Lectio LECTURE I 1 ταῦτα λελάληκα ὑμῖν ἵνα μὴ σκανδαλισθῆτε. 2 ἀποσυναγώγους ποιήσουσιν ὑμᾶς: ἀλλ' ἔρχεται ὥρα ἵνα πᾶς ὁ ἀποκτείνας ὑμᾶς δόξῃ λατρείαν προσφέρειν τῷ θεῷ. 3 καὶ ταῦτα ποιήσουσιν ὅτι οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τὸν πατέρα οὐδὲ ἐμέ. 4 ἀλλὰ ταῦτα λελάληκα ὑμῖν ἵνα ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἡ ὥρα αὐτῶν μνημονεύητε αὐτῶν ὅτι ἐγὼ εἶπον ὑμῖν. ταῦτα δὲ ὑμῖν ἐξ ἀρχῆς οὐκ εἶπον, ὅτι μεθ' ὑμῶν ἤμην. 1 "I have said all this to you to keep you from falling away. 2 They will put you out of the synagogues; indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. 3 And they will do this because they have not known the Father, nor me. 4 But I have said these things to you, that when their hour comes you may remember that I told you of them. I did not say these things to you from the beginning, because I was with you." Supra consolatus est dominus discipulos quibusdam rationibus de suo recessu, et de persecutionibus et tribulationibus eis superventuris; hic easdem rationes manifestius explicat, et primo ponitur rationum explicatio supra positarum; secundo insinuatur effectus explicationis in discipulis, ibi dicunt ei discipuli: ecce nunc palam loqueris et cetera. 2068 Above, our Lord had used certain considerations to console his disciples over his leaving and against the persecutions and tribulations that would come upon them. Here he amplifies these considerations more clearly. First, he explains the considerations he gave before; and secondly, we see the effect of this explanation on the disciples (v 29). Dominus autem, si bene considerentur ea quae in superioribus duobus capitulis dicta sunt, discipulos consolari intendebat de duobus: de recessu suo, et tribulationibus eis superventuris et rationes ad haec duo hic explicat, ordine retrogrado. Cuius ratio est, quia cum recessus suus statim immineret, nec adhuc eis tribulationes superventuras praenuntiaverat, ideo primo consolatus est eos de recessu. Sed quia iam ex praenuntiatis eis tribulationibus videbantur magis affici ad tribulationes, quam ad recessum Christi, ideo hic primum consolatur eos de his tribulationibus superventuris; secundo de recessu suo, ibi et nunc vado ad eum qui misit me. Circa primum tria facit. Primo manifestat suam intentionem; secundo praenuntiat discipulis tribulationum persecutionem, ibi absque synagogis facient vos etc.; tertio subdit persecutionis rationem, ibi et haec facient vobis. If we pay close attention to what was said in the pervious two chapters, we can see that our Lord aimed at consoling his disciples against two things: his own leaving them, and the tribulations that would come upon them. But he here explains these two things in reverse order. He had consoled them first over his leaving because this would take place very soon and he had not yet foretold all the tribulations that would come upon them. But now, since they seemed to be more troubled by their own tribulations than by Christ's leaving, our Lord here consoles them first of all against their forthcoming trials, and then against his leaving (v 5). He does three things concerning the first: first, he gives his intention; secondly, he mentions the tribulations they will suffer from being persecuted (v 2); thirdly, he tells why they will be persecuted (v 3). Dicit ergo: dixi quod Iudaei oderunt me et vos, quia non cognoverunt eum qui me misit. Et sunt inexcusabiles, et spiritus sanctus et vos testificabimini contra illos. Sed haec omnia ideo locutus sum vobis, ut non scandalizemini; idest ut cum venerint tribulationes quas praenuntio vobis, sitis absque scandalo. Et merito post promissionem spiritus sancti scandalum prohibet, quia spiritus sanctus est amor, amor autem Dei diffusus est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis: Rom. V, 5, et omnem propellit scandalum, Ps. CXVIII, 165: pax multa diligentibus legem tuam, et non est illis scandalum. Amicorum autem est negligere damnum propter amicum, ut dicitur Prov. XII, 26. Amicis ergo Dei non est scandalum, poenas et damna pati pro Christo. Quia vero ante mortem Christi discipuli spiritum sanctum non acceperunt, ideo in passione Christi scandalizati sunt; Matth. XXVI, 31: omnes vos scandalum patiemini in me in nocte ista. Sed post adventum spiritus sancti omnino absque scandalo fuerunt. 2069 He says: I have said that the Jews hate me and you, because they do not know who sent me. I have said that they are inexcusable and that you and the Holy Spirit will bear witness against them. Now I have said all this to you to keep you from falling away, that is, so you don't fall away when the tribulations I have foretold come upon you. And it is fitting that our Lord restrains them from falling after promising the Holy Spirit, because the Holy Spirit is love ‑ "God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us" (Rom 5:5) ‑ and the Holy Spirit prevents stumbling: "Great peace have those who love your law; nothing can make them stumble" (Ps 119:165). Now it is characteristic of friends that they disregard any loss for the sake of one another, as stated in Proverbs [12:26]. So, for one who is a friend of God, to suffer punishment and loss is no reason to fall away. Yet because the disciples had not yet received the Holy Spirit before the death of Christ, they did fall away during his passion: "You will all fall away because of me this night" (Mt 26:31). But after the Holy Spirit came there was no falling away. Sed possent dicere discipuli: numquid est nobis materia scandali? Immo, quia tribulationes multae supervenient nobis, et primo quidem, exclusionis; secundo interfectionis. 2070 The disciples might say: Don't we have reason to fall away? Many troubles will come upon us: first, that of rejection; secondly, we will be killed. Exclusionis quidem a consortio Iudaeorum, unde dicit absque synagogis facient vos; supra IX, 22: iam conspiraverant Iudaei ut si quis confiteretur ipsum esse Christum, extra synagogam fieret. Et hoc intantum invaluit quod aliqui ex principibus in Christum credentes timebant propter hoc publice confiteri, ut habetur supra XII, 42. Hanc exclusionem praenuntiat Lc. VI, 22: beati eritis cum vos oderint homines, et eiecerint nomen vestrum tamquam malum propter filium hominis. 2071 They will be rejected from the society of the Jews; so he says, They will put you out of the synagogues: "The Jews had already agreed that if any one should confess him to be Christ, he was to be put out of the synagogue" (9:22). This was so successful that for this reason some of the [Jewish] authorities who did believe in Christ were afraid to profess him publicly, as we read above (12:42). Christ foretold this rejection: "Blessed are you when men hate you, and when they exclude you and revile you, and cast out your name as evil, on account of the Son of man" (Lk 6:22). Sed numquid malum erat apostolis extra synagogam Iudaeorum fieri, cum ipsi essent ab eo recessuri? Ad quod dicendum, secundum Augustinum, quod in hoc erat eis tribulatio, quia per hoc dabat dominus intelligere quod Iudaei non erant recepturi Christum. Nam si Christum recepissent, eadem fuisset synagoga Iudaeorum et Ecclesia Christi; et qui converterentur ad Ecclesiam Christi, conversi ad synagogam Iudaeorum fuissent. 2072 Was it an evil for the apostles to be cast out of the Jewish synagogues, since they were going to leave them in any case? The answer, according to Augustine, is that it was a trial for them, because this was our Lord's way of telling them that the Jews would not accept Christ. For if they had received Christ, the synagogue of the Jews and the Church of Christ would have been the same; and those who would be converted to the Church of Christ would have been converted to the synagogue of the Jews. Interfectionis autem: sed venit hora ut omnis qui interficit vos, arbitretur obsequium se praestare Deo. Haec quidem verba possunt accipi quasi in consolationem discipulorum dicta, ut ly sed accipiatur adversative, ut sit sensus: quasi consolari debetis ex hoc quod vobis facient, sed venit hora ut omnis qui interficit vos, arbitretur obsequium se praestare Deo. Sed qualis consolatio poterat eis esse, haec scilicet, ut omnis qui interficeret eos arbitraretur se obsequium praestare Deo? Ad quod dicendum, secundum Augustinum, quod per hoc quod dixerat absque synagogis facient vos, dabatur intelligi quod illi qui converterentur ad Christum, statim a Iudaeis occidendi erant: et ideo ad eorum consolationem dicit eis dominus, quod tam multos Christo acquisituri erant, expulsi de Iudaeorum congregationibus, ut eos extirpare non possent; et propter hoc mortem eis intentare studerent, ne omnes ad nomen Christi sua praedicatione converterent. 2073 The other trial is that of being killed: indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. We can take these words as spoken to console the disciples, so that the indeed signifies a contrary train of thought and the sense would be: indeed, you ought to be consoled by what they will do to you, for the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. How is it a consolation for them that whoever kills them thinks he is serving God? The answer, according to Augustine, is that in saying, they will put you out of the synagogues, we are to understand that those converted to Christ would be immediately killed by the Jews. And so to console his disciples our Lord tells them that they would win so many to Christ, who would be expelled from the Jewish synagogues, that they could not all be killed, and so the Jews would try to kill the apostles so they would not convert all the people to the name of Christ by their preaching. Vel dicendum, quod in hoc praedixit eis tribulationem interfectionis. Or, we could say that here Christ is simply telling them beforehand that they will be killed. Dicit autem arbitretur obsequium se praestare Deo, non diis, ut det intelligere hoc dici solum de persecutione Iudaeorum; Matth. XXIII, 34: ecce ego mitto ad vos sapientes et Scribas; et ex illis occidetis et crucifigetis. Nam martyres Christi occisi sunt a gentilibus, non tamen illi arbitrati sunt Deo sed diis suis solum obsequium se praestare. Ideo autem Iudaei, Christi praedicatores occidentes, putabant Deo se praestare obsequium, quia zelum Dei habebant, sed non secundum scientiam: credebant enim quod desereret Deum Israel quicumque converteretur ad Christum. De ista interfectione dicitur in Ps. XLIII, 22: propter te mortificamur tota die; aestimati sumus sicut oves occisionis. 2074 He says, whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God, and not to the gods, to show that he is speaking only of persecution from the Jews: "I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify" (Mt 23:34). The martyrs of Christ were killed by the gentiles, and they did not consider that they were serving God but only their own gods. It was the Jews who, when they killed those who were preaching Christ, thought this was a service to God. For they had zeal for God, but without knowledge, since they believed that anyone who converted to Christ was deserting God. We read of this killing: "For your sake we are slain all the day long, and accounted as sheep for the slaughter" (Ps 44:22). Rationem dictorum assignat, dicens et hoc facient vobis, quia non noverunt patrem neque me et primo rationem futurae persecutionis; secundo rationem praenuntiationis, ibi sed haec locutus sum vobis. 2075 He gives the reason why this will be so (v 3), first stating the reason, and then saying why he foretold this persecution (v 4). Dicit ergo: persequentur vos, et haec facient vobis, non propter zelum veritatis, sed quia non noverunt patrem, inquantum scilicet est pater, neque me, filium suum; supra VIII, 19: si me sciretis, et patrem meum forsitan sciretis; I Tim. I, 13: qui prius fui blasphemus et persecutor, (...) misericordiam Dei consecutus sum, quia ignorans feci in incredulitate. 2076 He says, they will persecute you, but they will do this, not out of zeal for the truth, but because they have not known the Father, as Father, nor me, his Son: "If you did know me, perhaps you would have known my Father also" [8:19]; "I formerly blasphemed and persecuted and insulted him; but I received mercy because I had acted ignorantly in unbelief" (1 Tim 1:13). Sed posset dici: si per ignorantiam fidei Iudaei vos sunt persecuturi, quare ergo praedixit vobis? Et ideo cum dicit sed haec locutus sum vobis, ut cum venerit hora eorum, reminiscamini quia ego dixi vobis, primo ponit causam praenuntiationis; secundo causam dilationis ad praenuntiandum, ibi haec autem ab initio non dixi. 2077 One could ask: If the Jews are going to persecute you because of their ignorance of the faith, why did Christ foretell this to you? So Christ first gives the reason why he foretold this; and secondly, why he did not tell them before (v 4). Dicit ergo. Ideo autem haec locutus sum vobis, ut cum venerit hora eorum, reminiscamini quia ego dixi vobis. Hora aliquorum venire dicitur quando possunt implere quod desiderant, et facere quod volunt; Sap. II, 7: non praetereat nos flos temporis, scilicet apti ad voluptates exercendas. Hora ergo Iudaeorum tunc veniet quando poterunt exercere persecutiones in vobis. Sed haec est hora nocturna. Lucae c. XXII, 53: haec est hora vestra et potestas tenebrarum et cetera. 2078 He says, But I have said these things to you, that when their hour comes you may remember that I told you of them. The hour is said to come for people when they are able to accomplish what they desire and do what they want: "Let not the flower of time," that is, the hour ripe for indulging in pleasures, "pass us by" [Wis 2:7]. So the hour of the Jews will come when they are able to begin to persecute you. This is the hour of darkness: "But this is your hour, and the power of darkness" (Lk 22:53). Reminiscamini quia ego dixi vobis. Quod quidem ad duo valet. Quia scilicet quando recordati sunt in tribulationibus existentes, quod eas Christus praedixerat eis, cognoverunt eius divinitatem, et magis confisi sunt de eius adiutorio. Item per hoc quod aliquis praevidit tribulationes sibi imminentes, minus affligitur, quia praevisa iacula minus feriunt. Et rationem huius assignat Tullius in Lib. de Tusculanis quaest. Bona enim et mala temporalia quanto magis cognoscuntur, tanto minora reputantur. Divitiae enim maiores reputantur a non habentibus eas, quam ab eisdemmet postquam habentur. Similiter etiam tribulationes antequam habeantur magis timentur et contristativae creduntur antequam superveniant, quam postquam supervenerunt et praesentes sunt. Malum autem quando praemeditatur, efficitur quasi praesens, et ex ipsa praesentia minus reputatur. Unde dicit quod sapiens ex praemeditatione potest accipere consolationem de tristitia superventura, quam aliqui recipiunt assiduitate tristitiae imminentis. Sic ergo duplici de causa eis tribulationes praenuntiat: ad spem eorum sublevandam de eius adiutorio, et ad tristitiam minuendam. That you may remember that I told you of them. This would help in two ways. In the midst of their persecutions, when they recalled that Christ had predicted them, they would realize his divinity and become more confident of his help. Again, when people foresee that tribulations are soon to come, they are less afflicted by them, for forewarned is forearmed. Cicero gives the reason for this in his Tusculan Questions. The better temporal goods and evils are known, he says, the less they are regarded. Thus, riches are more highly regarded by those who don't have them than by the same people after they acquire them. In the same way, troubles are more feared and considered more oppressive before they are experienced than when they have come and are present. Now when evil is meditated upon before it actually comes, this makes it present in a certain sense, and because of this presence it is less regarded. So Cicero says that one who is wise, by premeditation on evils before they strike, can acquire strength against the sadness they will bring. Accordingly, Christ foretold the apostles about their tribulations for two reasons: to increase their confidence in his help, and to lessen their sadness. Hic assignat causam quare non ante eis praedixit haec, scilicet, quia vobiscum eram. Quod potest referri ad duo praedicta. Primo ad sublevandam spem: nam cum vobiscum eram, de meo adiutorio confisi non dubitabatis; modo autem quando videbitis me mori, dubitare poteritis de mea potestate: et ideo necessarium est ut praenuntiem futura, per quae cognoscatis meam divinitatem et potestatem. Vel potest referri ad secundum, ut sit sensus: vobiscum eram protegens vos et totum pondus super me suscipiens; infra XVII, 12: pater, cum essem cum eis, ego servabam eos quos dedisti mihi. Sed quia recessurus sum a vobis, totum pondus tribulationis remanebit vobis: et ideo oportet ut non sint vobis improvisae. 2079 Here he gives the reason why he did not foretell these things to them before, namely, because I was with you. We can relate this to the two points just mentioned. First, to the increasing of their hope. While I was with you, you had confidence in my help. But now that you will see me die, you might doubt my power. Consequently, I must foretell certain things that are to come so that you may realize my divinity and power. Or, we can refer this to the second point, and then the meaning becomes this: I was with you, protecting you, and letting you cast all your troubles on me ‑ "Father ... while I was with them, I kept them in your name" (17:12). But since I am about to leave you, the entire weight of your troubles will fall upon yourselves. And so it is necessary that your be forewarned. Sed videtur quod dominus ante hanc horam praedixerit, quia alii tres Evangelistae narrant dominum ante hoc tempus praedixisse discipulis quod tradendi essent ante reges et praesides, et in synagogis Iudaeorum flagellandi. Sed dicendum, quod hoc non contrariatur huic quod dominus dicit haec vobis ab initio non dixi, quia illi dicunt dominum hoc dixisse in monte oliveti, quod fuit imminente passione tribus diebus antequam ventum esset ad coenam. Unde hoc quod dicit ab initio, non refertur ad tempus passionis, sed ad tempus quo primo fuit cum discipulis, ut Augustinus dicit. 2080 Yet it seems that our Lord did predict similar things before, for the other Evangelists tells us that before this the Lord foretold to his disciples that they would be handed over to the authorities and rulers and that they would be scourged in the Jewish synagogues. This is not at odds with what our Lord says here, I did not say these things to you from the beginning, because they said that our Lord said this to them on the Mount of Olives, when his passion was near, that is, three days before the last supper. So the phrase, from the beginning, does not refer to the time of the passion, but to the time [of his public ministry, before the time of his passion] when he was first with his disciples, as Augustine says. Sed contra hoc est, quod Matth. c. X, 16, dicitur, quod dominus praenuntiavit discipulis tribulationes superventuras, non solum imminente passione, sed ab initio electionis eorum. Ecce, inquit, mitto vos sicut oves in medio luporum. Et ideo dicendum, quod hoc quod dicit ab initio, non est intelligendum solum de tribulationibus superventuris, sed de adventu spiritus sancti, quem non praenuntiavit eis ab initio, ut Augustinus dicit. 2081 But this conflicts with Matthew. For he says that our Lord foretold that tribulations would come to the disciples not only when his passion was fast approaching, but even when he first chose them: "I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves" (Mt 10:16). One must say then that from the beginning refers to the Holy Spirit, for he did not tell them of the coming of the Holy Spirit from the beginning, as Augustine says. Vel dicendum, secundum Chrysostomum, quod intelligendum est de tribulationibus. Et tunc quod dicit ab initio, dicit propter duo quae hic eis de novo praedixit: unum scilicet, quod essent passuri tribulationes a Iudaeis, quod eis ante non dixerat, sed solum a gentibus, ut patet Matth. X, 22; aliud, quod supra praedixit eis, quod flagella passuri essent, hic autem addit unum quod maxime poterat eos attonitos facere, scilicet quod mors eorum reputaretur a Iudaeis obsequium. Or, it could be said, with Chrysostom, that Christ is referring to their tribulations. In this case, he did not tell them from the beginning two things which he now newly foretells. One is that they would suffer persecutions from the Jews, which he had not said previously, but had only mentioned the gentiles, as is clear from Matthew (10). The second regards something he had previously foretold them, which was that they would be scourged. But he now adds an element which was especially troublesome, which was that the Jews would regard their death as a service to God.
