexteram intelligitur nobilior et virtuosior pars hominis ita cum dicimus Christum Iesum constitutum ad dexteram Dei, intelligatur secundum humanitatem constitutus in potioribus bonis patris, et secundum divinitatem intelligatur aequalis patri. Unde Ps. CIX, 1: dixit dominus domino meo: sede a dextris meis, et cetera. Item Mc. ult.: et dominus quidem Iesus postquam locutus est eis, assumptus est in caelum, et sedet ad dexteram Dei. Setting him on his right hand refers to the second [element in Christ’s exaltation]. This height of glory can be viewed in three perspectives: in its relation to God, to material creatures, and to spiritual creatures. Considered in relation to God, he is seated at his right hand; this is not to be thought of as a bodily organ—“God is a Spirit” (Jn. 4:24)—but as a metaphorical way of speaking. The right hand is taken as a nobler and stronger part of man; so when we say that Christ Jesus is seated at the right hand of God, it should be understood that according to his humanity he partakes of the Father’s choicest blessings, and according to his divinity it is understood as equality with the Father. “Yahweh spoke to my lord: Take the throne at my right” (Ps. 109: 1); and the last chapter of Mark (16:19): “And the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat on the right hand of God.” In comparatione vero ad corporales creaturas dicit in caelestibus. Nam corpora caelestia tenent supremum locum in comparatione ad alia corpora. Infra, IV, 10: qui descendit, ipse est et qui ascendit super omnes caelos. In comparatione vero ad spirituales creaturas, primo dicit Christum exaltatum super aliquas specialiter;
secundo super omnes generaliter, ibi et super omne nomen, et cetera.
In heavenly places defines Christ’s relation to material creatures. For the heavenly bodies occupy the highest place in comparison to the other bodies; yet, “He who descended is he who also ascended above all the heavens” (Eph. 4:10). In relation to spiritual creatures, he first mentions that Christ is exalted over certain specific ones, and secondly, over all of them generally (1:21b). Ad horum autem intelligentiam sciendum est, quod novem sunt ordines Angelorum, quorum quatuor apostolus tangit hic, qui quidem sunt medii. Nam supra eos sunt tres superiores, scilicet throni, Cherubim et Seraphim. Sub eis autem sunt duo inferiores, scilicet Archangeli et Angeli. Qui quidem novem ordines distinguuntur in tres hierarchias, id est, sacros principatus, in quarum qualibet assignantur tres ordines. To understand this, note that there are nine ranks of angels, of which the Apostle here (1:21a) mentions only the four middle ranks. Above these are the three superior ranks of the Thrones, Cherubim and Seraphim. Below them are the two lower ranks of the Archangels and the Angels. These nine ranks are also differentiated into three hierarchies, or sacred authorities [principatus], each of which embraces three ranks. Sed in assignatione ordinum hierarchiae primae conveniunt omnes doctores in hoc scilicet quod supremus ordo ipsius sit Seraphim, secundus Cherubim, tertius throni. In assignatione vero ordinum aliarum duarum hierarchiarum, scilicet mediae et infimae, discordant Dionysius et Gregorius. Nam Dionysius in supremo ordine mediae hierarchiae ponit dominationes, in secundo virtutes, in tertio potestates, descendendo. In supremo vero ordine infimae hierarchiae posuit principatus, in secundo Archangelos, in tertio Angelos. Et haec assignatio ordinum concordat litterae praesenti. Nam apostolus ascendendo incipit a supremo infimae hierarchiae, qui est septimus. All the doctors agree in assigning the ranks of the First Hierarchy. The highest rank is the Seraphim, second are the Cherubim, third are the Thrones. In assigning the ranks among the Middle and Lower Hierarchies, however, Dionysius and Gregory disagree. Dionysius, [starting from the highest] and going down, places the Dominions as first in the Middle Hierarchy, the Virtues second, and the Powers third. In the first rank of the Lower Hierarchy he puts the Principalities, second are the Archangels and third are the Angels. This listing of the ranks is in accord with the present text where the Apostle begins, in an ascending order, from the first rank of Hierarchy, the seventh [down from the Seraphim]. Gregorius autem aliter ordinat, quia ponit principatus in medio dominationum et potestatum, quod pertinet ad secundum ordinem mediae hierarchiae; virtutes vero ponit in medio potestatum et Archangelorum, quod pertinet ad supremum ordinem infimae hierarchiae. Et haec assignatio etiam fulcimentum habet ex verbis apostoli, Col. III ubi dicit sive throni, sive dominationes, sive principatus, sive potestates, ubi illos ordines enumerat descendendo. Sed, reservata ordinatione Gregorii, usquequo legamus epistolam ad Colossenses, ad praesens viam Dionysii magis competentem praesenti litterae prosequemur. Gregory, on the other hand, arranges them differently. He places the Principalities between the Dominions and the Powers, which is the second rank of the Middle Hierarchy; while he puts the Virtues between the Powers and the Archangels, which is the first rank of the Lower Hierarchy. This arrangement is supported by the Apostle’s words in Colossians 1 (16): “For in him [Christ] were all things created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers,” where he enumerates those ranks in a descending order. Reserving Gregory’s classification until we lecture on the letter to the Colossians, for the present we will follow Dionysius’ approach since it accords with the text at hand. Ad cuius intellectum sciendum est, quod potest considerari tripliciter ordo rerum. To understand this, it should be realized that the structure of reality can be considered in three ways:
Primo quidem secundum quod sunt in prima omnium causa, scilicet in Deo;
secundo vero secundum quod sunt in causis universalibus;
tertio secundum determinationem ad speciales effectus.