Lectio 2 LECTURE 2 5 νῦν δὲ ὑπάγω πρὸς τὸν πέμψαντά με, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐξ ὑμῶν ἐρωτᾷ με, ποῦ ὑπάγεις; 6 ἀλλ' ὅτι ταῦτα λελάληκα ὑμῖν ἡ λύπη πεπλήρωκεν ὑμῶν τὴν καρδίαν. 7 ἀλλ' ἐγὼ τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγω ὑμῖν, συμφέρει ὑμῖν ἵνα ἐγὼ ἀπέλθω. ἐὰν γὰρ μὴ ἀπέλθω, ὁ παράκλητος οὐκ ἐλεύσεται πρὸς ὑμᾶς: ἐὰν δὲ πορευθῶ, πέμψω αὐτὸν πρὸς ὑμᾶς. 5 "But now I am going to him who sent me; yet none of you asks me, 'Where are you going?' 6 But because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your hearts. 7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Counselor [Paraclete] will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you." Supra explicavit dominus rationes consolatorias contra tribulationes discipulis superventuras, hic explicat rationes consolatorias de recessu suo. Consolatus est autem eos dominus de recessu suo triplici ratione. Primo ratione accessus eorum ad patrem quem promittebat; unde dicebat: non turbetur cor vestrum (...) in domo patris mei mansiones multae sunt. Secundo ratione Paracliti quem missurus erat; unde dicebat: et ego rogabo patrem, et alium Paraclitum dabit vobis. Tertio ratione iteratae suae visionis, quam asserebat: non relinquam, inquam, vos orphanos: veniam ad vos. Has autem tres rationes explicat hic, sed ordine retrogrado, et primo promissionem spiritus Paracliti; secundo iteratam sui visionem, ibi modicum, et iam non videbitis, me; et iterum modicum, et videbitis me; tertio introductionem ad patrem, ibi et in illo die me non interrogabitis. Circa primum duo facit. Primo praemittit necessitatem consolationis; secundo ponit eam, ibi sed ego veritatem dico vobis et cetera. Circa primum duo facit. Primo praenuntiat suum recessum; secundo ostendit huius praenuntiationis effectum, ibi sed quia haec locutus sum vobis, tristitia implevit cor vestrum. 2082 Above, our Lord dealt with what would console his disciples in their coming troubles. Here he deals with what will console them against his leaving. Our Lord consoles them against his leaving with three considerations: first, they will have access to the Father, as promised when he said, "Let not your hearts be troubled ... In my Father's house there are many rooms" (14:1); secondly, because he was going to send the Paraclete, and so he said, "And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Paraclete" [14:16]; thirdly, they will see him again, as he said, "I will not leave your orphans; I will come to you" [14:18]. He explains these three things here, but not in the above order. First, we see the promise of the Spirit; secondly, the fact that they will see him again (v 16); thirdly, we see their access to the Father. He does two things with the first: first, he mentions that they need some consolation; secondly, he gives it (v 7). He does two things with the first: first, he foretells his leaving them; secondly, he mentions the effect of this prediction (v 6). Recedit ergo ad patrem vadens; et ideo dicit: vobiscum eram, usque modo, sed nunc vado ad eum qui me misit, idest patrem: quod quidem perfectionis est. Tunc enim unaquaeque res perficitur cum ad suum principium redit; Tob. XII, 20: tempus est ut revertar ad eum qui me misit. Eccle. I, 7: ad locum unde exeunt flumina, revertuntur. Ibat quidem secundum humanitatem ad eum apud quem ab aeterno erat secundum divinitatem. Et hoc diffusius expositum est in praecedentibus. 2083 He is leaving them, going to the Father. He says, I was with you till now, but now I am going to him who sent me, that is, to the Father. This is a mark of perfection, for a thing reaches its perfection when it returns to its source: "I am ascending to him who sent me" (Tob 12:20); "The rivers return to the place from which they came" [Sir 1:7]. He went, in his human nature, to the one with whom he was from all eternity, in his divine nature. This was explained more fully before. Sed addit nemo ex vobis interrogat me, quo vadis? Sed quid est hoc quod dicit? Nonne Petrus interrogavit, supra XIII, 36: domine, quo vadis? Et Thomas, supra XIV, 5: nescimus quo vadis? 2084 He adds, yet none of you asks me, Where are you going? Why does he says this? For Peter asked, "Lord, where are you going?" (13:36); and Thomas said, "Lord, we do not know where you are going" (14:5). Both Chrysostom and Augustine give an answer to this, but not the same one. Et ideo huic quaestioni respondent Chrysostomus et Augustinus; sed aliter et aliter. Chrysostomus enim dicit, quod discipuli audientes quod deberent interfici et absque synagogis fieri, ita tristati et attoniti facti sunt, ut quasi obliti de recessu Christi et locutionem amittentes, eum de suo recessu non interrogarent. Unde subdit sed quia haec locutus sum vobis, tristitia implevit cor vestrum. Et sic dominus dicens et nunc vado ad eum qui misit me, eos potius increpat, secundum Chrysostomum. Et hoc non interrogabant; Deut. XXXII, 7: interroga patrem tuum, et annuntiabit tibi; Eccli. VI, 28: investiga illam, et manifestabitur tibi. Chrysostom says that when the disciples heard that they would be killed and cast out of the synagogues, they became so sad and stunned that they practically forgot about Christ's leaving them and losing the thread of his thought did not ask him about this. So Christ says, but because I have said these things to you, sorrow has filled your hearts. Thus when our Lord says, But now I am going to him who sent me; yet none of you asks me, Where are you going? he is really reproving them, according to Chrysostom. They did not question him about this: "Ask your Father, and he will show you" (Deut 32:7); "Search out and seek, and she will become known to you" (Sir 6:28). Augustinus autem vult quod hoc quod dicit nunc vado ad eum qui misit me, non sit pro illo instanti quo loquebatur, sed pro tempore quo ascensurus erat in coelum; quasi diceret: superius interrogastis me quo irem, sed nunc ita vado quod non est necesse ut aliquis vestrum interroget me, quo vadis? Quia, ut dicitur Act. I, 9, videntibus illis elevatus est. Augustine, on the other hand, thinks that the statement, But now I am going to him who sent me, does not refer to this very time when he is speaking, but refers to the time when he was to ascend into heaven. It was like saying: You asked me before where I was going; but I will be going now in such a way that you will not have to ask me, Where are you going? because "as they were looking on, he was lifted up" (Acts 1:9). Hic ponitur tristitia, quae est effectus praenuntiationis, secundum Chrysostomum; sed, secundum Augustinum tristantur de recessu: gaudebant enim de praesentia Christi quodam modo carnali affecti ad humanam eius speciem, sicut homo delectatur de praesentia amici: et ideo de recessu eius tristabantur; Ps. XXIX, 6: ad vesperam, scilicet passionis, demorabitur fletus, in apostolis, et ad matutinum, resurrectionis, laetitia. Sed quia humanum est quod tristitia cor tangat, vitiosum autem quod cor impleat, quia per hoc ratio turbatur, ideo, quasi arguens, dicit tristitia implevit cor vestrum; Eccli. XXX, 22: non des tristitiam animae tuae; supra XIV, 27: non turbetur cor vestrum. 2085 Now he mentions the sorrow of the disciples. For Chrysostom this sorrow is the effect of Christ's prediction [of the future troubles of the disciples] ‑ For Augustine, their sorrow is the effect of Christ's leaving, for they were glad to be in his presence, and attracted in a certain carnal way to him in his human nature, like one friend is pleased at the presence of another. So they were sad that he was leaving: "Weeping may tarry for the night," that is, the time of the passion, "but joy comes" to the apostles "with the morning" of the resurrection (Ps 30:5). It is human for sorrow to touch our hearts, but it is bad when it completely takes over our heart because it then destroys our reason. So he says, somewhat like a rebuke, sorrow has filled your hearts; "Do not give yourself over to sorrow" (Sir 30:21); "Let not your hearts be troubled" (14:27). Hic ponitur ratio consolationis quae est promissio spiritus sancti, et primo promittit spiritum sanctum; secundo praenuntiat eius effectum, ibi et cum venerit ille et cetera. 2086 Now he mentions one of the things which will console them, the promise of the Holy Spirit. First, he promises the Holy Spirit; secondly, he foretells the effect of the Spirit (v 8). Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit recessus sui necessitatem; secundo recessus utilitatem. 2087 He does two things about the first. First, he points out the necessity of his going; secondly, he shows that his going is beneficial. Dicit ergo tristitia implevit cor vestrum, scilicet de recessu meo; sed est magis vobis gaudendum, quia expedit vobis ut ego vadam, idest valde vobis est necessarium, quia, si non abiero, Paraclitus non veniet ad vos. Item est vobis fructuosum et utile: quia si abiero, mittam eum ad vos, scilicet spiritum sanctum. He says, sorrow has filled your hearts, because I am leaving; but you should rather be glad, because it is to your advantage that I go away, that is, it is very necessary for you, for if I do not go away, the Paraclete will not come to you. Furthermore, my going is very fruitful and beneficial for you, because if I go, I will send him to you. Sed numquid non potuisset Christus dare spiritum vivens in carne? Dicendum quod sic: quia etiam super eum baptizatum spiritus sanctus in specie columbae descendit et numquam ab eo recessit, quem ab instanti suae conceptionis recepit non ad mensuram. Sed noluit eum dare discipulis existens cum eis, quadruplici ratione. Primo propter eorum indispositionem: nam spiritui sancto, cum sit amor spiritualis, contrariatur amor carnalis. Discipuli autem quodam carnali amore afficiebantur ad Christi humanitatem, necdum elevati erant spirituali amore ad eius divinitatem, et ideo nondum capaces erant spiritus sancti; II Cor. V, v. 16: ex hoc iam neminem secundum carnem noscimus, idest secundum carnis affectum, et si cognovimus secundum carnem, Christum scilicet ante passionem, sed nunc iam non novimus. 2088 But, could not Christ have sent the Holy Spirit while he was still living in the flesh? He could have, because even at his baptism the Holy Spirit descended upon him in the form of a dove and never left him. Indeed, from the instant of his conception he received the Spirit without measure. But Christ did not choose to give the Spirit to his disciples while he was still living among them for four reasons. First, they were not prepared, for carnal love is contrary to the Holy Spirit, since the Spirit is spiritual love. Now the disciples were affected by a certain carnal love for the human nature of Christ, without yet being elevated to a spiritual love of his divinity. And so they were not yet ready for the Holy Spirit: "From now on, therefore, we regard no one from a human point of view," with carnal affection; "even though we once regarded Christ from a human point of view," before his passion, "we regard him thus no longer" (2 Cor 5: 16). Secundo propter divini auxilii conditionem, quod maxime adest in necessitatibus; Ps. IX, v. 10: adiutor in opportunitatibus, et iterum Ps. XXVI, 10: quoniam pater meus et mater mea dereliquerunt me, dominus autem assumpsit me. Quamdiu autem Christus erat cum eis, sufficiens adiutorium erat cum eis, sed eo recedente multis tribulationibus exponebantur: et ideo datus est eis statim alius consolator et adiutor. Unde signanter dicit: et alium Paraclitum dabit vobis; Is. XXVIII, 9: quem docebit scientiam (...). Ablactatos a lacte, avulsos ab uberibus. Secondly, Christ did not give them the Spirit then because of the characteristic of divine help, which is to be especially present in times of need: "A stronghold in times of trouble" (Is 9:9); "For my father and my mother have forsaken me, but the Lord will take me up" (Ps 27:10). Now as long as Christ was with them, he was all the help they needed. But when he left they were exposed to many tribulations, and so another consoler and helper was very quickly given to them: "He will give you another Paraclete" [14:16]; "Whom will he teach knowledge? Those who are weaned from the milk, those taken from the breast" (Is 28:9). Tertio ex dignitatis Christi consideratione: nam, ut Augustinus dicit in libro de Trinitate, Christus inquantum homo, non habet quod det spiritum sanctum, sed inquantum Deus. Quando autem cum discipulis erat, videbatur esse quasi homo unus ex eis. Ne ergo videretur quod homo esset qui daret spiritum sanctum, ideo ipsum ante ascensionem suam non dedit; supra VII, 39: nondum erat spiritus datus, quia nondum Iesus erat glorificatus; Sap. IX, 10: emitte illam a sede magnitudinis tuae. Thirdly, the Spirit was not given then out of consideration for the dignity of Christ. As Augustine says in his book On the Trinity, Christ as human does not have the power to give the Holy Spirit, but he does as God. When he was with his disciples, he seemed to be human, just like them. And so that it would not seem that it was a mere human being who was giving the Holy Spirit, Christ did not give the Spirit before his ascension: "the Spirit has not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified" (7:39) "Send her forth from the holy heavens" (Wis 9:10). Quarto propter unitatem Ecclesiae conservandam: nam, ut supra X, 41, habetur, Ioannes signum fecit nullum: quod ideo fuit ne populus divideretur a Christo, et ut evidentior appareret eminentia ad Ioannem. Discipuli autem ipso spiritu replendi erant, ut etiam opera maiora facerent quam Christus fecit, supra XIV, 12: et maiora horum facient, et ideo si ante passionem fuisset eis datus, potuisset verti in dubium apud populum quis esset Christus, et sic fuisset in eo divisio; Ps. LXVII, 19: ascendens in altum, dedit dona hominibus. Fourthly, the Spirit was not given at that time to preserve unity in the Church. We saw that "John did no sign" (10:41), and this was so in order not to divert the people from Christ, and to make the superiority of Christ over John more evident. But the disciples were to be filled with the Holy Spirit so that they could do even greater works than Christ had done: "And greater works than these will he do" (14:12). If the Holy Spirit had been given to them before the passion, the people might have become confused as to who really was the Christ, and they would be divided: "You have ascended to the heights, and have given gifts to men" [Ps 68:18].
Sed, secundum Chrysostomum, potest hic sumi argumentum contra Macedonianos dicentes, spiritum sanctum esse creaturam et ministrum patris et filii. Si enim sic esset, non esset sufficiens consolatio de recessu Christi adventus spiritus sancti: sicut non esset sufficiens consolatio de recessu regis, si daretur unus de ministris suis loco eius. Quia ergo spiritus sanctus aequalis est filio, ideo dominus eos per promissionem spiritus sancti consolatur. 2089 Chrysostom thinks that we can use this as an argument against the Macedonians. They say that the Holy Spirit is a creature and the minister of the Father and the Son. But if this were true, the coming of the Holy Spirit would not have been a sufficient consolation to the Apostles for Christ's leaving them. It would be like the departure of a king, where the substitution for him of one of his ministers would not be a sufficient consolation. Thus, because the Holy Spirit is equal to the Son, our Lord consoles them by promising that the Spirit will come. Sed si aequales sunt filius et spiritus sanctus, quare expedit quod filius recedat, ut veniat spiritus sanctus? Ideo scilicet quia recedebat corporaliter, ac simul cum spiritu sancto veniebat invisibiliter. Si enim filius habitasset invisibiliter, et diceret: expedit ut recedam, quia veniet spiritus sanctus utique maior eo spiritus sanctus reputaretur. 2090 Yet if the Son and the Holy Spirit are equal, why is it to their advantage that the Son leave so that the Holy Spirit can come? The Son left as far as concerns his bodily presence, but he came invisibly together with the Holy Spirit. If the Son had dwelt here invisibly and said, "It is to your advantage that I go because the Holy Spirit will come," people would think the Holy Spirit was greater than the Son.
Lectio 3 LECTURE 3 8 καὶ ἐλθὼν ἐκεῖνος ἐλέγξει τὸν κόσμον περὶ ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ δικαιοσύνης καὶ περὶ κρίσεως: 9 περὶ ἁμαρτίας μέν, ὅτι οὐ πιστεύουσιν εἰς ἐμέ: 10 περὶ δικαιοσύνης δέ, ὅτι πρὸς τὸν πατέρα ὑπάγω καὶ οὐκέτι θεωρεῖτέ με: 11 περὶ δὲ κρίσεως, ὅτι ὁ ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου κέκριται. 12 ἔτι πολλὰ ἔχω ὑμῖν λέγειν, ἀλλ' οὐ δύνασθε βαστάζειν ἄρτι: 13 ὅταν δὲ ἔλθῃ ἐκεῖνος, τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας, ὁδηγήσει ὑμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ πάσῃ: οὐ γὰρ λαλήσει ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ, ἀλλ' ὅσα ἀκούσει λαλήσει, καὶ τὰ ἐρχόμενα ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν. 8 "And when he comes, he will convince the world of sin and of righteousness and of judgment: 9 of sin, because they do not believe in me; 10 of righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no more; 11 of judgment, because the ruler of this world is [already] judged. 12 I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. 13 When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth [will teach you all truth]; for he will not speak on his own authority [from himself], but whatever he hears [will hear] he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come." Supra consolatus est dominus apostolos per promissionem spiritus sancti; hic ostendit utilitatem quam spiritus sanctus adveniens afferet eis. Et ponit triplicem utilitatem: unam ex parte mundi, aliam ex parte discipulorum, et tertiam ex parte Christi. Ex parte quidem mundi, quia spiritus sanctus adveniens mundum arguet; ex parte discipulorum, quia eos instruet, ibi adhuc multa habeo vobis dicere etc.; ex parte Christi, quia ipsum clarificabit, ibi ille me clarificabit et cetera. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ponit utilitatem adventus spiritus sancti quantum ad mundum; secundo exponit eam, ibi de peccato quidem, quia non crediderunt in me. 2091 Above, our Lord consoled his apostles by promising them the Holy Spirit. Here he shows the benefit the Holy Spirit will bring to them when he comes. He mentions three benefits: one for the world; a second for the disciples; and a third for Christ. As for the world, the Holy Spirit will convince the world; as for the apostles, the Spirit will teach them (v 12); as for Christ, the Spirit will glorify him (v 14). First, he mentions the benefit of the Spirit's coming for the world; secondly, he explains it (v 9). Dicit ergo: expedit vobis ut ego vadam, quia mittam spiritum sanctum ad vos, et, cum venerit ille, arguet mundum de peccato et de iustitia et de iudicio. Quod dupliciter legitur. Uno modo secundum Augustinum, alio modo secundum Chrysostomum. 2092 He says: It is to your advantage that I go, because I will send the Holy Spirit to you, and when he comes, he will convince the world of sin and of righteousness and of judgment. This has received two interpretations; one by Augustine, and the other by Chrysostom. Secundum Augustinum quidem hoc modo: cum venerit, scilicet spiritus sanctus, ille arguet, idest reprehendet, mundum; Prov. IX, 8: argue sapientem, et diliget te. 2093 Augustine explains it this way. And when he comes, the Holy Spirit, that is, he will convince, that is, rebuke or reprove, the world. "Reprove a wise man, and he will love you" (Ps 9:8). Sed numquid non etiam Christus arguit mundum? Arguit quidem, supra VIII, 41: ex patre Diabolo estis, et Matth. XXIII, multa contra Pharisaeos et Scribas dicens. Quare ergo dicit ille arguet, quasi ipse non arguerit? But did not Christ also rebuke the world? He did, as in "You are of your father the devil" (8:44), and in Matthew (c 23) he said many things against the Pharisees and Scribes. Why then does he say, he will convince, as though he himself did not reprove? Sed forte diceret aliquis quod Christus solos Iudaeos arguit, spiritus autem sanctus in discipulis et per discipulos arguit totum mundum. Sed huic contrariatur quod Christus loquitur in apostolis et per apostolos sicut spiritus sanctus; II Cor. ult., 3: experimentum quaeritis eius qui in me loquitur Christus. Perhaps someone will say that Christ rebuked only the Jews, but that the Holy Spirit, in and through the disciples, will rebuke the entire world. But this is in opposition to the fact that Christ also speaks in and through the apostles, just as the Holy Spirit does: "You desire proof that Christ is speaking in me" (2 Cor 13:3). Et ideo dicendum, quod dixit ille arguet mundum, qui invisibiliter penetrans corda vestra, diffundet in eis caritatem, qua timore depulso, arguendi habebitis potestatem. Quamdiu enim discipuli carnaliter ad Christum afficiebantur, spiritus sanctus non erat in eis, ut dictum est, eo modo quo postea fuit: et ideo non erant ita audaces sicut post eius adventum fuerunt; Ps. XXXII, 6: spiritu oris eius omnis virtus eorum, scilicet apostolorum; II Paral. XXIV, 20: spiritus domini induit Zachariam. Ille etiam arguet mundum, quia corda quae ante mundana fuerant, replens fecit quod ea se reprehenderent; Iob XIII, 15: arguam vias meas coram illo et cetera. Et hoc facit spiritus sanctus; Ps. l, 12: spiritum rectum innova in visceribus meis. One must therefore say that, he will convince, rebuke, the world, as the one who will invisibly enter into their hearts and pour his charity into them so that their fear is conquered and they have the strength to rebuke. For as was already said, as long as the disciples were carnally attracted to Christ, the Holy Spirit was not in them as he would be later. Consequently they were not as courageous then as they were after the Spirit came. "Their power," the power of the apostles, "came from the Spirit of his mouth" [Ps 33:6]; "Then the Spirit of God took possession of Zechariah" (2 Chron 24:20). Again, he will convince the world because he will fill hearts which were before worldly and lead them to rebuke themselves: "I will reprove my ways in his sight" [Job 13:15]. The Holy Spirit does this: "Put a new and right spirit within me" (Ps 51:10). Sed de quo arguet? De tribus. De peccato quod commiserunt; Is. LVIII, 1: annuntia populo meo scelera eorum et cetera. Et hoc apostoli fecerunt; Ps. XVIII, 5: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum. Item de iustitia quam neglexerunt; Is. XXIX: iustitiam non fecerunt et cetera. Et hoc apostoli fecerunt: Rom. III, 10: non est iustus quisquam. Item de iudicio, quod contempserunt: ut enim dicitur Prov. XVIII, 3, impius cum in profundum peccatorum venerit, contemnet; Ez. V, 6: contempsit iudicia mea et cetera. 2094 For what will the Spirit rebuke the world? For three things. He will reprove the worldly for the sin they have committed: "Declare to my people their transgression" (Is 58:1). And this was done by the apostles: "Their voice goes out through all the earth" (Ps 19:4). He will reprove the world for the righteousness it has neglected. And the apostles did this: "None is righteousness, no not one" (Rom 3:10). And the Spirit will reprove the world because of the judgment it has held in contempt: "When wickedness comes, contempt comes also" (Prv 18:3); "She [Jerusalem] has despised my judgments" [Ez 5:6]. Hic exponit. Et primo, quod dicit de peccato, et hoc quia non crediderunt in me. Solum de peccato infidelitatis arguit: quia per fidem omnia alia peccata dimittuntur, Matth. XXV, 35 ss. Dominus damnatis solum defectum misericordiae imputat, quia per misericordiam omnia peccata purgantur; Prov. XV, 27: per misericordiam et fidem purgantur peccata. Sic ergo et hic, quia infidelitate manente, peccata cetera detinentur, et ea discedente cetera dimittuntur. Dicit autem quia non crediderunt in me; et non dicit mihi, vel me, quia Daemones credunt Christum esse, et contremiscunt; Iac. II, 19. Sed in me, per fidem formatam sperando et diligendo. 2095 Now he explains all this. First, what he says about their sin, because they do not believe in me. The Spirit rebukes them only for the sin of disbelief because by faith all other sins are remitted. In a similar way our Lord charges the damned only with a lack of mercy, because all sins are washed away by mercy: "By mercy and faith sins are cleansed away" [Prv 15:27]. The same applies here, because as long as they remain in disbelief, their other sins remain, but when there is no longer disbelief the other sins are remitted. He says, "because they do not believe in me," using the form in me, and not the forms mihi or me, because even the devils believe that Christ exists and they tremble (Jas 2:19). In me, that is, with a faith enlivened by hope and love. [On faith "in me" see no. 901 above] Secundo de iustitia, et hoc quia ad patrem vado et cetera. Quod quidem potest dupliciter exponi: quia vel de iustitia Christi, vel de iustitia apostolorum. De iustitia quidem apostolorum sic: de iustitia nostra, quod non sunt imitati. Iustitia dico non ex lege, sed ex fide; Rom. III, 22: iustitia autem Dei per fidem Iesu Christi. 2096 Secondly, he explains what he said about righteousness when he says because I go to the Father. This can be understood in two ways: either as referring to the righteousness of Christ or that of the apostles. As referring to the righteousness of the apostles the explanation is this: the world will be rebuked because of our righteousness, because the world has not imitated it. The righteousness, I say, which is not from the law but from faith: "The righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ" (Rom 3:22). Fides autem de invisibilibus est: Hebr. XI, 1. Discipuli autem aliquid videbant, scilicet eius humanitatem, et aliquid non videbant, scilicet eius divinitatem: sed hoc promittit eis in praemium; supra XIV, 21: manifestabo eis meipsum. Habebant ergo discipuli fidem de Christo quantum ad divinitatem tantum; sed quando subtracta fuit eis humanitas Christi, tunc eorum fides erat de utroque: et ideo, secundum Augustinum super Ioan., dicit quia vado ad patrem, et iam non videbitis me; quasi dicat: vos creditis in me secundum divinitatem, et, quia vado ad patrem, credetis in me etiam quantum ad humanitatem: quam quidem fidei iustitiam mundus non imitatur. Faith is concerned with what is invisible (Heb 11:1). Now the disciples saw one thing, the humanity of Christ, and did not see another, his divinity. But Christ promises this to them as a reward: "I will ... manifest myself to him" (14:21). Thus, the disciples had faith only regarding the divinity of Christ; but when Christ's human nature was taken from them, they had faith regarding both. And so, according to Augustine in his Commentary on John, when Christ says, because I go to the Father, and you will see me no more, it is like saying: You believe in me, that is, as regards my divinity, and because I go to the Father, you will believe in me also as regards my humanity. This is the righteousness of faith which the world does not imitate. Sed dicit et iam non videbitis me: non quod numquam sint eum visuri, sed quia non visuri sunt eum in ista carne mortali. Viderunt eum in resurrectione, sed immortalem existentem; et videbunt eum in iudicio, sed in maiestate venientem. He says, and you will see me no more, not because they would never see him, but because they would not see him in that mortal flesh. They did see him at the resurrection, but then he was immortal; and they will see him at the judgment, coming in glory. De iustitia quidem Christi exponit de verbis domini. Iudaei enim noluerunt recognoscere quod Christus iustus esset; supra IX, 24: nos scimus quia hic homo peccator est. Arguet eos de hac iustitia, dicens quia ad patrem vado: quia hoc ipsum quod ad patrem vado, iustitiae meae est. Quod enim Christus descendit, misericordiae fuit; sed quod ascendit, eius iustitiae debitum; Phil. II, 9: propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum et cetera. This phrase is expounded as referring to the righteousness of Christ in the book, On the Words of the Lord. The Jews were unwilling to recognize the righteousness of Christ: "We know that this man is a sinner" (9:24). But he will manifest his righteousness to them, saying because I go to the Father: for the very fact that I go to the Father is a sign of my righteousness. Christ descended because of his mercy, but his ascension was due to his righteousness: "Therefore God has highly exalted him" (Phil 2:9). Tertio arguit mundum de iudicio; et hoc quia princeps huius mundi, idest Diabolus, qui est princeps mundi, idest mundanorum, non creatione, sed suggestione et imitatione; Sap. II, 25: imitantur eum qui sunt ex parte illius; Iob XLI, 25: ipse est rex super omnes filios superbiae. Hic ergo princeps iam iudicatus est, idest expulsus foras; supra XII, 31: nunc iudicium est mundi, idest, pro mundo, nunc princeps huius mundi eiicietur foras. Et hoc dicit ut tollat excusationem hominum, qui se de peccatis excusant propter tentationem Diaboli; quasi dicat: excusari non possunt, quia expulsus est Diabolus per gratiam et fidem Christi et spiritum sanctum a cordibus fidelium, ita ut iam non tentet interius sicut ante, sed solum exterius per exercitationem permissus; et ideo resistere possunt ei qui volunt adhaerere Christo. Et inde est quod debiles feminae Diabolum vicerunt, a quo tamen fortissimi viri superati sunt. De hoc ergo iudicio mundus arguitur, quia a Diabolo vincitur resistere nolens, et a se expulsum, per consensum peccati reducens; Rom. VI, 12: non regnat peccatum in vestro mortali corpore. 2097 Thirdly, the Holy Spirit reproves the world by the judgment. This is because the ruler of this world is already judged. It is the devil who is the ruler of this world, that is, of worldly people. He is the ruler, not by creation, but by his suggestions and their imitation of him: "Those on his side imitate him" [Wis 2:25]; "He is king over all the sons of pride" (Job 41:34). Therefore, this ruler is already judged, that is, cast outside: "Now is the judgment of this world," that is, in favor of the world, "now shall the ruler of this world be cast out" (12:31). He says this to anticipate the excuse that some will make for their sins, saying that the devil tempted them. He is saying in effect: They cannot be excused because the devil has been cast out by the grace and faith of Christ and by the Holy Spirit, cast out from the hearts of the faithful so that he no longer tempts from within as before, but from without. And so those who resolve to cling to Christ can resist. This is why the devil, who has conquered the strongest males, can be conquered by frail women. Thus the world is reproved by this judgment because being unwilling to resist, it is overcome by the devil, who although expelled is brought back by their consent to sin: "Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal bodies" (Rom 6:12). Vel aliter, secundum eumdem in libro de verbis domini, ut quod dicit iam iudicatus est, intelligatur de iudicio condemnationis; idest, iam condemnatus est ipse et per consequens omnes qui adhaerent ei; Matth. XXV, v. 41: ite, maledicti, in ignem aeternum, qui paratus est Diabolo et Angelis eius. Arguitur etiam mundus de iudicio: quia sciens mundi huius principem condemnatum esse, non evadit etiam ipse hoc iudicium; sed cum suo principe iudicatur, quoniam superbum atque impium imitatur. Another explanation is in the book, The Words of the Lord. It says here that the phrase, is already judged, refers to the judgment of condemnation. That is, the ruler of this world is already condemned, and consequently all who adhere to him: "Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels" (Mt 25:41). The world is reproved by this judgment because although the world knows that its ruler has been condemned, it has not escaped from this judgment but is judged with its ruler, because it imitates his pride and evil ways. Secundum Chrysostomum, aliter a capite exponitur cum venerit, scilicet spiritus sanctus, ille arguet, idest convincet, mundum de peccato; quasi diceret: ipse spiritus sanctus erit argumentum quoddam contra mundum; Hebr. II, 4: contestante Deo signis et prodigiis et cetera. Et de hoc peccato ostendet eos graviter peccasse, quia non crediderunt in me, cum videbunt quod spiritus sanctus in nomine meo dabitur fidelibus; Act. V, 32: nos testes huius rei sumus, et spiritus sanctus, quem dedit Deus omnibus obedientibus sibi. De iustitia, quam scilicet ego habeo, quam tamen mundus non reputavit me habere: et hoc, quia vado ad patrem, et mittam vobis spiritum, scilicet qui ostendet me iustum, et irreprehensibilem duxisse vitam; supra XV, v. 26: quem ego mittam vobis a patre spiritum veritatis. Quia hoc dicitur in Ps. LXVII, v. 19 postquam ascendit Christus in altum, dedit dona hominibus. De iudicio: quia princeps huius mundi iam iudicatus est; idest, ex hoc ipso quod per spiritum sanctum iudicatur, idest expellitur, a cordibus fidelium; Zach. XIII, 2: spiritum immundum eiiciam; I Cor. II, 12: nos spiritum huius mundi non accepimus; sed spiritum qui ex Deo est. Et de hoc iudicio arguet, quia ipsi male iudicaverunt quod Daemonium haberet, et quod in Beelzebub eiiceret Daemonia: de quo convincentur, quia spiritus sanctus quem ego mittam, ipsum Daemonem condemnabit et eiiciet. 2098 Chrysostom gives another explanation of this passage, as follows. When he comes, the Holy Spirit, he will convince, that is, convict, the world of sin. It is like saying: The Holy Spirit will be a witness against the world: "God also bore witness by signs and wonders" (Heb 2:4). He will show that they have sinned grievously because they did not believe in me, when they see that the Holy Spirit will be given in my name to those who believe: "And we are witnesses to these things, and so is the Holy Spirit whom God has given to those who obey him" (Acts 5:32). The Holy Spirit will be a witness to my righteousness, which the world did not think I possessed. And he will be this witness because I go to the Father, and will send you the Spirit, who will show that I am righteous and have led a faultless life: "Whom I shall send to you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth" (15:26); and in the Psalm [68:18] we see that after Christ ascends he gives gifts to men. He will be a witness of judgment, because the ruler of this world is already judged, that is, it is by the Holy Spirit that he is judged, that is, cast out of the hearts of those who believe: "I will remove from the land ... the unclean spirit" (Zech 13:2); "Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is from God" (1 Cor 2:12). He will convict the world by his judgment because the world wickedly judged that Christ had a devil and cast out devils by Beelzebul. The Holy Spirit, which I will send, will condemn the devil and cast him out. Hic ponit utilitatem adventus spiritus sancti ex parte discipulorum, quae est ipsorum instructio, et primo ponit instructionis necessitatem; secundo promittit instructionem, ibi cum autem venerit ille spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem; tertio excludit dubitationem, ibi non enim loquetur a semetipso. 2099 Now he mentions the benefit his disciples will receive from the coming of the Holy Spirit; this benefit is their instruction. First, he states their need for instruction; secondly, he promises this instruction (v 13); thirdly, he eliminates a difficulty (v 13b). Dicit ergo: utilis erit adventus spiritus sancti mundo, quia arguet eum. Sed et vobis utilis erit ad instruendum; qua quidem instructione indigetis, quia multa habeo vobis dicere, sed non potestis portare modo: quasi dicat: ego vos instruxi, sed non adimplemini; Iob XXVI, 14: ecce haec ex parte dicta sunt verborum eius: et cum vix parvam stillam sermonis eius audierimus, quis poterit tonitruum magnitudinis illius intueri? Quaerere autem quae sunt ista multa quae portare non poterant, est stultum, ut dicit Augustinus. Nam si ipsi portare non poterant, multo magis et nos non possumus. 2100 He says: the coming of the Holy Spirit will benefit the world because he will rebuke it. But the Spirit will also benefit you by instructing you. You need this instruction because I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. It is like saying: I have instructed you, but you are not completely instructed: "Lo, these are but the outskirts of his ways; and how small a whisper do we hear of him. But the thunder of his power who can understand?" (Job 26:14). It would be foolish to ask what those many things were which they could not bear, as Augustine remarks. For if they could not bear them, much less can we. Hoc tamen quod dicit non potestis portare modo, diversi haeretici assumunt ad sui erroris velamentum, dum his qui eis adhaerent quaedam in occulto dicunt turpissima, quae non auderent dicere in manifesto: quasi haec ipsa sint quae tunc discipuli portare non poterant, et ea docuerit spiritus sanctus quae palam docere atque praedicare spiritus hominis erubescit. 2101 The statement, you cannot bear them now, has been used by certain heretics as a cover for their errors. They tell their adherents the basest things in private, things they would not dare to say openly, as though these were the things the disciples were not then able to bear, and as though the Holy Spirit taught them these things which a man would blush to teach and preach openly. Non est ergo intelligendum quod aliqua secreta doctrinae taceantur fidelibus parvulis, seorsum docenda maioribus, sed omnibus fidelibus proponuntur ea quae fidei sunt; Matth. c. X, 27: quod in aure audistis, praedicate supra tecta. Sed aliter proponenda sunt rudibus, aliter peritis; sicut quae subtilia sunt de mysterio incarnationis, et aliis huiusmodi, non sunt rudibus proponenda, quia cum intelligere non possent, scandalizarentur. Omnia ergo quae fidei erant, dominus proposuit eis, sed non eo modo quo postea revelavit, et praecipue in vita aeterna. Sic ergo quae portare non poterant, sunt plena cognitio divinorum, quam non habebant tunc, puta aequalitatem filii ad patrem, et huiusmodi. Unde Paulus, II Cor. XII, 4: audivi arcana verba, quae non licet homini loqui, quae non erant de alia veritate quam fidei, sed altiori modo. Item spiritualis intellectus omnium Scripturarum, quem tunc non habebant, sed quando aperuit eis sensum ut intelligerent Scripturas: Lc. ult., 45. Item passiones et pericula quae passuri erant quae tunc non poterant, quia animi eorum imbecilles erant; Eccli. VI, 26: subiice humerum tuum, et porta illam. Sic ergo necessaria erat eis instructio. We should not think that some secret teaching is kept from believers who are uneducated, and taught to those who are more learned. Indeed, matters of faith are presented to all the faithful: "What I tell you in the dark, utter in the light" (Mt 10:27). Still, they have to be presented in one way to the uneducated and in another way to the learned. For instance, certain fine points about the mystery of the Incarnation and the other mysteries would not be presented to the uneducated because they would not understand them and they would actually be an obstacle. So our Lord presented all matters of faith to his disciples, but not in the way he later revealed them, and especially not in the way they will be presented in eternal life. Accordingly, what they could not bear then was the full knowledge of divine things, such as knowledge of the equality of the Son with the Father and other things of that sort which they did not then know. Paul says, "He heard things that cannot be told, which man may not utter" (2 Cor 12:4), these things were the very truths of faith, not something else, but known in a more profound way. Again, the disciples did not then have a spiritual understanding of all the scriptures, but did only when "He opened their minds to understand the scriptures" (Lk 24:45). Also, the disciples did not then have a full understanding of the sufferings and dangers they were to undergo ‑ they could not bear such knowledge then as their spirits were weak: "Put your shoulder under her and carry her" (Sir 6:25). For these reasons the disciples were in need of further instruction. Hic promittit eis instructionem quam consequentur in adventu spiritus sancti qui docebit eos omnem veritatem. Cum enim sit a veritate, eius est docere veritatem, et facere similes suo principio. Et dicit omnem veritatem, scilicet fidei, quam docebit per quamdam elevatam intelligentiam in vita ista, et eamdem plenarie in vita aeterna, ubi cognoscemus sicut et cogniti sumus: I Cor. XIII, 12, et I Io. II, 27: unctio docebit vos et cetera. Vel omnem veritatem, figurarum legis, quam adepti sunt discipuli per spiritum sanctum. Unde Dan. I, 17, dicitur quod dedit dominus pueris illis sapientiam et intelligentiam. 