Et quia omnia quae fiunt in creaturis ministrantur per Angelos, ideo secundum triplicem acceptionem ordinis rerum distinguuntur tres angelicae hierarchiae, ad quarum unam pertinet accipere rationes rerum in ipso rerum vertice, scilicet Deo; ad aliam vero pertinet accipere rationes rerum in causis universalibus; ad aliam vero in propriis effectibus. Nam quanto mentes angelicae sunt superiores, tanto divinam illuminationem in maiori universalitate recipiunt. Et ideo ad supremam hierarchiam pertinet administratio rerum in comparatione ad Deum. Propter quod ordines hierarchiae istius denominantur per comparationem ad Deum, quia Seraphim dicuntur ardentes, et uniti Deo per amorem. Cherubim vero quasi lucentes, in quantum supereminenter divina secreta cognoscunt. Throni vero dicuntur sic, in quantum in eis Deus sua iudicia exercet. Et de istis tribus ordinibus nullam facit hic apostolus mentionem. Since everything that happens among creatures occurs with the assistance of the angels, the three angelic hierarchies are distinguished according to the threefold way of conceiving the structure of reality. To one it belongs to grasp the intelligible patterns of things in the very summit of reality, God; it pertains to another to grasp the intelligible patterns of reality in the universal causes; while still another [understands these patterns] in the individual causes. For the higher the angelic minds are, the more do they receive divine illumination with greater universality. Therefore, the governance of reality in relation to God pertains to the First Hierarchy. On this account, the ranks of that hierarchy are named with reference to God. The Seraphim are so called because they are burning with love and through it are united to God. The Cherubim are, as it were, radiant inasmuch as they possess a supereminent knowledge of divine mysteries. The Thrones are so termed inasmuch as in them God carries out his judgments. Of these three ranks the Apostle makes no mention here. Ad mediam hierarchiam pertinet rerum administratio per comparationem ad causas universales. Unde denominantur ordines hierarchiae illius nominibus ad potestatem pertinentibus, cum causae universales sint virtute et potestate in inferioribus et particularibus. Ad potestates autem, quae habent universale regimen, tria pertinent. Primo quod sint aliqui per imperium dirigentes;
secundo quod sint aliqui qui impedimenta executionis repellant;
tertio quod sint aliqui qui ordinent qualiter alii imperium exequantur. Horum autem primum pertinet ad dominationes, quae, ut dicit Dionysius, sunt liberae ab omni subiectione, nec ad exteriora mittuntur sed eis, qui mittuntur, imperant. Secundum vero pertinet ad virtutes, quae praebent facilitatem ad imperium implendum. Tertium vero pertinet ad potestates imperium exequentes.