2102 Then he promises that they will be instructed by the coming of the Holy Spirit, who will teach them all truth. For since the Holy Spirit is from the Truth, it is appropriate that the Spirit teach the truth, and make those he teaches like the one who sent him. He says, all the truth, that is, the truth of the faith. He will teach them to have a better understanding of this truth in this life, and a fullness of understanding in eternal life, where we will know as we are known (see 1 Cor 13:12); "His anointing teaches you about everything, and is true, and is no lie" (1 Jn 2:27). Or, all the truth, that is, of the figures of the law, which understanding the apostles received from the Holy Spirit. We read in Daniel (1:17) that the Lord gave to his children wisdom and understanding. Hic excludit dubitationem, quae poterat esse, si spiritus sanctus docebit eos, videtur scilicet quod esset maior Christo: quod non est, quia docebit eos virtute patris et filii, quia non loquetur a semetipso, sed a me, quia a me erit. Sicut enim filius non operatur a semetipso sed a patre, ita spiritus sanctus, quia est ab alio, scilicet a patre et filio, non loquetur a semetipso, sed quaecumque audiet, accipiendo scientiam sicut et essentiam ab aeterno, haec loquetur, non corporaliter, sed intrinsecus in mente illuminando; Oseae II, 14: ducam eam ad solitudinem, et loquar ad cor eius; Ps. LXXXIV, v. 9: audiam quid loquatur in me dominus Deus. 2103 Now he excludes a difficulty which could have arisen. If the Holy Spirit will teach them, it seems that he is greater than Christ. This is not true, because the Spirit will teach them by the power of the Father and the Son, for he will not speak from himself, but from me, because he will be from me. Just as the Son does not act from himself but from the Father, so the Holy Spirit, because he is from another, that is, from the Father and the Son, will not speak from himself, but whatever he will hear by receiving knowledge as well as his essence from eternity, he will speak, not in a bodily way but by enlightening your minds from within: "I will bring her into the wilderness, and speak tenderly to her" (Hos 2:14); "Let me hear what God the Lord will speak" (Ps 85:8). Sed cum audierit ab aeterno, quid est hoc quod dicit audiet, in futuro? Sed dicendum, quod aeternitas includit omne tempus; et ideo potest spiritus sanctus, qui ab aeterno audit, dici audire in praesenti, in praeterito et futuro. Sed tamen aliquando dicitur audire in futuro propter hoc quia illa quorum notitiam habet sunt futura. Loquetur ergo quaecumque audiet, quia non solum docebit aeterna, sed futura; et ideo subdit: et quae ventura sunt annuntiabit vobis, quod est proprium divinitatis; Sap. VIII, 8: signa et monstra scit antequam fiant; Is. XLI, 23: quae ventura sunt annuntiate nobis; et sciemus quia dii estis vos. Hoc enim est proprium spiritus sancti; Ioel. c. II, 28: effundam de spiritu meo super omnem carnem, et prophetabunt filii vestri et filiae vestrae. Apostoli autem habuerunt spiritum prophetiae. Vel docebit omnem veritatem, scilicet figurarum. Sed ne dubitarent quomodo scirent de futuris tribulationibus quas eis praenuntiaverat, ideo subdit et quae ventura sunt, scilicet super vos, annuntiabit vobis. 2104 Since the Holy Spirit hears from eternity, why does he say he will hear? We should say to this that eternity includes all time. Consequently, the Holy Spirit, who hears from all eternity, is said to hear in the present, in the past, and in the future. Yet at times he is said to hear in the future because the knowledge in question concerns things that are still in the future. He will speak, therefore, whatever he will hear, for he will not only teach about things that are eternal, but future things. Thus he adds, he will declare to you the things that are to come, which is a characteristic of God: "She has foreknowledge of signs and wonders" (Wis 8:8); "Tell us what is to come hereafter, that we may know that you are gods" (Is 41:23). This is characteristic of the Holy Spirit: "I will pour out my spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy" (Joel 2:28). So they would have no doubts about how they would know of the coming tribulations, which Christ predicted for them, he adds, and he will declare to you the things that are to come, that is, upon you.
Lectio 4 LECTURE 4 14 ἐκεῖνος ἐμὲ δοξάσει, ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ ἐμοῦ λήμψεται καὶ ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν. 15 πάντα ὅσα ἔχει ὁ πατὴρ ἐμά ἐστιν: διὰ τοῦτο εἶπον ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ ἐμοῦ λαμβάνει καὶ ἀναγγελεῖ ὑμῖν. 14 "He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine [for he will receive from me] and declare it to you. 15 All that the Father has is mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine [that he will receive from me] and declare it to you." Supra positus est duplex fructus adventus spiritus sancti, scilicet mundi arguitio et discipulorum instructio, hic ponitur tertius fructus, scilicet Christi clarificatio, et primo proponit fructum clarificationis; secundo manifestat rationem ipsius, ibi quia de meo accipiet; tertio subditur manifestatio rationis, ibi omnia quae habet pater, mea sunt. 2105 Above, we saw two fruits of the coming of the Holy Spirit, which were the rebuking of the world and the instruction of the disciples. Now the third fruit is mentioned, the glorification of Christ. First, he mentions this fruit, the glorification; secondly, the reason for it (v 14b); thirdly, he expands on this (v 15). Dicit ergo: docebit omnem veritatem, quia ille me clarificabit, in quo est omnis veritas; supra XIV, 6: ego sum via, veritas et vita; Col. II, 3: in quo, scilicet Christo, sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae. 2106 He says: "He will teach all truth," because he will glorify me, in whom is all truth: "I am the way, and the truth, and the life" (14:6); "In whom," that is, in Christ, "are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge" (Col 2:3). Clarificabit me: idest, meam notitiam claram faciet.Primo quidem discipulos illuminando: quia adhuc carnales erant, et ad Christum afficiebantur secundum carnem, idest secundum infirmitatem carnis, non cognoscentes divinitatis eius maiestatem, cuius postmodum per spiritum sanctum sunt capaces effecti; I Cor. II, 10: nobis autem revelavit Deus per spiritum suum. Secundo fiduciam clare annuntiandi praebendo. Nam discipuli ante timidi erant, ita ut non auderent Christum publice confiteri, sed spiritu sancto repleti, timore depulso, annuntiaverunt hominibus Christum, ab ipso spiritu quodammodo impulsi; Is. LIX, 19: cum venerit quasi fluvius violentus quem spiritus domini cogit. Unde et apostolus dicebat: caritas Christi urget nos.Tertio opera mirifica in apostolis, et per apostolos faciendo; I Cor. XII, 11: haec omnia operatur unus atque idem spiritus. He will glorify me, that is, give a clear knowledge of me. He will do this, first of all, by enlightening the disciples: for they were still carnal and attached to Christ in a carnal way, that is, in the weakness of his flesh, not realizing the grandeur of his divinity. Later, they were able to grasp this through the Holy Spirit: "God has revealed to us through the Spirit" (1 Cor 2:10). Secondly, the Spirit will give them the confidence to preach clearly, openly. Before this the disciples were so timid that they did not dare to profess Christ publicly, but when they were filled with the Holy Spirit fear was cast out, and they proclaimed Christ to the people, being somehow impelled by that same Spirit: "He will come like a rushing stream, which the wind [or Spirit] of the Lord drives" (Is 59:19). This is why the Apostle says: "The love of Christ impels us" [2 Cor 5:14]. Thirdly, the Spirit will glorify Christ by accomplishing marvelous works in and through the apostles: "All things are inspired by one and the same Spirit" (1 Cor 12:11). Hic ponitur ratio clarificationis, quae est, quia filius est principium spiritus sancti. Omne enim quod est ab alio, manifestat id a quo est: filius enim manifestat patrem, quia est ab ipso. Quia ergo spiritus sanctus est a filio, proprium est ut clarificet eum. Dicit ergo: ideo me clarificabit quia de meo accipiet. Accipere autem hoc non est intelligendum eo modo quo in creaturis. 2107 Now we see the reason why the Holy Spirit will glorify Christ: it is because the Son is the principle of the Holy Spirit. For everything which is from another manifests that from which it is. Thus the Son manifests the Father because he is from the Father. And so because the Holy Spirit is from the Son, it is appropriate that the Spirit glorify the Son. He says, he will glorify me, for he will receive from me. However, the Holy Spirit does not receive in the same way creatures do. Tria enim sunt in acceptione creaturarum, quorum duo non sunt in divinis. Scilicet, quia in creaturis aliud est quod accipit, et aliud quod accipitur: quod non est in divinis, cum personae divinae simplices sint, nec in eis sit aliud et aliud: immo a quocumque accipit spiritus sanctus, accipit totam substantiam suam, similiter et filius. Aliud est, quod in creaturis accipiens aliquando fuit non habens id quod accipit, sicut si materia accipiat formam, vel subiectum accidens: aliquando enim materia fuit sine tali forma, et subiectum sine tali accidente. Et hoc quidem non est in divinis: quia filius ab aeterno est habens quod accipit a patre, et spiritus sanctus quod a patre et filio accipit. Ergo spiritus sanctus a filio, sicut filius accipit a patre; supra X, 29: pater quod dedit mihi, maius omnibus est. Sic ergo accipere in divinis dicit ordinem originis. When creatures receive, three things are found, and two of these are not found in the divinity. In creatures, that which receives is one thing, and what is received is something else. This is not so in the divinity, since the divine persons are simple, and not composed of several elements. Indeed, the Holy Spirit receives his entire substance from whomever this Spirit receives, and so does the Son. Another difference is that among creatures the one who receives did not have at one time what he receives, as when matter receives a form, or a subject receives an accident: for at some time the matter was without such a form, and the subject without that accident. This is not so in the divinity, because what the Son receives from the Father the Son has from eternity, and what the Holy Spirit receives from the Father and the Son, the Spirit has from eternity. Accordingly, the Holy Spirit receives from the Son like the Son receives from the Father: "What my Father has given to me is greater than all" (10:29). Thus, when the expression "to receive" is used of the divinity, it indicates an order in origin. Sed nota, quod cum dicit de meo accipiet, ly de non importat participationem, sed consubstantialitatem, quia totum accipit quod filius habet. Sicut enim filius dicitur de substantia patris, quia accipit totam substantiam patris, ita et spiritus sanctus de substantia filii, quia accipit totam substantiam eius. Quia ergo de meo accipiet, et ego sum verbum Dei, ideo annuntiabit vobis. Spiritus enim animalis nullo modo potest esse nisi secundum quod procedit a verbo interius concepto. 2108 Note that when he says, he will receive from me, the word from (de, "from" or "of") does not indicate participation, but consubstantiality, because the Spirit receives all that the Son has. For just as the Son is from (de) the substance of the Father, because he receives the entire substance of the Father, so also the Holy Spirit is from (de) the substance of the Son because the Spirit receives the whole substance of the Son. Thus, because he will receive from me, and I am the Word of God, therefore he will declare it to you. Hic ponitur rationis manifestatio, ubi Christus probat quod spiritus sanctus accipiebat de suo propter unitatem et consubstantialitatem patris et filii ubi primo ponit consubstantialitatem patris et filii; secundo infert conclusionem intentam, ibi propterea dixi quia de meo accipiet. 2109 Now this reason is further explained when Christ shows that the Holy Spirit received from him because of the unity and consubstantiality of the Father and the Son. First, we see the consubstantiality of the Father and Son; secondly, the conclusion is drawn, therefore I said that he will receive from me. Dicit ergo de meo accipiet, quia omnia quae habet pater, mea sunt, quasi dicat: licet a patre procedat spiritus veritatis, tamen quia omnia quae habet pater, mea sunt, et ipse patris spiritus est, et de meo accipiet. 2110 He says: he will receive from me because all that the Father has is mine. This is like saying: Although the Spirit of truth proceeds from the Father, yet because all that the Father has is mine, (and the Spirit is the Spirit of the Father), the Spirit receives from me. Sed notandum, quod habere dicimur aliquid dupliciter. Uno modo sicut possessionem; alio modo sicut quod in nobis est, puta vel sicut forma, vel sicut pars. Pater ergo habet sicut possessionem et rem sibi subiectam totam creaturam: Ps. XXIII, 1: domini est terra et plenitudo eius; habet etiam aliquid quod in ipso est, immo quod est ipse, quia ipse est quidquid in ipso Christo est, cum ipse sit sua essentia, sua bonitas, sua veritas et aeternitas. De hoc ergo modo habendi loquitur. Et sic quidquid habet pater est filii: quia eamdem sapientiam, eamdem bonitatem habet filius quam habet et pater; supra V, 26: sicut pater habet vitam in semetipso, sic dedit et filio habere vitam in semetipso; Matth. XI, 27: omnia mihi tradita sunt a patre meo. Note that one "has" something in two ways: in one way as a possession, and in the other way as something existing in oneself, as a form or a part. The Father has as a possession and as something subject to himself the totality of created things: "The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof" (Ps 24:1). The Father also has something which is in him, indeed, which is himself, because the Father is whatever is in Christ, since the Father is his own essence, own goodness, own truth and own eternity. The word "has" is being used in this sense here. And so whatever the Father has is the Son's, because the Son has the same wisdom and the same goodness that the Father also has: "For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself" (5:26); "All things have been delivered to me by my Father" (Mt 11:27). Sed, sicut Didymus dicit, obiiciunt aliqui: si omnia quaecumque habet pater, et filius, ergo cum pater habeat paternitatem, sequitur quod et filius. Ad quod respondet, quod haec quidem ratio haberet apparentiam, si dominus diceret: omnia quae habet Deus, mea sunt. Sed dicens omnia quae habet pater, salvat distinctionem patris et filii dans intelligere quod omnia quaecumque habet pater, sua sunt, praeter id in quo distinguitur pater a filio. Nam patris nomine se filium declaravit, paternitatem qui filius erat non sibi usurpavit. 2111 As Didymus says, some might make this objection: If all that the Father has the Son also has, then since the Father has the characteristic of fatherhood, it follows that the Son also has this. I answer that this argument would appear to be valid if our Lord had said, "All that God has is mine." But he says, all that the Father has is mine, and this keeps a distinction between the Father and the Son, and leads us to understand that all that the Father has is the Son's, except that by which the Father is distinguished from the Son. For by using the word Father, Christ declares that he is the Son, and has not usurped the attribute of fatherhood. Sed notandum, quod simpliciter concedimus hanc, scilicet quidquid habet pater, habet filius, non tamen quod eo ordine habet filius quo pater habet. Nam filius habet sicut ab alio accipiens; pater vero sicut alii dans. Non ergo est distinctio in eo quod habetur, sed in ordine habendi. Huiusmodi autem relationes, scilicet paternitas et filiatio, huius ordinis distinctionem important: paternitas enim importat hoc quod est dare alii, filiatio vero accipere ab alio. 2112 We have conceded that whatever the Father has the Son has, but not that the Son has it in the same order as the Father. For the Son has as receiving from another; while the Father has as giving to another. Thus, the distinction is not in what is had, but in the order of having. Now relations of this kind, that is, of fatherhood and sonship, signify a distinction of order: for fatherhood signifies a giving to another and sonship a receiving from another. Sed quaeritur utrum relatio in divinis sit aliquid realiter. Videtur quod sic: alias, cum personae divinae relationibus distinguantur, eorum distinctio non esset realis. Dicendum ergo, quod relatio in divinis dupliciter consideratur. Uno modo per comparationem ad essentiam seu personam patris; et sic relatio patris non est alia res quam essentia seu persona patris. Alio modo potest considerari per comparationem ad oppositam relationem, puta ad filiationem; et sic paternitas est relatio realis, quia secundum hoc importat ordinem naturae, quem pater dat filio per aeternam generationem: qui quidem ordo est in Deo secundum rei veritatem. Sic ergo, si paternitas comparetur ad essentiam patris, omnia quaecumque habet pater, habet filius, quia paternitas non est alia res ab essentia patris; sed non eo ordine habet, ut dictum est. 2113 One might ask whether a relation is something real in the divinity. It seems that it is: for if not, then since the divine persons are distinguished by relations, the distinction of the persons would not be real. The answer to this is that in the divinity a relation is considered in two ways. In one way, a relation is considered in comparison to the essence or person of the Father. And in this way the relation of Father is not other than the essence or person of the Father. In the other way, a relation can be considered in comparison to the opposite relation, for example, to sonship. In this way fatherhood is a real relation, because it signifies an order of the nature which the Father gives the Son by an eternal generation. And this order is really in God. Therefore, if fatherhood is compared to the essence of the Father, all that the Father has the Son has, because fatherhood is not other than the essence of the Father, but the Son does not have it in the same order, as was said. Hic infert intentam conclusionem, quod spiritus sanctus accipiat a filio. Ex necessitate enim oportet quod si omnia quae habet pater sint filii, et filius sit consubstantialis patri, quod spiritus sanctus procedat a filio sicut procedit a patre, ut Hilarius et Didymus arguunt. 2114 Now he draws his conclusion, that the Holy Spirit receives from the Son. If all things which the Father has are the Son's, and the Son is consubstantial to the Father, it is necessary that the Holy Spirit proceed from the Son as he proceeds from the Father, as Hilary and Didymus argue. Ad quod sciendum est, quod in qualibet processione seu origine rei creatae dicimus, quod idem sit quo agens agit, seu dat quod habet, et quod recipiens recipit; sicut ignis generatus recipit formam ignis, quam ignis generans dat per formam suam. Sed hoc in origine divinarum personarum est quodammodo simile, scilicet quod idem est quo pater dat naturam suam filio, non voluntate, sed natura, idest per naturam suam. Sed in hoc est dissimile: quia in creaturis non est idem numero, quod communicatur et quo communicatur, sed specie solum; sed in divinis est eadem natura numero quam pater dat filio, et qua eam dat seu communicat. To understand this we should note that among created things in every procession or origination that by which the agent acts or gives what it has is the same as what the recipient receives. For instance, fire which has been generated receives the form of fire which the generating fire gives it by its own form. There is something similar to this in the origin of the divine persons, because that by which the Father gives his nature to the Son (not by will, but by nature), is the same as that which he gives. Still there is an unlikeness in this way: in creatures, that which is communicated and that by which it is communicated is only the same in species, not the same individual; but in the divinity, what the Father gives to the Son and that by which he gives or communicates it is the same individual nature. Sed attende quod dicimus quod filius accipit de substantia patris, idest substantiam patris; et spiritus sanctus de substantia patris et filii; et quod pater virtute naturae suae dat filio substantiam suam et pater et filius spiritui sancto. Sed tamen non dicimus quod pater de substantia sit filii, vel pater et filius de substantia spiritus sancti: quia ly de importat consubstantialitatem cum ordine originis. Sic ergo spiritui sancto communicatur quod commune est patri et filio. Oportet autem quod illud idem sit principium communicationis in divinis et quod communicatur. Si ergo essentia communicatur spiritui sancto, oportet quod communicans sit essentia. Essentia autem est communis patri et filio: oportet ergo quod si pater dat essentiam spiritui sancto, quod et filius similiter det: et ideo dicit, quia omnia quaecumque habet pater, mea sunt. Et si spiritus sanctus accepit a patre, accipiet etiam a filio; et ideo dicit propterea dixi vobis, quia de meo accipiet, et annuntiabit vobis, quia secundum quod a me accipit, ita annuntiabit vobis. 2115 Note that we say that the Son receives from (de) the substance of the Father, that is, he receives the substance of the Father; and we say that the Holy Spirit receives from the substance of the Father and the Son; and that the Father, by virtue of his nature, gives his substance to the Son, and the Father and the Son give to the Holy Spirit. But we do not say that the Father is from (de) the substance of the Son, or that the Father and the Son are from the substance of the Holy Spirit, because the "from" (de) signifies consubstantiality with an order of origin. Thus, what is communicated to the Holy Spirit is what is common to the Father and the Son. Now in the divinity the principle of communication must be the same as what is communicated. And so if what is communicated to the Holy Spirit is as essence, that which communicates must be this essence. This essence, however, is common to the Father and the Son. So, if the Father gives his essence to the Holy Spirit, the Son must also do so. For this reason he says, all that the Father has is mine. And if the Holy Spirit receives from the Father, he will also receive from the Son. And for this reason he says, therefore I said that he will receive from me and declare it to you, for according as he receives from me, so he will show you.
Lectio 5 LECTURE 5 16 μικρὸν καὶ οὐκέτι θεωρεῖτέ με, καὶ πάλιν μικρὸν καὶ ὄψεσθέ με. 17 εἶπαν οὖν ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ πρὸς ἀλλήλους, τί ἐστιν τοῦτο ὃ λέγει ἡμῖν, μικρὸν καὶ οὐ θεωρεῖτέ με, καὶ πάλιν μικρὸν καὶ ὄψεσθέ με; καί, ὅτι ὑπάγω πρὸς τὸν πατέρα; 18 ἔλεγον οὖν, τί ἐστιν τοῦτο [ὃ λέγει], τὸ μικρόν; οὐκ οἴδαμεν τί λαλεῖ. 19 ἔγνω [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤθελον αὐτὸν ἐρωτᾶν, καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, περὶ τούτου ζητεῖτε μετ' ἀλλήλων ὅτι εἶπον, μικρὸν καὶ οὐ θεωρεῖτέ με, καὶ πάλιν μικρὸν καὶ ὄψεσθέ με; 20 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι κλαύσετε καὶ θρηνήσετε ὑμεῖς, ὁ δὲ κόσμος χαρήσεται: ὑμεῖς λυπηθήσεσθε, ἀλλ' ἡ λύπη ὑμῶν εἰς χαρὰν γενήσεται. 21 ἡ γυνὴ ὅταν τίκτῃ λύπην ἔχει, ὅτι ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα αὐτῆς: ὅταν δὲ γεννήσῃ τὸ παιδίον, οὐκέτι μνημονεύει τῆς θλίψεως διὰ τὴν χαρὰν ὅτι ἐγεννήθη ἄνθρωπος εἰς τὸν κόσμον. 22 καὶ ὑμεῖς οὖν νῦν μὲν λύπην ἔχετε: πάλιν δὲ ὄψομαι ὑμᾶς, καὶ χαρήσεται ὑμῶν ἡ καρδία, καὶ τὴν χαρὰν ὑμῶν οὐδεὶς αἴρει ἀφ' ὑμῶν. 16 "A little while, and you will see me no more; again a little while, and you will see me [because I go to the Father]." 17 Some of his disciples said to one another, "What is this that he says to us, 'A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me', and, 'because I go to the Father'?" 18 They said, "What does he mean by 'a little while'? We do not know what he means." 19 Jesus knew that they wanted to ask him; so he said to them, "Is this what you are asking yourselves, what I meant by saying, 'A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me'? 20 Truly, truly, I say to you, you will weep and lament, but the world will rejoice, you will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will turn into joy. 21 When a woman is in travail she has sorrow, because her hour has come; but when she is delivered of the child, she no longer remembers the anguish, for joy that a child [man] is born into the world. 22 So you have sorrow now, but I will see you again and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy from you." Supra explicavit dominus unam rationem consolationis ex promissione spiritus sancti; hic explicat secundam, scilicet de iterata visione sua, et primo ponitur visionis iterata promissio; secundo inducitur discipulorum dubitatio ibi dixerunt ergo etc.; tertio subditur dubitationis satisfactio, ibi cognovit autem Iesus et cetera. 2116 Above, our Lord explained one reason for their consolation, that was his promise of the Holy Spirit. Here he gives the second, which is that they will see him again. First, the promise that they will see him again is made; secondly, we see the perplexity of the disciples (v 17); and thirdly, their perplexity is answered (v 19). Iteratam autem visionem promittit eis dominus cum praenuntiatione recessus sui: quod ideo eis frequenter inculcat, ut dum saepe ipsum futurum praemeditantur, ipsum absentem tolerabilius ferant. Tria autem ponit consolatoria. Brevem absentiam, iteratam sui praesentiam, et honorabilem discessum. 2117 When our Lord foretold that he would leave his disciples, he also promised that they would see him again. He insists on this several times so that by considering the fact that he would come again they might better endure his absence. He actually mentions three things to console them: his absence will be brief; he will be with them again; and he will leave with honor. Absentia quidem brevis est, quia modicum, et iam non videbitis me: ut ly modicum referatur ad non videbitis; quasi dicat: futurum est ut tollar a vobis per mortem, et iam non videbitis me, sed non debetis contristari, quia tempus hoc quo me non videbitis, modicum erit, quia exurgam diluculo, tertia scilicet die; Is. XXVI, 20: abscondere modicum ad momentum donec pertranseat indignatio. 2118 His absence is brief because a little while and you will see me no more, so that the little while refers to the time when you will see me no more. It is like saying: I will be taken from you by death and you will see me no more; but do not be sad, because the time during which you will not see me will be a little while, for I will rise at dawn, that is, on the third day: "Hide yourselves for a little while until the wrath is past" (Is 26:20). Sed iterata praesentia mei erit, quia iterum modicum, idest modico temporis post resurrectionem spatio, scilicet quadraginta dierum, Act. I, 3: per dies quadraginta apparens eis, et videbitis me; infra XX, 20: gavisi sunt discipuli viso domino. 2119 Yet I will be with you again because again a little while, that is, during a brief time after the resurrection, for forty days, "appearing to them during forty days" (Acts 1:3), you will see me: "Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord" (20:20). Et hoc, quia honorabiliter recedo, quia vado ad patrem; Act. I, 9: videntibus illis elevatus est. 2120 And this is because I am leaving with honor, because I go to the Father: "As they were looking on, he was lifted up" (Acts 1:9). Vel aliter, ut ly modicum referatur ad tempus ante eius mortem, et sit sensus modicum, scilicet tempus existet quo subtrahar a vobis, quia scilicet in crastino; supra XIII, 33: filioli, adhuc modicum vobiscum sum. Et non videbitis me, scilicet mortalem, quia, supra XIV, 19, adhuc modicum, et mundus me iam non videt, scilicet mortalem, quia videbit eum in iudicio in maiestate venientem; discipuli vero post resurrectionem immortalem existentem: quia, ut dicitur Act. X, 40, dedit eum manifestum fieri non omni populo, sed testibus praeordinatis. Et ideo subdit modicum, scilicet durabit, et videbitis, quia scilicet modicum tempus fuit quo manserit in morte; Is. LIV, 8: in momento indignationis abscondi faciem meam parumper a te. Another interpretation would be that the little while refers to the time before Christ's death, so that the meaning is: It will just be a little while until I am taken from you, that is, on the morrow: "Yet a little while I am with you" (13:33). And you will see me no more, that is, in mortal form, because "yet a little while, and the world will see me no more," as mortal (14:19); yet it will see him at the judgment and coming in majesty. But the disciples will see Christ when immortal, after the resurrection, because as we read in Acts (10:40): "God ... made him manifest, not to all the people but to us who were chosen by God as witnesses." And so he adds, a little while, and you will see me, for I will remain in death only for a little while: "In a moment of indignation I hid my face from you for a little while" [Is 54:8]. Vel ly modicum potest referri ad tempus totius vitae nostrae usque ad iudicium; et tunc videbimus eum in iudicio et in gloria. Dicitur autem modicum in comparatione ad aeternitatem; Ps. LXXXIX, 4: mille anni ante oculos tuos tamquam dies hesterna quae praeteriit. Quia vado ad patrem, per resurrectionem et ascensionem; supra XIII, 1: sciens Iesus quia venit hora eius ut transeat ex hoc mundo ad patrem. Or this little while and we will see him can refer to the time of our entire life until the judgment; and then we will see Christ at the judgment and in glory. It is called a "little while" in relation to eternity: "For a thousand years in your sight are but as yesterday when it is past" (Ps 90:4). Because I go to the Father, by my resurrection and ascension: "Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart out of this world to the Father" (13:1). Hic ponitur discipulorum dubitatio: et primo ponitur eorum ad invicem collatio; secundo exprimitur dubitationis occasio; tertio describitur dubitantium animus et affectio. 2121 Now we see the perplexity of the disciples: first, they talk it over among themselves; secondly, we see the reason for their perplexity; and thirdly, we see their point of view and attitude. Conferebant quidem ad invicem discipuli ex verbis domini, dicentes quid est hoc quod dicit nobis modicum? In quo commendanda est eorum reverentia ad Christum, quae tanta erat ut non praesumerent eum interrogare. Simile faciunt Angeli; Is. LXIII, v. 1: quis est iste qui venit de Edom, tinctis vestibus de Bosra? Quibus tamen respondet, dicens: ego qui loquor iustitiam, et propugnator sum ad salvandum. Sed in hoc datur nobis intelligi quia nondum perfectum sensum habuerunt de verbis Christi, aut propter tristitiam absorbentem, aut propter verborum obscuritatem; Matth. XV, 16: adhuc et vos sine intellectu estis? 2122 The disciples questioned one another about the Lord's statement, saying, What does he mean by a little while? They show an admirable respect for Christ for it was so great that they did not presume to question him. The angels do the same: "Who is this that comes from Edom, in crimsoned garments from Bozrah" (Is 63:1). And he answers: "It is I who am speaking of righteousness and a defender who saves you" [Is 63:1]. We see from the words of the disciples that they did not yet have a complete understanding of what Christ said, either because they were still sunk in sorrow or because the words themselves were obscure: "Are you also still without understanding?" (Mt 15:16). Occasio autem erat ipse verborum contextus, quae videbantur contrarietatem quamdam implicare. Satis enim intelligebant quod dicit non videbitis me, et quia vado ad patrem: sed hoc dubium inferebat quod eumdem existentem et morientem post modicum visuri erant. Nondum enim nota eis erat resurrectio, quia hoc dicitur in Ps. c. LXXXVIII, 49: quis est homo qui non videbit mortem, eruet animam suam de manu Inferi? Sap. II, 1: non est agnitus qui sit reversus ab Inferis. 2123 The reason for their perplexity was that Christ's statements seemed to be incompatible. They understood well enough when he said, you will not see me, and because I go to the Father. But they were perplexed as to how they could see the same person a little while after he had died, for they did not yet know of the resurrection, and we read "What man can live and never see death? Who can deliver his soul from the power of Sheol?" (Ps 89:48); "No one has been known to return from Hades" (Wis 2:1). Et ideo dicunt quid est hoc quod dicit nobis modicum? Supple: quod videbitis me. Sed ad hanc dubitationem modeste dispositi erant. Nescimus, inquiunt, quid loquitur. Nam, ut dicit Augustinus, aliqui non intelligentes verba Scripturae blasphemant, sensum proprium auctoritati Scripturae praeponentes; sed alii modesti, dum non intelligunt, suam ignorantiam confitentur; Sap. IX, v. 5: infirmus homo, et exigui temporis, et minor ad intellectum iudicii et legum: quod et hic discipuli faciunt. Non enim aiunt, male dicit, vel nihil; sed eorum ignorantiae ascribunt quod non intelligunt. 2124 This is why the disciples say, What does he mean by a little while and we will see him? We do not know what he means, they reply in an unassuming way. As Augustine remarks, when some do not understand the words of Scripture they belittle it, preferring their own theories to the authority of Scripture. Yet others, when they do not understand, unpretentiously admit their own lack of knowledge: "I am ... a man who is weak and short-lived, with little understanding of judgment and laws" (Wis 9:5). This is what the apostles are doing here, for they do not say that Christ was wrong or that he said nothing. They ascribe their lack of understanding to their own ignorance. Hic ponitur manifestatio dubitationis, et primo ponitur dubitationis cognitio; secundo manifestatio eius de quo dubitatur, ibi amen, amen dico vobis etc.; tertio inducitur similitudo, ibi mulier cum parit, tristitiam habet. 2125 Now their perplexity is revealed. First, it is acknowledged [by Christ]; secondly, it is cleared up (v 20); and thirdly Christ presents a similar situation (v 21). Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit quomodo dubitatio discipulorum a Christo cognoscitur, cum dicit cognovit autem Iesus, virtute divinitatis suae, quia volebant eum interrogare, scilicet de eo quod dubitabant; supra II, 25: ipse enim sciebat quid esset in homine; I Reg. XVI, 7: homines vident quae patent, Deus autem intuetur cor. Secundo quomodo verbo manifestatur; unde dixit eis de hoc quaeritis inter vos etc.; Is. XLVIII, 3: audita feci ex tunc, repente operatus sum, et venerunt. 2126 He does two things about the first. First, he shows how the perplexity of the disciples was recognized by Christ, when he says, Jesus knew, by reason of his divinity, that they wanted to ask him, about this difficulty: "He himself knew what was in man" (2:25); "Man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart" (1 Sam 16:7). Then he shows how this recognition was expressed in words, when Christ said to them, Is this what you are asking yourselves ... ? "I made them known; then suddenly I did them and they came to pass" (Is 48:3). Hic exponit dictum suum, removens dubitationem, non expresse ponens verba quae dixerat, discipulis magis satisfaciens quam sibi: ubi tria facit. Primo ostendit alternationem gaudii et tristitiae; secundo interiorem tristitiam; tertio consequentem laetitiam. 2127 Now he explains his words and removes the perplexity of the disciples, not just repeating what he had said, but setting their minds at ease. First, he states that there will be a division of those who are sad and those who are joyful; secondly, he mentions their own interior sorrow; and thirdly, the joy that will follow. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum amen, amen dico vobis, quia in hoc modico in quo non videbitis me, plorabitis, exterius emittendo vocem dolorosam, et flebitis, lacrymando; Thren. I, 2: plorans ploravit in nocte, quantum ad primum, et lacrymae eius in maxillis eius, quantum ad secundum; Hier. c. XXXI, 16: quiescat vox tua a ploratu. 2128 About the first, he says, Truly, truly I say to you that during that little while in which you will not see me you will weep, groaning aloud in sad tones, and lament, shedding tears: "She weeps bitterly in the night," referring to the first, "tears on her cheeks" referring to the second (Lam 1:2); "Keep your voice from weeping" (Jer 31:16). Interior autem eorum tristitia erit per contrarietatem ad laetitiam mundi; unde dicit mundus autem gaudebit: quod potest intelligi particulariter quantum ad tempus passionis Christi, et sic mundus, idest Scribae et Pharisaei, gaudebit, de occisione Christi; Thren. II, 16: haec dies quam expectabamus: invenimus, vidimus. Vel mundus, idest mali qui sunt in Ecclesia, gaudebit, in persecutione sanctorum; Apoc. XVII, 8: inhabitantes super terram gaudebunt. Vel universaliter mundus, idest homines carnaliter viventes, gaudebit, in rebus mundanis; Is. XXII, v. 13: ecce gaudium et laetitia occidere vitulos et iugulare arietes, comedere carnes et bibere vinum. 2129 But their interior sadness will be in contrast to the joy of the world. Thus he says, but the world will rejoice. This can be understood in a particular way as referring to the time of Christ's passion, and then the world, that is, the Scribes and Pharisees, will rejoice that Christ is killed: "Ah, this is the day we longed for; now we have it; we see it!" (Lam 2:16). Or the world, that is the evil members of the Church, will rejoice that the saints are persecuted: "The inhabitants of the earth will rejoice" [Rev 17:8]. Or in a general sense, the world, those living carnally, will rejoice in worldly things: "And behold, joy and gladness, slaying oxen and killing sheep, eating flesh and drinking wine" (Is 22:13). Subsequitur tristitia discipulorum: unde dicit vos autem contristabimini, scilicet de passionibus quas in mundo sustinebitis, vel potius de occisione mea. Sic et sancti tristantur de passionibus sibi illatis a mundo, et de peccatis; II Cor. VII, 10: quae secundum Deum est tristitia, poenitentiam in salutem stabilem operatur. The sorrow of the disciples follows, and so he says, you will be sorrowful, because of the sufferings you will have in this world, or rather at my being killed. This is the way the saints are saddened: by the sufferings they endure at the hands of the world and by sin: "For godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation" (2 Cor 7:10). Sed tristitiam consequetur laetitia: quia tristitia vestra, quam scilicet habebitis in passione, vertetur in gaudium, in resurrectione; infra XX, 20: gavisi sunt discipuli viso domino. Sed universaliter omnium sanctorum tristitia vertetur in gaudium futurae vitae; Matth. V, 5: beati qui lugent, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur; Ps. CXXV, 6: euntes ibant et flebant mittentes semina sua; venientes autem venient cum exultatione portantes manipulos suos. Flent enim sancti tempore meriti, seminando; sed gaudebunt tempore praemii, colligendo. Hic dominus primo proponit similitudinem; secundo adaptat eam, ibi vos igitur nunc quidem tristitiam habetis. 