To the Middle Hierarchy belongs the governance of things in relation to the universal causes. Hence the ranks of this hierarchy have names associated with power since the universal causes are present in the lower and individual things by their energy and power. Three tasks pertain to these powers which govern universally. First, some must give direction by their commands; secondly, others must dispose of any impediments to the fulfillment [of those commands]; thirdly, some must arrange how others will carry out the commands. Of these, the first belongs to the Dominions who, as Dionysius remarks, are free from any subordination; nor are they sent out on external [missions] but they give orders to those who are sent. The second pertains to the Virtues who facilitate the execution of the commands. The third belongs to the Powers who carry out the commands. Ad infimam autem hierarchiam pertinet administratio rerum in comparatione ad speciales effectus, unde nominibus ad eos pertinentibus nuncupantur. Unde Angeli dicuntur illi, qui exequuntur ea quae pertinent ad salutem singulorum; Archangeli vero qui exequuntur ea quae pertinent ad salutem et utilitatem magnorum. Principatus vero dicuntur illi, qui praesunt singulis provinciis. On the Lower Hierarchy devolves the guidance of things in relation to individual causes, and they are named from the [classes of objects] consigned to them. Hence, those called Angels carry out what pertains to the salvation of individual persons. The salvation and utility of greater personages is entrusted to the Archangels. Principalities is the name of those who preside over each of the provinces. His ergo expositis, Christus super omnes est. De his vero quatuor apostolus specialem mentionem facit. Cuius ratio est, quia horum quatuor ordinum nomina a dignitate imponuntur; et quia agit de dignitate Christi, ideo hic specialiter eos nominat, ut ostendat Christum omnem dignitatem creatam excedere. Christ is above all of these ranks that have been discussed. The Apostle only makes a special mention of four of them. The reason is that the names of these four ranks are given them for their dignity, and since he is dealing with the dignity of Christ, he names them especially to show that Christ surpasses all created dignity. Consequenter cum dicit et omne nomen quod nominatur, etc., ostendit Christum exaltatum esse communiter supra omnem creaturam spiritualem. Dixerat enim supra Christum esse exaltatum super omnes creaturas spirituales, quae a potestate denominantur, sed quia praeter illos Angelorum ordines, in sacra Scriptura quidam alii ordines caelestium spirituum inveniuntur, scilicet Seraphim et Cherubim et throni, et de istis non fecerat mentionem, ideo ostendit Christum, secundum quod homo, supra omnes huiusmodi ordines esse exaltatum: propter quod subiungit, dicens et super omne nomen, etc., id est, non solum principatus sed super omne nominabile. Consequently, when he says and above every name that is named, he teaches that Christ has been exalted above every spiritual creature in general. He had stated previously that Christ was exalted above all the spiritual creatures whose names were related to power. However, in Sacred Scripture, besides those ranks of angels, other ranks of celestial spirits are mentioned; for instance, the Seraphim (Is. 6), Cherubim (Ez. 10, 11 and 41), and Thrones (Psalms), which be did not speak of. Therefore, he shows that Christ, as man, is exalted above all of these ranks by adding above every name that is named... [He surpasses] not only those who exercise authority but everything capable of being named. Sciendum est enim, quod nomen imponitur ad cognoscendum rem, unde significat rei substantiam, cum significatum nominis sit diffinitiva ratio rei. Cum ergo dicit et omne nomen quod nominatur, dat intelligere quod exaltatus est supra omnem substantiam, de qua potest haberi notitia et quae possit nomine comprehendi. Quod dico ut excludatur substantia divinitatis, quae incomprehensibilis est. Unde Glossa dicit supra omne nomen, id est nominabile. Et ne intelligatur, quod sit supra nomen Dei, ideo subdit quod nominatur. Nam maiestas divina nullo nomine concludi, vel nominari potest. For it should be recognized that a name is given to understand the object [referred to]; it signifies the object’s substance when what the name designates is the precise intelligibility of the object. In asserting every name that is named he lets us know that the exaltation is above every substance which can be known and comprehended by a name. I say this to exclude the substance of Divinity which is incomprehensible; so a Gloss remarks that above every name means everything that can be named. And lest it be thought that he is above the name of God, he inserts which is named. For the divine majesty can be neither embraced nor designated by a name. Addit autem non solum in hoc saeculo, sed etiam in futuro, quia multa fiunt in hoc saeculo, quae notitia comprehendimus et nominamus: quaedam tamen sunt in futuro saeculo, quae hic comprehendi non possunt, nec etiam nominari, quia, ut dicitur I Cor. c. XIII, 9: ex parte cognoscimus, et ex parte prophetamus. Nominantur tamen haec a beatis, qui sunt in futuro saeculo. Huiusmodi autem sunt de quibus dicit apostolus II Cor. XII, 4, quod audivit arcana verba, quae non licet homini loqui. Et tamen super haec omnia exaltatus est Christus. Phil. II, v. 9: dedit illi nomen, quod est super omne nomen. Not only in this world, but also in that which is to come is added because there are many facts in this life that we grasp through knowledge and which we name, whereas those of the future life cannot be comprehended or named: “We know in part; and we prophesy in part” (1 Cor. 13:9). Nevertheless, the blessed in the future life do name these latter; they are those realities of which the Apostle says in 2 Corinthians 12 (4), that “he heard things that cannot be told, which man may not utter.” Yet Christ is even exalted above these. “He gave him a name which is above all names” (Phil. 2:9).