2130 Yet joy will follow this sadness, because your sorrow, which you will experience over my passion, will turn into joy, at my resurrection: "The disciples were glad when they saw the Lord" (20:20). And in general, the sorrow of all the saints will be turned into the joy of the future life: "Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted" (Mt 5:4); "He that goes forth weeping, bearing the seed for sowing, shall come home with shouts of joy" (Ps 126:6). For the saints weep as they sow during this time of merit, but they will rejoice at the reaping, during the time of reward. Similitudinem autem proponit de muliere parturiente, unde primo proponit eius tristitiam de partu; secundo eius laetitiam de prole, ibi cum autem pepererit puerum, iam non meminit pressurae propter gaudium. 2131 Now our Lord mentions a similar case and then draws the parallels. The similar instance he gives is that of a woman about to give birth. First, he mentions the sorrow she has while in labor; and secondly, her joy once her child is born (v 21). Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: mulier cum parit, tristitiam habet, sensibilem, scilicet maximam, quia venit hora eius, scilicet doloris; Ps. XLVII, 7: ibi dolores ut parturientis. Per hunc dolorem datur intelligi dolor passionis Christi, qui maximus fuit; Thren. I, 12: o vos omnes qui transitis per viam, attendite, et videte si est dolor sicut dolor meus. Item sanctorum poenitentium de peccatis; Is. XXVI, 17: sicut quae concepit, dolens, clamat in doloribus suis, cum appropinquavit ad partum; sic facti sumus a facie tua, domine. 2132 In regard to the first he says, When a woman is in travail she has sorrow, very great sensible sorrow, because her hour of pain has come: "Anguish as of a woman in travail" (Ps 48:6). We can understand this pain as the pain of the passion of Christ, which was the greatest: "Look and see if there is any pain like my pain" [Lam 1:12]. We can also see in it the pain of the saints when repentant over their sins: "Like a woman with child, who writhes and cries out in her pangs, when she is near her time, so were we because of you, O Lord" (Is 26:17). Hic proponit gaudium de evasione. Ad partum enim sequitur duplex gaudium: unum de evasione doloris; aliud, et maius, de ortu prolis: quod quidem maximum est, si proles sit masculini sexus; cum masculus sit quid perfectum, femina vero quid imperfectum et occasionatum; Ier. XX, v. 15: maledictus vir qui annuntiavit patri meo: natus est tibi puer masculus. Gen. XXI, v. 6, quando Sara concepit, dixit: risum fecit mihi dominus, et quicumque audierit, corridebit mihi. Et ideo dicit cum autem peperit, iam non meminit pressurae, gaudens de evasione doloris, sed magis propter gaudium, quia natus est homo in mundum. 2133 Now he mentions the joy when it is over. After a birth there is a double joy: one, because the pain is past; the other, and greater, is over the birth of the child. This joy is greater if the child is of the male sex, since the male is complete, while the female is incomplete and fortuitous. "Cursed be the man who brought the news to my father, 'A son is born to you!"' (Jer 20:15). And in Genesis, when Sara conceived she said, "God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh with me" [Gen 21:6]. So he says, but when she is delivered of the child, she no longer remembers the anguish, rejoicing that the pain is over, but even more for joy that a man is born into the world. Haec autem similitudo convenit quidem quantum ad Christum, quia patiendo solvit mortis pressuras, et novum hominem regenerans esse fecit, idest, reddidit ad vitae gloriae novitatem, quae nondum hominibus nota erat; unde non dicit: natus est puer sed natus est homo in mundum: quia ipse Christus existens homo, ex mortuis novus resurgebat, ut puer. Item convenit Ecclesiae militanti quae in novitate vitae ambulat. Item Ecclesiae triumphanti, quae ambulat in novitate gloriae. Et non dicit non erit pressura sed quoniam non meminit pressurae quia etsi sancti recordentur miseriarum quas passi sunt, cum in illa beatitudine gloriae erunt, non tamen aliquid miseriarum ex hoc in affectu experientur. This image is appropriate to Christ because by his suffering he delivered us from the anguish of death and gave birth to a new man, that is, he conferred on human nature a newness of life and glory which were not yet known to us. Thus he does not say, "a child is born," but rather a man is born, because Christ, in his human nature, rose from the dead, renewed, with the newness of a child at birth. This image also fits the Church militant, which walks in a newness of life; and the Church triumphant, which walks in a newness of glory. He does not say, "There will be no anguish," but she no longer remembers the anguish, because even though the saints in glory will remember the afflictions they endured, they will not experience them. Hic adaptat similitudinem: et primo quantum ad praesentem tristitiam, quam apostoli tunc habebant, dicens et vos igitur quidem nunc, idest ex tempore passionis, tristitiam habetis, de morte mea; Lc. ult., 17: qui sunt hi sermones quos confertis ad invicem, et estis tristes? Vel nunc, idest in tota vita praesenti, tristitiam habetis. Supra eodem: plorabitis et flebitis vos. 2134 Here he draws the parallels. As regards the present sorrow the apostles were experiencing he says, So you have sorrow now, now being from the time of my passion, and the sorrow is over my death: "What is this conversation which you are holding with each other as you walk and look sad?" [Lk 24:17]. Or now, during your entire life, you have sorrow: "You will weep and lament" (16:20). Secundo quantum ad futuram laetitiam, dicens iterum autem videbo vos. Ubi primo promittit eis futuram visionem, dicens iterum autem videbo vos; quod idem est ac si diceret: videbitis me, quia non possumus eum videre, nisi seipsum ostendat. Sed non dicit videbitis me sed videbo vos: quia hoc ipsum quod seipsum ostendit, est ex misericordia sua quae signatur per eius visionem. Dicit ergo iterum autem videbo vos, in resurrectione et in futura gloria; Is. XXXIII, v. 17: regem in decore suo videbunt. As regards their future joy he says, but I will see you again. This is the same as if he said "you will see me," because we can see him only if he shows himself. Yet he does not say, "You will see me," but I will see you, because this showing of himself to us springs from his compassion, which the very sight of him indicates. He says, I will see you again, at my resurrection and in future glory: "Your eyes will see the king in his beauty" (Is 33:17). Secundo promittit cordis gaudium, et exultationem, dicens et gaudebit cor vestrum, scilicet ex mea visione in resurrectione. Unde cantat Ecclesia: haec dies quam fecit dominus, exultemus et laetemur in ea. Et gaudebit, visione gloriae: Ps. XV, 11: replebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo; Is. LX, 5: tunc videbis et afflues, et mirabitur, et dilatabitur cor tuum. Naturale enim est unicuique quod gaudeat in intuitu rei amatae. Divinam autem essentiam nullus nisi eam diligens videre potest. Iob XXXVI, 33: annuntiat de ea amico suo, quod possessio eius sit. Et ideo necesse est quod illam visionem sequatur gaudium; Is. ult., 14: videbitis, cognoscendo per intellectum, et gaudebit cor vestrum; immo ipsum gaudium usque ad corpus redundabit, dum glorificabitur; unde subdit: et ossa vestra germinabunt; Matth. c. XXV, 21: intra in gaudium domini tui. Secondly, he promises them a joyful heart and gladness, saying, and your hearts will rejoice, when you see me at my resurrection. Thus the Church sings: "This is the day the Lord has made: let us rejoice and be glad." And your hearts will rejoice at the vision of my glory: "Your face will fill me with joy" [Ps 16:11]; "Then you shall see and be radiant, your heart shall thrill and rejoice" (Is 60:5). For it is natural for each one to rejoice at the sight of what is loved. Now no one can see the divine essence unless he loves it: "He shows it to his friend, as it is his possession" [Job 36:33]. And so it is necessary that joy follow upon this vision: "You shall see," knowing with your mind, "and your heart shall rejoice" (Is 66:14). This joy will even spill over on to the body when it is glorified, and so Isaiah continues: "Your bones shall flourish like the grass"; "Enter into the joy of your master" (Mt 25:21). Tertio promittit eis perpetuam gaudii durationem, dicens et gaudium vestrum, quem habebitis in resurrectione de me, Is. LXI, 10: gaudens gaudebo in domino, nemo tollet a vobis: sicut Iudaei ante abstulerunt per passionem, quia, Christus resurgens ex mortuis iam non moritur, mors illi ultra non dominabitur. Vel gaudium vestrum, de gloriae fruitione, nemo tollet a vobis, cum sit inamissibile et perpetuum; Is. c. XXXV, 10: laetitia sempiterna super capita eorum. Nemo enim sibimetipsi hoc gaudium tollet per peccatum, cum uniuscuiusque voluntas sit ibi in bono confirmata; nemo etiam alteri hoc gaudium tollet, cum ibi nulla sit violentia, nulla illatio nocumenti et cetera. Thirdly, he promises that this joy will last forever, saying, and no one will take your joy from you, that is, the joy you will have over my resurrection will not be taken from you, like the Jews took your joy during my passion. And this is because "Christ rising from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him" [Rom 6:9] Or, your joy in the fullness of your glory no one will take from you since it cannot be lost and is continuous: "Everlasting joy shall be upon their heads" (Is 35:10). For we will not lose this joy for ourselves by sin since our wills shall be fixed in the good; and no one can take this joy from us because then there will be no violence and no injuries will be inflicted on us, etc.
Lectio 6 LECTURE 6 23 καὶ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐμὲ οὐκ ἐρωτήσετε οὐδέν. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἄν τι αἰτήσητε τὸν πατέρα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου δώσει ὑμῖν. 24 ἕως ἄρτι οὐκ ᾐτήσατε οὐδὲν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου: αἰτεῖτε καὶ λήμψεσθε, ἵνα ἡ χαρὰ ὑμῶν ᾖ πεπληρωμένη. 23 "In that day you will ask nothing of me. Truly, truly, I say to you, if you ask anything of the Father [in my name], he will give it to you in my name. 24 Hitherto you have asked nothing in my name; ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full." Supra prosecutus est dominus duas rationes confortantes apostolos, scilicet ex promissione Paracliti, et reditu sui; hic vero prosequitur tertiam rationem in qua confortavit eos ex promissione accessus eorum ad patrem, et primo promittit eis familiarem accessum eorum ad patrem: secundo assignat rationem dictorum, ibi haec in proverbiis locutus sum vobis. Circa primum duo facit. Primo dat fiduciae securitatem; secundo hortatur eos ad usum fiduciae, ibi usque modo non petistis quidquam et cetera. Circa primum duo facit. Primo excludit interpellationis necessitatem; secundo promittit impetrandi opportunitatem, ibi amen, amen dico vobis. Si quid petieritis patrem in nomine meo, dabit vobis. 2135 Above, our Lord enlarged on two things which would comfort his apostles, the promise of the Paraclete and his own return. Here he mentions a third reason by which he comforts them, promising them access to the Father. First, he promises them an intimate relationship with the Father; secondly, he gives a reason for this intimacy (v 25). He does two things about the first: he gives them that security that comes from confidence; secondly, he encourages them to act on their confidence (v 24). He does two things with the first: first, he rejects a need for an intercessor; secondly, he promises them an opportunity to ask (v 23). Dicit ergo in illo die non rogabitis me quidquam. Ubi secundum quod Augustinus dicit, ubi nos habemus rogabitis, Graeci habent quoddam verbum quod duo significat, scilicet petere et interrogare; et ideo potest dupliciter intelligi in illo die non me rogabitis quidquam, idest nihil a me petetis, vel nihil me interrogabitis. Dicit ergo: in illo die. 2136 He says, In that day you will ask nothing of me. According to Augustine, where we have ask, the Greeks have a word which means two things: to ask for something, and to ask or pose a question. Consequently, In that day you will ask nothing of me can mean two things: you will not ask me for anything, or you will not question me about anything. Quis autem sit iste dies, patet ex supra dictis scilicet iterum autem videbo vos. Quod potest intelligi de resurrectione, et de visione in gloria. In that day. What that day is can be seen from what he said before, "I will see you again" (v 22). This can be understood to be the day of his resurrection, or the day when we have the vision of his glory. De primo exponitur, secundum Chrysostomum in illo die, scilicet quando a mortuis resurrexero, me non interrogabitis quidquam; idest non dicetis: ostende nobis patrem, et huiusmodi. Sed contra hanc expositionem obiicit Augustinus: quia discipuli post resurrectionem dicunt, Act. I, 6: si in tempore hoc restitues regnum Israel? Et infra ult., 19, interrogat Petrus dicens: hic autem quid? 2137 Chrysostom understands this passage the first way. Thus, In that day, when I arise from the dead, you will ask nothing of me, that is, you will not say such things as "Show us the Father." Augustine objects to this interpretation because after the resurrection the disciples did say: "Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?" (Acts (1:6); and Peter poses the question: "Lord, what about this man?" (20:21). Sed, sustinendo expositionem Chrysostomi, dicendum, quod dominus illum diem vocat non solum diem resurrectionis, sed etiam diem illum quo a spiritu sancto docendi erant; supra eodem: cum autem venerit ille spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem. Et sic confuse loquens de tempore illo, includit etiam adventum spiritus sancti; quasi dicat in illo die, dato scilicet spiritu sancto, me non interrogabitis, quoniam scietis omnia per spiritum sanctum; I Io. II, 27: unctio docet nos de omnibus. Item, secundum eumdem: in illo die adventus spiritus sancti, non me interrogabitis quidquam, idest, nulla erit vobis necessitas me rogandi. Yet one can uphold Chrysostom's explanation by saying that our Lord calls that day not only the day of his resurrection, but also that day the disciples were to be taught by the Holy Spirit: "When the Spirit of truth comes, he will teach you all truth" [16:13]. And so by speaking in a vague manner of that time, our Lord also includes the coming of the Holy Spirit. It is like saying: In that day, once the Holy Spirit has been given, you will ask nothing of me, because you will know all things by the Holy Spirit: "His anointing teaches you about everything" (1 Jn 2:27). Again, according to Chrysostom, In that day, when the Holy Spirits comes, you will ask nothing of me, that is, you will have no need to ask me. Sed numquid post resurrectionem apostoli non fecerunt aliquam orationem Christo? Videtur quod sic; II Cor. c. XII, 8, dicit apostolus: propter quod ter dominum rogavi, idest Christum. Responsio. Dicendum, quod in Christo erat duplex natura: scilicet humana, per quam est mediator Dei et hominum: I Tim. II, 5, et divina, per quam est Deus unus cum patre. Christus autem secundum quod homo, non erat talis mediator ut numquam nos Deo coniungeret, sicut aliqui mediatores qui numquam extrema coniungunt. Coniungit ergo nos patri. Eadem autem est coniunctio ad Deum patrem et ad Christum secundum divinam naturam; unde dicit: non necesse habebitis ut utamini mea mediatione, inquantum homo. Sic ergo in illo die non rogabitis me, quasi mediatorem, quia per vos habebitis accessum ad Deum; sed rogabitis me ut Deum. Et licet Christus interpellet pro nobis, ut dicit apostolus ad Rom. VIII, 34, Ecclesia tamen non rogat eum ut interpellantem: unde non dicimus: Christe, ora pro nobis; sed rogat ipsum ut Deum: inhaerens ei ut Deo, per amorem et fidem. 2138 But after the resurrection did not the apostles pray to Christ for things? It seems so, for the Apostle says: "Three times I besought the Lord," that is, Christ (2 Cor 12:8). I answer that there are two natures in Christ: his human nature, by which he is the mediator between God and us (1 Tim 2:5), and his divine nature, by which he is one God with the Father. Christ, considered as having a human nature, was not a mediator who never united us to God, like some mediators who never unite extremes. So, Christ joins us to the Father. Now to join God the Farther and to join Christ as God are the same. Thus he says: It is not necessary for you to use my mediation as man. Thus, In that day you will ask nothing of me as mediator, because you will have access to God by yourselves ‑ but you will ask me as God. Although Christ intercedes for us, as the Apostle says (Rom 8:34), still the Church does not ask him as an intercessor. Thus we do not say, "Christ, pray for us"; but we do ask him as God, adhering to him as God by faith and love. Secundum Augustinum exponitur de die visionis gloriae, hoc modo: in illo die, quando videbo vos in gloria, me non rogabitis, idest, nil petetis, quia nil desiderandum remanebit, cum omnia bona superabundent nobis in patria; Ps. XV, 10: adimplebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo; et iterum, Ps. XVI, 15: satiabor cum apparuerit gloria tua. Item nil interrogabitis, quia pleni eritis cognitione Dei; Ps. XXXV, 10: in lumine tuo videbimus lumen. 2139 Augustine explains this passage as referring to the day of the vision of glory in this way: In that day, when I see you in glory, you will ask nothing of me, that is, you will not ask me for anything because there will be nothing left to desire, since all goods will be ours in superabundance in our homeland: "You will fill me with joy by your face" [Ps 16:11]; and again, "I will be satisfied when your glory appears" [Ps 17:15]. Also, you will ask no questions because you will be filled with the knowledge of God: "In your light do we see light" (Ps 36:9). Sed contra utrumque obiicitur, quia sancti in patria orant: secundum illud Iob V, 1: voca si est qui tibi respondeat, et ad aliquem sanctorum convertere. Et II Mac. ult. dicitur, quod hic orabat pro populo suo. Nec potest dici, quod pro aliis rogent, non pro se; quia dicitur Apoc. VI, 10: usquequo non iudicas sanguinem nostrum? Item sancti interrogant: erunt enim aequales Angelis, ut dicitur Matth. XXII, 30, sed Angeli interrogant dicentes: quis est iste rex gloriae? Et in Is. LXIII, 1: quis est iste qui venit de Edom? Quae est vox Angelorum, secundum Dionysium. Ergo et sancti interrogant. 2140 An objection can be raised against both of these points. The saints do pray in our homeland: "Call now, if there is any who will answer you; and turn to some of the saints" [Job 5:1]; and in 2 Maccabees (15:12) we see that a saint prayed for the entire Jewish people. Nor can one say that the saints pray just for others and not for themselves, for we read: "O Sovereign Lord ... how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell upon the earth?" (Rev 6:10). Further, the saints ask questions: for they will be equal to the angels (Mt 22:30), and the angels question: "Who is the King of glory?" (Ps 24:8), and "Who is this that comes from Edom?" (Is 63:1). Therefore, the saints do question. Sed quantum ad utramque est duplex responsio. Primo, quia tempus gloriae potest considerari dupliciter: secundum gloriae inchoationem, et secundum plenariam consummationem. Tempus autem inchoationis gloriae est usque ad diem iudicii: nam sancti quantum ad animam receperunt gloriam, sed aliquid adhuc expectant ad recipiendum, scilicet gloriam corporis in se, et quantum ad alios, ut impleatur numerus electorum; et sic usque ad iudicii diem et petere possunt et interrogare, non tamen de his quae pertinent ad essentiam beatitudinis. Tempus autem gloriae consummatae plenarie est post diem iudicii, post quam nihil restat petendum, nihil cognoscendum; et de eo dicit in illo die, scilicet gloriae consummatae, nil petetis, nil interrogabitis. Two points can be made in answer to this. The time of glory can be considered in two ways: the time of the beginning of glory, and the time of its full completion. The time of the beginning of glory lasts until the day of judgment: for the saints receive glory in their soul, but something still remains to be received, that is, the glory of the body for each one, and the completion of the number of the elect. Consequently, till the day of judgment the saints can both ask for things and question, but not about what pertains to the very essence of beatitude. The time of fully complete glory is after the day of judgment, and after this nothing is left to be asked for, and nothing left to be known. It is about this that he says, In that day, of consummated glory, you will ask nothing of me. Quod autem dicitur de Angelis, quod interrogant, verum est de mysteriis humanitatis et incarnationis Christi, non autem divinitatis. The observation about the angels asking questions is true in his way: they do ask about the mysteries of the humanity of Christ and the incarnation, but they do not question about the divinity. Hic promittit impetrandi opportunitatem: quod quidem continuatur dupliciter. Uno modo, secundum Chrysostomum, ut referatur ad tempus resurrectionis, et adventum spiritus sancti; quasi dicat: verum est quod in illo die resurrectionis et spiritus sancti non interrogabitis me, tamen habebitis meum auxilium, quia petetis in nomine meo, a patre, ad quem habebitis accessum per me. 2141 Now he promises them an opportunity to ask. This is related to the above in two ways. According to Chrysostom, this refers to the time of the resurrection and the coming of the Holy Spirit. It is like saying: It is true that in that day of the resurrection and of the Holy Spirit that you will not ask me; yet you will have my help, because you will ask the Father, to whom you have access through me, in my name. Alio modo, secundum Augustinum: in illo die, gloriae meae, non rogabitis quidquam, sed interim, dum in peregrinatione huius miseriae conversamini, si quid petieritis patrem, dabit vobis. Et secundum hoc si quid petieritis patrem etc., non refertur ad hoc quod dicit in illo die, sed ad ea quae praecedunt illum diem. Augustine explains it the other way. "In that day," of my glory," you will ask nothing of me"; but in the meantime, during your sorrowful pilgrimage, if you ask anything of the Father, he will give it to you. So according to this explanation, if you ask anything of the Father, does not refer to "in that day," but to what precedes that day. Ponit autem dominus septem conditiones bonae orationis. Prima est ut petantur bona spiritualia; et hoc cum dicit si quid. Quod enim est penitus terrenum, etsi in se sit aliquid, comparatum tamen ad spiritualia, nihil est; Sap. VII, 8: divitias nihil esse duxi in comparatione illius; Ier. IV, v. 23: aspexi terram, et vacua erat et nihil. Sed contra. Matth. VI, docet dominus petere temporalia, ibi: panem nostrum quotidianum. Sed dicendum, quod temporale petitum relatum ad spirituale iam est aliquid. 2142 Our Lord lays down seven conditions for good prayer. The first is that spiritual goods should be sought, when he says, "If you ask anything." For what is entirely earthly, even though it is something in itself, is nothing when compared to spiritual goods: "I accounted wealth as nothing in comparison with her" (Wis 7:8); "I looked on the earth, and lo, it was waste and void" (Jer 4:23). But an objection: In Matthew (6:11), our Lord teaches us to ask for temporal goods: "Give us this day our daily bread." I answer that a temporal good asked for in relation to a spiritual good is then something. T Secunda conditio est ut fiat cum perseverantia; et quantum ad hoc dicit petieritis, quasi perseverando; Lc. XVIII, 1: oportet semper orare, et non deficere; et I Thess. V, v. 17: sine intermissione orate. he second is that it be made with perseverance; as to this he says, If you ask, with perseverance: "They ought always to pray and not lose heart" (Lk 18:1); "Pray constantly" (1 Thess 5: 17). Tertia, quod fiat cum concordia, cum dicit petieritis, in plurali; Matth. XVIII, 19: si duo ex vobis consenserint super terram, de omni re quamcumque petierint fiet illis a patre meo qui in caelis est. Unde Glossa, Rom. c. ult., dicit, quod impossibile est multorum preces non exaudiri. Thirdly, we should pray in harmony with others; he says, if you, in the plural, ask: "If two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven" (Mt 18:19). Thus the Gloss says, about Romans (c 16), that it is impossible for the prayers of many not to be heard.  Quarta, ut procedat ex filiali affectu, cum dicit patrem. Qui enim ex timore petit, non patrem, sed dominum petit, vel hostem; Matth. VII, 11: si vos nostis bona data dare filiis vestris, quanto magis pater vester qui in caelis est, dabit bona petentibus se? Fourthly, it should arise from an affection like that of a child for its parents, as he says, the Father. One who asks out of fear does not ask a father, but a master or an enemy: "If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him!" (Mt 7:11). Quinta, ut fiat cum pietate, idest cum humilitate, Ps. ci, 18: respexit in orationem humilium, et non sprevit preces eorum, cum fide impetrandi, Iac. I, 6: postulet autem in fide, nihil haesitans; et ordinate, Iac. IV, 6: petitis, et non accipitis, eo quod male petatis. Et quantum ad hoc dicit in nomine meo, quod est nomen salvatoris, in quo nomine petit qui pertinentia ad salutem petit, et eo modo quo potest salutem consequi; Act. IV, v. 12: non est aliud nomen sub caelo datum hominibus, in quo oporteat nos salvos fieri. The fifth condition is that it be made with piety, that is, with humility: ‑ "He will regard the prayer of the humble and will not despise their petitions" [Ps 102:17] ‑ with confidence that it will be granted ‑ "Let him ask in faith, with no doubting" (Jas 1:6) ‑ and it should be made correctly ‑ "You ask and do not receive, because you ask wrongly" (Jas 4:3). In regard to this he says, in my name, which is the name of the Savior, in which name one asks when asking for things pertaining to salvation, and when asking in that way by which one can attain salvation: "There is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved" (Acts 4:12). Sexta, ut fiat tempore debito; et ideo dicit dabit. Non enim oportet statim decidere, si non accipiat; sed profecto dabitur, etsi, ut in tempore congruo detur, differatur, ut magis crescat desiderium; Ps. CXLIV, 15: tu das escam illorum in tempore opportuno. The sixth condition is that prayer be made for an appropriate time, so he says, he will give. One should not stop praying if one does not immediately receive; it will be given to us even if it is postponed till a better time, so as to increase our desire: "You give them their food in due season" (Ps 145:15). Septima, ut petat pro se; unde dicit vobis, quia aliquando pro aliis non exauditur, contrariantibus eorum demeritis, pro quibus fit petitio; Ier. VII, 16: tu ergo noli orare pro populo isto; et XV, 1: si steterint Moyses et Samuel coram me, non est anima mea ad populum istum. Seventhly, one should ask for himself. Thus he says, to you, because sometimes prayers for others are not heard because the demerits of those we ask for stand in the way: "Do not pray for this people" (Jer 7:16); "Though Moses and Samuel stood before me, yet my heart would not turn toward this people" (Jer 15:1). Hic hortatur eos ad usum datae fiduciae, et primo commemorat defectum praeteritum; secundo hortatur ad profectum futurum, ibi petite. 2143 Now he encourages them to act with the confidence he has given them: first, he reminds them of what they lacked in the past; secondly, he encourages them to advance in the future, ask. Defectus praeteritus est in non petendo; unde dicit usque modo non petistis quidquam. Sed contra. Matth. X, 1 et Lc. IX, 1: dedit eis potestatem super omnia Daemonia, et ut languores curarent. Haec autem orando faciebant: ergo aliquid petierunt in nomine Christi, et praecipue quia Lc. X, 17, dicitur a discipulis: domine, in nomine tuo etiam Daemonia subiiciuntur nobis. 2144 What they lacked in the past was not asking; thus he says, Hitherto you have asked nothing in my name. But this seems to conflict with Luke (9:1) where it says that Christ gave the twelve "power and authority over all demons and to cure diseases"; and the same in Matthew (10:1). Now they did these things by praying. Therefore, they did ask something in the name of Christ, especially because the disciples said: "Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name" (Lk 10:17). Et ideo dicendum, quod hoc potest dupliciter exponi. Uno modo sic usque modo non petistis quidquam, quod scilicet esset aliquid magnum, in nomine meo. Nam petitiones curationum corporalium modicae sunt in comparatione ad alia magna quae orando facturi erant: nec dum spiritum adoptionis acceperant, quo ad spiritualia et caelestia anhelarent. Et si dicis, quod petierunt aliquid magnum, supra XIV, 9: domine, ostende nobis patrem, dicendum, quod hoc non petebant a patre de quo hic agit, sed solum de Christo homine confisi eum interpellabant mediatorem ut patrem ostenderet. We must say, then, that this can be explained in two ways. First, Hitherto you have asked nothing, that is nothing great, in my name. For to ask for cures for the body is a small matter compared to the great things they would accomplish by their prayers; nor had they yet received the Spirit of adoption to make them aspire to spiritual and heavenly things. And if you object that they did ask for something great when they asked before, "Lord, show us the Father" (14:8), I answer that they were not asking the Father (which is what Christ is talking about here), but only Christ as man, trusting that as a mediator he would show them the Father. Alio modo, quia dicit: si quid petieritis patrem in nomine meo, in quo ante non petierant, non habentes perfectam cognitionem nominis Christi. Another explanation: if you ask anything of the Father in my name. Up to now they had not asked in his name because they did not have a complete knowledge of the name of Christ. Consequenter cum dicit petite et accipietis, hortatur eos ad profectum futurum, ut scilicet petant. Matth. VII, 7: petite et dabitur vobis. Petite, inquam, et accipietis, scilicet quod petitis, ut impleatur gaudium vestrum; Lc. X, 17: reversi sunt discipuli cum gaudio dicentes: domine, in nomine tuo etiam Daemonia subiiciuntur nobis. Et hoc modo quod dicit gaudium vestrum sit plenum, ponitur ut finis exauditionis. Vel potest poni sicut res petita, ut sit sensus petite et accipietis: hoc, inquam, petatis, ut gaudium vestrum sit plenum. 2145 When he says, ask, and you will receive, he is urging them to make progress, that is, they are now to ask: "Ask, and it will be given you" (Mt 7:7). Ask, I say, and you will receive, that is, what you are asking for, that your joy may be full: "The seventy returned with joy, saying, 'Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name'" (Lk 10:17). The phrase that your joy may be full can be taken to indicate the reason why their prayers are heard. Or, it can point to what they are praying for, so the meaning is: ask, and you will receive, and what you should ask for is that your joy may be full. Ubi sciendum, quod obiectum gaudii est bonum concupitum. Cum enim desiderium sit motus appetitus in bonum et gaudium quies eius in eo, tunc gaudet homo quando quiescit in bono iam habito, ad quod desiderium movebatur. Sed gaudium proportionatur bono habito: et de bono creato non potest haberi gaudium plenum, quia non quietat plene desiderium et appetitum hominis: tunc ergo gaudium nostrum erit plenum quando habebimus bonum illud in quo superabundanter sunt omnia bona quae desiderare possumus. Et hoc bonum est solum Deus, qui replet in bonis desiderium nostrum, ut dicitur in Ps.: CII. Ideo dicit petite, illud, ut gaudium vestrum sit plenum, scilicet frui Deo et Trinitate, ut Augustinus dicit, quo amplius non est; Ps. XV, 10: adimplebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo. Et quare? Quia venerunt mihi omnia bona pariter cum illa, Sap. VII, 11, idest cum contemplatione divinae sapientiae. 2146 Note that the object of joy is a good that is desired. Since desire is a kind of movement toward a good, and joy is rest in that good, a person has joy when he rests in a good, now possessed, to which his desire was moved. And one's joy is proportionate to the good possessed. There cannot be full joy in a created good because it does not give complete rest to man's desires and yearnings. Our joy will be full when we possess that good in which all the goods we can desire are found superabundantly. This good is solely God "who satisfies our desire with good things" [Ps 103:5]. Therefore he says, ask this, that your joy may be full, that is, ask to enjoy God and the Trinity, as Augustine says, and no joy is greater: "You will fill me with joy with your face" [Ps 16:11]. And why is this? Because "all good things came to me along with her," that is, with the contemplation of divine wisdom (Wis 7:11).