He put everything under his feet
and appointed him, the head over all, to be head of the Church.
She is his body, full of him
who fills all things totally.
[Read Marcus Barth, “Head, body, and fullness” (p. 183).]
22 καὶ πάντα ὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ, καὶ αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν κεφαλὴν ὑπὲρ πάντα τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ, 23 ἥτις ἐστὶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ, τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν πληρουμένου. 22 And he hath subjected all things under his feet and hath made him head over all the church, 23 Which is his body and the fulness of him who is filled all in all. Supra egit apostolus de exaltatione Christi, et quantum ad eius transitum de morte ad vitam in illa particula suscitans illum, etc.; et de eius exaltatione ad gloriam altissimam, in illa particula et constituens ad dexteram, etc., hic agit de eius exaltatione quantum ad potestatem maximam. Circa quod duo facit, The Apostle has previously dealt with the exaltation of Christ both from the viewpoint of his passing over from death to life (1:20a), and from that of his exaltation to the highest glory (1:20b-21). Now be treats of the immense power of his exaltation. Concerning this he does two things:
quia primo agit de Christi potestate respectu totius creaturae;
secundo de eius potestate respectu Ecclesiae, ibi et ipsum dedit, et cetera.
First, he discusses the power of Christ with respect to the whole of creation.
Secondly, then his power in relation to the Church (22b23).
Dicit ergo, quod respectu totius creaturae habet universalem potestatem, quia omnia subiecit, scilicet Deus pater, sub pedibus eius. Ubi sciendum est, quod hoc quod dicit sub pedibus, potest accipi dupliciter. Uno modo, ut sit locutio figurativa et similitudinaria, ut scilicet per hoc detur intelligi, quod omnis creatura totaliter est subiecta potestati Christi. Illud enim est a nobis omnino subiectum, quod pedibus conculcamus. Et de ista potestate dicitur Matth. ult.: data est mihi omnis potestas in caelo et in terra. Hebr. II, 8: in eo enim, quod ei omnia subiiciuntur, nihil dimisit non subiectum ei. He affirms that, with respect to the whole of creation, Christ has universal power since God the Father hath subjected all things under his feet. The phrase under his feet can be taken in two ways. In one it is a figurative and symbolic way of saying that every creature is totally subject to the power of Christ. What we trample under foot is certainly subjected to us. Regarding this power the last chapter of Matthew (28:18) states: “All power is given to me in heaven and in earth.” “For in subjecting all things to him, he left nothing not subjected to him” (Heb. 2:8). Alio modo, ut sit locutio metaphorica. Nam per pedes intelligitur infima pars corporis, per caput vero suprema. Licet autem in Christo divinitas et humanitas non habeant rationem partis, tamen divinitas, quae est supremum in Christo, intelligitur per caput, I Cor. XI, 3: caput vero Christi Deus, humanitas vero, quae infima est, intelligitur per pedes, Ps. CXXXI, 7: adorabimus in loco ubi steterunt pedes eius. Est ergo sensus, quod omnia creata non solum subiecit pater Christo inquantum est Deus, cui ab aeterno omnia sunt subiecta, sed etiam humanitati eius. In another acceptation it is a metaphorical way of speaking. By the feet the lowest part of the body is understood, and by the head the highest. Although the humanity and divinity should not be thought of as parts of Christ, nonetheless the divinity is preeminent in Christ and may be understood as his head—“The head of Christ is God” (1 Cor. 11-3). The humanity is lower and may be taken as the feet—“Let us worship at his footstool” (Ps. 132:7). The meaning [of this passage] is then that the Father has not only subjected all of creation to Christ as he is God, to whom everything is subject from eternity, but also to his humanity. Advertendum est autem hic, quod Christo subiiciuntur aliqua dupliciter, quia quaedam voluntarie, et quaedam involuntarie. Hoc autem Origenes non intelligens, sumpsit ex hoc verbo apostoli occasionem erroris, dicens, quod omnia quae subiiciuntur Christo participant salutem, quia ipse est vera salus. Et ideo dixit, quod omnes Daemones et damnati aliquando salvabuntur, cum subiiciantur sub pedibus Christi. Hoc autem est contra sententiam domini Matth. XXV, 41: discedite a me, maledicti, in ignem aeternum, qui paratus est Diabolo et Angelis eius; et concludit in fine capituli: ibunt hi in supplicium aeternum. Notice how something may be subjected to Christ in two ways, some are so voluntarily and others involuntarily. Origen overlooked this distinction so that this saying of the Apostle occasioned an error on his part. He claimed that everything subjected to Christ, who is true salvation, must share in salvation. He concluded that the demons and damned will be saved at some time since they are subjected under Christ’s feet. But this is contrary to the Lord’s pronouncement: “Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire, which was prepared for the devil and his angels”; and he concludes at the end of the chapter, “And these shall go into everlasting punishment” (Mt. 25:41, 46). Dicendum est ergo, quod omnia subiecit sub pedibus eius, sed quaedam voluntarie tamquam salvatori, puta iustos, qui in vita praesenti implent voluntatem Dei, et isti subiiciuntur ei ut impleat eorum desiderium et voluntatem, expectantes illud quod dicitur de bonis Prov. X, 24: desiderium suum iustis dabitur. Quaedam vero subiiciuntur ei invite tamquam iudici, ut Christus de his suam voluntatem faciat. Et isti sunt mali, de quibus potest intelligi illud Lc. XIX, 27: verumtamen inimicos meos illos qui noluerunt me regnare super se, adducite huc et interficite coram me. It must be held, therefore, that he subjects everything under his feet. Some do so willingly, as to their Saviour. For example, the just who fulfill God’s will in the present life, and are subjected to him that they may satisfy their desire and will, awaiting for what Proverbs 10 (24) says of the good: “To the just their desire shall be given.” Others, however, are subjected to him unwillingly, as to their judge, that Christ may accomplish his own will in their regard. These are the wicked to whom those words in Luke 19 (27) are applicable: “But as for those my enemies, who would not have me reign over them, bring them here and kill them before me.” Deinde cum dicit et ipsum dedit caput, etc., agit de potestate Christi respectu Ecclesiae. Circa quod tria facit; Next (v. 22b), he deals with Christ’s power with respect to the Church. In reference to this he makes three points:
quia primo ponit habitudinem Christi ad Ecclesiam;
secundo habitudinem Ecclesiae ad Christum;
tertio exponit illam habitudinem.
First, be sets down the relation of Christ to the Church.
Secondly, the relation of the Church to Christ (1:23a).
Thirdly, be explains this relationship (1:23b).
Quantum ad primum dicit et ipsum dedit, Deus pater, caput super omnem Ecclesiam, scilicet tam militantem, quae est hominum in praesenti viventium, quam triumphantem, quae est ex hominibus et Angelis in patria. Christus enim secundum quasdam communes rationes caput est etiam Angelorum, Col. c. II, 10: qui est caput omnis principatus et potestatis; sed secundum speciales rationes est Christus caput hominum spiritualiter. Nam caput triplicem habitudinem habet ad membra. Primo quidem quo ad praeeminentiam in situ;
secundo, quo ad diffusionem virtutum, quia ab eo omnes sensus derivantur in membra; item, quo ad conformitatem in natura. Sic ergo quantum ad praeeminentiam et quantum ad diffusionem Christus est caput Angelorum.
Concerning the first, he says God the Father made him head over all the church, both of the Church militant, composed of men living in the present, and of the Church triumphant, made up of the men and angels in the fatherland. On account of certain general reasons, Christ is even the head of the angels—“who is the head of all principality and power” (Col. 2:10)—whereas Christ is spiritually the head of mankind for special reasons. For the head has a threefold relationship with the other members. First, it has a preeminent position; secondly, its powers are diffused [throughout the body] since all the senses in the members are derived from it; thirdly, it is of the same nature [as the other members]. Nam Christus praeest Angelis, etiam secundum humanitatem. Hebr. I, v. 4: tanto melior Angelis effectus, quanto prae illis differentius nomen haereditavit. Item Christus, etiam secundum quod homo, Angelos illuminat et in eis influit, ut Dionysius probat ex verbis Is. LXIII, 1 scilicet: quis est iste, qui venit de Edom, etc., dicens haec verba esse supremorum Angelorum. Quod autem sequitur: ego qui loquor iustitiam, dicit esse verba Christi eis immediate respondentis. Ex quo datur intelligi quod non solum inferiores, sed etiam superiores Angelos Christus illuminat. Thus, Christ is head of the Angels in regard to previninence and the diffusion [of his power]. Even in his humanity Christ surpasses the angels: “Being made so much better than the angels as he hath inherited a more excellent name than they” (Heb. 1:4). Moreover, even as man, Christ enlightens and influences them; Dionysius proves this from the words of Isaias 63 (1): “Who is this that comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosra?,” claiming that these words are those of the highest angels. The response which follows: “It is I, announcing justice mighty to save,” he says are the words of Christ who immediately answers them. From this it should be understood that Christ not only illumines the lower but also the higher angels. Quantum autem ad naturae conformitatem, Christus non est caput Angelorum, quia non Angelos apprehendit, sed semen Abrahae, ut dicitur Hebr. II, 16 sed est caput hominum tantum. Cant. IV, 9: vulnerasti cor meum, soror mea, scilicet per naturam, et sponsa per gratiam. With respect to a conformity of nature, Christ is not the head of the angels, “for surely he did not take angels to himself, but he took the line of Abraham” (Heb. 2:16). [By this relationship] he is head of men only. “You have wounded my heart, my sister,” through nature, “and my spouse,” through grace (Cant. 4:9). Quantum ad habitudinem Ecclesiae ad Christum, dicit quae est corpus eius, scilicet inquantum est ei subiecta, et recipit ab eo influentiam, et habet naturam conformem cum Christo. I Cor. XII, 12: sicut enim corpus unum est et habet multa membra, omnia autem membra corporis cum sint multa, unum tamen corpus sunt, ita et Christus; etenim in uno spiritu omnes nos in unum corpus baptizati sumus. He speaks of the relation of the Church to Christ at which is his body, inasmuch as she is subject to him, receives his influence, and shares the same nature with Christ. “Just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body” (1 Cor. 12:12-13). Exponit autem quod dixit, quae est corpus ipsius, subdens et plenitudo eius, et cetera. Quaerenti enim cur in corpore naturali sint tot membra, scilicet manus, pedes, os et huiusmodi, respondetur hoc esse ideo ut deserviant diversis operibus animae, quorum ipsa potest esse causa, principium, et quae sunt virtute in ipsa. Nam corpus est factum propter animam, et non e converso. Unde secundum hoc corpus naturale est quaedam plenitudo animae. Nisi enim essent membra cum corpore completa, non posset anima suas operationes plene exercere. He explains which is his body by adding the fulness of him. To one asking why there are so many members in a natural body—hands, feet, mouth, and the like it could be replied that they are to serve the soul’s variety of activities. [The soul] itself is the cause and principle of these [members], and what they are, the soul is virtually. For the body is made for the soul, and not the other way around. From this perspective, the natural body is a certain fullness of the soul; unless the members exist with an integral body, the soul cannot exercise fully its activities. Similiter itaque est hoc de Christo et de Ecclesia. Et quia Ecclesia est instituta propter Christum, dicitur quod Ecclesia est plenitudo eius, scilicet Christi, id est, ut omnia, quae virtute sunt in Christo, quasi quodam modo in membris ipsius Ecclesiae impleantur, dum scilicet omnes sensus spirituales, et dona, et quidquid potest esse in Ecclesia, quae omnia superabundanter sunt in Christo, ab ipso deriventur in membra Ecclesiae et perficiantur in eis. Unde subdit qui omnia in omnibus adimpletur, scilicet dum hunc quidem, qui est membrum Ecclesiae, facit sapientem secundum perfectam sapientiam, quae est in ipso: illum vero iustum secundum perfectam iustitiam, et sic de aliis. This is similar in the relation of Christ and the Church. Since the Church was instituted on account of Christ, the Church is called the fullness of Christ. Everything which is virtually in Christ is, as it were, filled out in some way in the members of the Church. For all spiritual understanding, gifts, and whatever can be present in the Church—all of which Christ possesses superabundantly—flow from him into the members of the Church, and they are perfected in them. So he adds who is filled all in all since Christ makes this member of the Church wise with the perfect wisdom present in himself, and he makes another just with his perfect justice, and so on with the others.