Lectio 7 LECTURE 7 25 ταῦτα ἐν παροιμίαις λελάληκα ὑμῖν: ἔρχεται ὥρα ὅτε οὐκέτι ἐν παροιμίαις λαλήσω ὑμῖν ἀλλὰ παρρησίᾳ περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἀπαγγελῶ ὑμῖν. 26 ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου αἰτήσεσθε, καὶ οὐ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐρωτήσω τὸν πατέρα περὶ ὑμῶν: 27 αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ φιλεῖ ὑμᾶς, ὅτι ὑμεῖς ἐμὲ πεφιλήκατε καὶ πεπιστεύκατε ὅτι ἐγὼ παρὰ [τοῦ] θεοῦ ἐξῆλθον. 28 ἐξῆλθον παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ ἐλήλυθα εἰς τὸν κόσμον: πάλιν ἀφίημι τὸν κόσμον καὶ πορεύομαι πρὸς τὸν πατέρα. 25 "I have said this to you in figures [proverbs]; the hour is coming when I shall no longer speak to you in figures [proverbs] but tell you plainly of the Father. 26 In that day you will ask in my name; and I do not say to you that I shall pray the Father for you; 27 for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came from the Father [from God]. 28 I came from the Father and have come into the world; again, I am leaving the world and going to the Father." Supra promisit dominus discipulis familiaritatem et accessum eorum ad patrem; hic rationem huius familiaritatis assignat. Duo autem sunt quae dant homini fiduciam petendi ab aliquo et familiaritatem, scilicet notitia et dilectio: et ideo dominus hanc duplicem rationem assignat. Prima sumitur ex manifesta patris cognitione; secunda ex speciali eius dilectione, ibi in illo die in nomine meo petetis. 2147 Above, our Lord promised his disciples an access and intimacy with the Father. Now he gives the reason for this intimacy. There are two things that make a person intimate with another and foster confidence when asking for something: knowledge and love. Thus our Lord gives these two reasons here. The first is taken from their clear knowledge of the Father; the second, from his special love for them (v 26). Circa primum duo facit. Primo commemorat praeteritam eorum de patre cognitionem imperfectam; secundo promittit perfectam, ibi venit hora cum iam non in proverbiis loquar vobis. 2148 He does two things about the first: first, he reminds them of their previous imperfect knowledge of the Father; secondly, he promises them complete knowledge, the hour is coming when I shall no longer speak to you in proverbs. Imperfectam quidem cognitionem habebant, unde dicit haec in proverbiis locutus sum vobis. Proverbium proprie dicitur quod communiter est in ore omnium, sicut illud Prov. c. XXII, 6: adolescens iuxta viam suam, etiam cum senuerit non recedet ab ea. Sed quia haec quandoque obscura sunt et metaphorica, inde est quod proverbium quandoque sumitur pro parabola, in qua aliud dicitur, aliud signatur. Et hoc modo accipitur hic proverbium pro parabola, idest pro parabolica locutione. Indeed, their knowledge was imperfect; so he says, I have said this to you in proverbs. A proverb, strictly speaking, is a maxim, a common expression, as "Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it" (Prv 22:6). Now because proverbs are sometimes not clear and are metaphorical, the word "proverb" is sometimes used to indicate a parable, which states one thing while actually meaning something else. This is the case here, and "proverb" should be taken to mean parable. Potest autem hoc habere quadruplicem sensum. Primus est talis secundum litteram, ut referatur ad hoc quod immediate dixerat, hoc modo: dixi vobis: usque modo non petistis quidquam, et quod in nomine meo petetis, et sum quasi obscure et in proverbiis locutus; sed venit hora ut quae obscure dixi vobis, dicam statim in manifesto; unde subdit: ipse pater amat vos, et exivi a patre, et veni in mundum. Et sic videntur apostoli intellexisse, unde, his auditis, dicunt ei: ecce nunc palam loqueris et cetera. 2149 The statement, I have said this to you in proverbs, can be taken in four ways. The first is literal, and refers to what he had said immediately before this. Then the sense is: I said to you that hitherto you have asked nothing in my name, and that you will ask in my name, and I have said this to you in proverbs, and obscurely. But the hour is coming when what I said obscurely I will say plainly. Thus he adds: "the Father himself loves you," and "I came from the Father and have come into the world." This seems to be the way the apostles understood it because when they heard him say these things they said, "Ah, now you are speaking plainly, and not in proverbs" (16:29). Secundus sensus est ut hoc quod dicit haec in proverbiis locutus sum vobis, referatur ad totum quod in hoc Evangelio legitur de doctrina Christi; quod vero dicitur venit hora cum iam non in proverbiis loquar vobis, referatur ad tempus gloriae. Quia enim nunc videmus per speculum et in aenigmate, idcirco haec quae dicuntur nobis de Deo, in proverbiis proponuntur. Sed quia in patria videbimus facie ad faciem, ut dicitur I Cor. XIII, 12, ideo tunc non in proverbiis, sed palam de patre annuntiabitur nobis. Dicit autem de patre, quia nullus potest patrem videre in illa gloria nisi filio manifestante; Matth. XI, 27: nemo novit patrem nisi filius, et cui filius voluerit revelare. Ipse enim est lux vera, dans nobis lucem, qua patrem videamus; supra VIII, 12: ego sum lux mundi. 2150 In the second way, I have said this to you in proverbs, refers to everything which is read in this Gospel about the teaching of Christ. Then the next statement, the hour is coming when I shall no longer speak to you in proverbs, would refer to the time of glory. For now we see in a mirror, in an obscure manner, since what we are told about God is presented to us in proverbs. But in our homeland we will see "face to face," as we read in 1 Corinthians (13:12). Therefore, we will then be plainly told of the Father, and not in proverbs. He says, of the Father, because no one can see the Father in that glory unless the Son reveals him: "No one knows the Father except the Son and any one to whom the Son chooses to reveal him" (Mt 11:27). For the Son is the true light, and gives us the light by which we can see the Father: "I am the light of the world" (8:12). Sed quia huic expositioni repugnat quod sequitur in nomine meo petetis: in quo nil petituri sumus, si de die gloriae intelligatur, quando satiabitur in bonis desiderium nostrum, ideo est alius sensus duplex. Unus, secundum Chrysostomum, sic: haec, scilicet quae nunc dixi vobis, in proverbiis, idest in quadam intricatione verborum, locutus sum vobis, non exprimens totaliter quae oportet vos cognoscere de me et patre meo, quia multa habeo vobis dicere quae non potestis portare modo: supra hoc cap.; sed venit hora, cum a mortuis scilicet resurrexero, cum iam non in proverbiis, idest obscure et per aenigmata, sed palam de patre meo annuntiabo vobis. Nam per illos quadraginta dies quibus apparuit eis, multa mysteria eos docuit et multa de se et patre annuntiavit; et cum iam per fidem resurrectionis eum firmiter Deum verum esse credentes elevati essent ad altiora; unde et subditur Act. I, 3: loquens eis de regno Dei; Lc. ult., 45: aperuit eis sensum ut intelligerent Scripturas. 2151 But the next statement, in that day you will ask in my name, does not fit this [second] explanation. For if that hour is the time of glory, we will not ask for anything because our desires will be satisfied with good. Accordingly, there are two other meanings. According to Chrysostom the sense is this: I have said this to you, that is, what I have just said, in proverbs, that is, in veiled language, not entirely expressing all that you should know about me and the Father, because "I have yet many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now" (16:12). But the hour is coming, that is, when I have arisen from the dead, when I shall no longer speak to you in proverbs, that is, obscurely and in figures, but tell you plainly of the Father. Indeed, during those forty days during which he appeared to them, he taught them many mysteries and told many things about himself and the Father. Further, they had been raised to higher things by their faith in the resurrection, firmly believing that Christ was the true God. So we read that Christ was "speaking of the kingdom of God" to them (Acts 1:3), and that "He opened their minds to understand the scriptures" (Lk 24:45). Alius sensus est, secundum Augustinum, ut per hoc quod dicit haec in proverbiis locutus sum, promittat dominus se facturum eos spirituales. Differentia enim haec est inter spiritualem et animalem virum: quia animalis homo verba spiritualia accipit ut proverbia, non quod proverbialiter sint dicta, sed quia mens eius supra corporalia elevari non valens, sunt ei obscura; I Cor. II, 14: animalis homo non percipit ea quae sunt spiritus Dei. Spiritualis autem homo accipit spiritualia ut spiritualia. Discipuli autem a principio quasi animales erant, et quae dicebantur eis, obscura erant et sicut proverbia; sed postmodum a Christo spirituales effecti et per spiritum sanctum edocti, spiritualia aperte capiebant. Et ideo dicit haec in proverbiis locutus sum vobis, idest, fuerunt vobis ut proverbia. Sed venit hora cum iam non in proverbiis loquar vobis; II Cor. III, v. 18: nos autem revelata facie gloriam domini speculantes, in eamdem imaginem transformamur a claritate in claritatem tamquam a domini spiritu. 2152 The other reading is given by Augustine, and is this. When Christ said I have said this to you in proverbs, our Lord is promising to make them spiritual. There is a difference between one who is spiritual and one who is sensual: a sensual person understands spiritual words as proverbs, not because they were spoken as proverbs, but because the mind of such a person cannot rise above material things, and spiritual things are hidden (1 Cor 2:14). But one who is spiritual understands spiritual words as spiritual. At the beginning, the disciples themselves were sensual, and what was told them they found obscure, and took as proverbs. But after they were made spiritual by Christ and had been taught by the Holy Spirit, they clearly understood spiritual words as spiritual. And so Christ says, I have said this to you in proverbs, that is, you understood what I said as proverbs. But the hour is coming when I shall no longer speak to you in proverbs: "And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being changed into his likeness" (2 Cor 3:18). Hic ponitur secunda ratio fiduciae, sumpta ex dilectione patris ad discipulos, et primo ostendit patris dilectionem ad eos; secundo familiaritatem patris ad filium, ibi exivi a patre, et veni in mundum. Circa primum duo facit. Primo resumit eis factam promissionem; secundo assignat promissionis rationem, ibi ipse enim pater amat vos. 2153 Now we see the second reason why they should have confidence, and it is based on the Father's love for the disciples: first, he shows the Father's love for them; secondly, the intimacy of the Father with the Son, I came from the Father. He does two things with the first: first, he repeats a promise he made to them; secondly, he gives the reason for what was promised, for the Father himself loves you. Circa primum duo facit. Primo resumit unum quod promiserat; secundo promittit eis fiduciam petendi. 2154 He does two things with the first: he repeats one of his promises; secondly, he promises that they will have confidence when they pray. Unde dicit in illo die, scilicet quando annuntiabo vobis palam de patre, petetis in nomine meo: quia manifeste eum cognoscentes, scietis me esse ei aequalem et coessentialem, et per me habere accessum ad eum. Haec enim est petitio in nomine eius, sperare per Christum habere accessum ad patrem; Ps. XIX 8: hi in curribus et hi in equis; nos autem in nomine domini Dei nostri invocabimus. Tacet autem se rogaturum patrem pro eis; unde dicit et non dico vobis quia ego rogabo patrem et cetera. He says, In that day, when I tell you plainly of the Father, you will ask in my name; for when you plainly know the Father you will know that I am equal to him and of the same essence, and that it is through me that you can approach or have access to him. To have this hope of approaching or having access to the Father through Christ is what is meant by asking in the name of Christ: "Some trust in chariots, and some in horses. But we will call upon the name of the Lord our God" [Ps 20:7]. But Christ is silent about asking the Father for them; he says, I do not say to you that I shall pray the Father for you. Sed numquid non ipse orat pro nobis? Immo: I Io. II, 1: advocatum habemus apud patrem Iesum Christum iustum; Hebr. VII, 25: accedens per semetipsum ad Deum salvare potest. Et ad hoc dicendum primo, secundum Augustinum, quod hoc dicit ad removendum, se de cetero esse ut personam interpellantem inquantum homo. Sic in illo die, quando palam annuntiabo et petetis in nomine meo et cognoscetis me esse unum cum patre et quod non sim persona interpellans; sed inquantum Deus simul cum eo interpellans exaudiam. 2155 But doesn't Christ pray for us? Certainly: "We have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous" (1 Jn 2:1); "He is able for all time to save those who draw near to God through him" (Heb 7:25). According to Augustine, Christ says this so the disciples will not think that Christ, since he is a man, is limited to interceding for them. So in that day when I tell you plainly, you will not only ask in my name, but you will know that I am one with the Father, and not just an intercessor, but in addition to interceding, I, as God, will hear your prayer. Alio modo, secundum Chrysostomum, hoc forte dicit, ne forte credant discipuli quod ita sint per filium impetraturi quod ipsi non habebant immediatum accessum ad patrem, quasi dicat: modo ad me recurritis, ut pro vobis interpellem, sed tunc tantam fiduciam habebitis apud eum quod etiam ipsi a patre petere poteritis in nomine meo, non indigentes alio introducente. According to Chrysostom, however, Christ probably says this so the disciples will not believe that they are to ask through the Son as if they could not approach the Father directly. He is saying in effect: At present you come to me to intercede for you. But in that day you will have such confidence in the Father that you will be able to ask the Father in my name, without needing another to intercede for you. Sed numquid apostoli non indiguerunt Christo homine ad interpellandum? Alias, cum ipse interpellet, superflua erit eius interpellatio. Sed dicendum, quod non interpellat pro eis tamquam pro absentibus et accessum habere non valentibus, sed faciens preces eorum exaudibiliores. 2156 But the apostles did need Christ, as man, to intercede, didn't they? If not, then since he does intercede, his intercession is superfluous. We should say that Christ intercedes for them not as though they were strangers and had no access to the Father, but he makes their prayers more effective. Hic rationes promissionis assignat, quae est amor patris ad eos, et primo ponit patris dilectionem; secundo dilectionis probationem, ibi quia vos me amastis. 2157 Here he gives the reason for the promise, which is the Father's love for them: and first, he mentions the Father's love; secondly, the proof of this love, because you have loved me. Dicit ergo: ideo non dico quia rogabo patrem pro vobis (per hoc enim videretur quod ipse non amaret eos), sed utique ipse pater, qui amat omnia, volendo eis bonum naturae, Sap. II, 35: diligis omnia quae sunt, et nihil odisti eorum quae fecisti, amat vos, apostolos et sanctos, quodam privilegiato amore, volendo vobis summum bonum, idest seipsum; Deut. XXXIII, 3: dilexit populos: omnes sancti in manu illius sunt, quia ad hoc dilexit; Sap. III, 1: iustorum animae in manu Dei sunt. 2158 He says: I do not say to you that I shall pray the Father for you, for then it might seem that the Father did not love them. Assuredly, the Father himself, who loves all things by willing them the goods of nature ‑ "For you love all things that exist, and have loathing for none of the things which you have made" (Wis 11:26) ‑ loves you, apostles and saints, with an exceptional love, by willing you the highest good, that is, himself. "He loved his people: all those consecrated to him were in his hand" (Deut 33:3), because he loved them that much. "The souls of the righteous are in the hand of God" (Wis 3:1). Probationem huius ostendit ex duobus: scilicet ex amore discipulorum ad Christum, et ex fide. Quantum ad primum dicit quia vos me amastis: quae quidem probatio non est per causam, quia, ut dicitur I Io. IV, 10: non quasi nos dilexerimus eum; sed quoniam ipse prior dilexit nos: sed est per signum, quia hoc ipsum quod nos Deum diligimus, est signum quod ipse amat nos: quod enim possumus eum amare, est ex dono Dei; Rom. V, v. 5: caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis; supra XIV, 21: qui diligit me, diligetur a patre meo. 2159 He proves this from two facts, from the love of the disciples for Christ, and from their faith. With regard to the first he says, because you have loved me. This proof does not give the cause [why the Father loves them], for we read, "Not as though we had loved God, but because he has first loved us" [1 Jn 4:10]. Rather, it gives a sign [of God's love for them], for the fact that we love God is a sign that he loves us, for our being able to love God is a gift from God: "God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us" (Rom 5:5); "He who loves me will be loved by my Father" (14:21). Quantum ad secundum dicit et credidistis quia a Deo exivi. Sine fide enim impossibile est placere Deo: Hebr. XI, 6. Fides autem est nobis ex amore Dei: donum enim Dei est, ut dicitur Eph. II, 8. Donum autem non datur nisi ex amore dantis. Credere autem et amare Christum inquantum a Deo exivit, satis est evidens signum amoris Dei, quia propter quod unumquodque, et illud magis. Qui ergo amat Christum, qui a Deo exivit, amor eius praecipue retorquetur in Deum patrem; non autem si amat eum in quantum hominem. Referring to the second he says, and have believed that I came from the Father: "Without faith it is impossible to please God" [Heb 11:6]. Our faith is due to God's love for us, for "it is the gift of God" (Eph 2:8). Now a gift is not given except through the love of the giver. To believe in and to love Christ insofar as he comes forth from God is a clear sign of one's love for God, since that in virtue of which something is such is itself even more so. Therefore, when one loves Christ, who came forth from God, this love is particularly traced back to God the Father; but this is not so when one loves Christ precisely as human. Sed quia mentionem fecit de exitu suo a patre, hic manifestius explicans dicit exivi a patre, et veni in mundum. Ubi ostendit familiaritatem suam ad patrem, et primo ponit eius a patre exitum; secundo eius ad patrem reditum, ibi iterum relinquo mundum, et vado ad patrem. 2160 Because he had mentioned his coming forth from the Father, he now comments more fully on it, saying, I came (exivi, came forth) from the Father and have come (veni) into the world. This shows his intimacy with the Father. He first mentions his coming forth from the Father; and secondly, his return to the Father (v 28). Est autem duplex processio filii a patre: una scilicet aeterna, alia temporalis. Aeternam quidem designat cum dicit exivi a patre, ab eo aeternaliter genitus. 2161 The Son proceeds or comes from the Father in two ways: one is eternal, the other temporal. He refers to the eternal procession when he says, I came (came forth, exivi) from the Father, eternally begotten from him. Sed notandum, quod omne quod exit ab aliquo, fuit prius in eo. Aliquid autem est in aliquo tripliciter. Uno modo sicut contentum in continente; alio modo sicut pars in toto; tertio modo sicut accidens in subiecto et sicut effectus in causa: et secundum hoc dicuntur aliqua ab eis exire. Sed primis duobus modis exit aliquid idem numero existens; puta idem numero vinum de dolio, et eadem pars a toto. Sed aliis duobus modis non exit idem numero. Haec autem non sunt dicenda de Deo: quia cum Deus sit summe simplex, nec sit in loco nisi metaphorice, non potest dici quod filius sit in eo sicut pars vel sicut contentum, sed in eo erat per unitatem essentiae; supra VIII, 16: ego et pater unum sumus. Tota enim essentia patris est tota essentia filii, et e converso; et ideo non exit eo modo a patre quo praedicta. Nam quod exit a toto ut pars, est distinctum ab eo per essentiam: nam pars a toto exiens fit ens actu, quae in eo erat ens in potentia. Et similiter quod exit a toto continente, loco distinguitur; sed filius a patre non exit localiter, quia omnia implet, secundum illud Ier. XXIII, 24: caelum et terram ego impleo, nec divisibiliter: quia pater impartibilis est; sed exit ab eo per personalem distinctionem. Sic ergo in exitu, inquantum praesupponit inhaerentiam, designatur essentiae unitas; inquantum insinuat processum quemdam, designatur distinctio personalis; Ps. XVIII, 7: a summo caelo, scilicet Deo patre, egressio eius. Et Ps. CIX, 3: ex utero ante Luciferum genui te. Everything which comes forth from another was first in it. There are three ways one thing can be in something else. First, as what is contained is in its container; second, as a part in some whole; thirdly, as an accident in its subject and as an effect in its cause. What comes forth is in that from which it comes forth in one of these ways. In the first two ways, what comes forth remains the same individual it was. For example, what comes from the keg is the very same wine that was in the keg; and the very same part that was in the whole comes from the whole. In the other two ways [the third member] what comes forth is not the same individual. Now none of these ways apply to God: for since God is entirely simple, and is in some place only metaphorically speaking, we cannot say that the Son is in God like some part, or that the Son is contained in a container. Rather, the Son is in the Father by a oneness of essence: "I and the Father are one" (10:30). For the entire essence of the Father is the entire essence of the Son, and vice versa. Consequently, the Son does not come forth from the Father in the previously mentioned ways. For when a part comes from the whole, it is distinct from the whole in essence: for when a part comes from the whole it becomes a being in act, while in the whole it was only a being in potency. Likewise, what comes from being contained in some container now occupies a different place than it did. But the Son does not come forth from the Father to occupy a different place because he fills all things, "Do I not fill heaven and earth?" (Jer 23:24). Nor is the Son split off from the Father because the Father cannot be divided. Rather, the Son comes forth by reason of a distinction in person. Thus, insofar as the coming forth of the Son presupposes some kind of existing in another, this indicates a unity of essence; while insofar as there is a certain coming forth, a distinction in person is indicated. "His coming forth is from the highest heaven," that is, from God the Father [Ps 19:6]; "You are my son, born before the day‑star rises" [Ps 110:3]. Sed in rebus corporalibus res exiens ab aliquo iam non est in eo, cum exeat per separationem essentiae vel loci. Hic autem quia non est exitus talis, ideo sic ab aeterno a patre exiit quod tamen ab aeterno sit in eo: et sic quando est in eo, exit, et quando exit, est in eo: ita ut semper exeat, et semper sit in eo. In material things, what comes forth from another is no longer in it, since it comes from it by a separation from it in place or in essence. This is not the kind of coming forth we have here, for the Son came forth from the Father from all eternity in such a way that the Son is still in the Father from all eternity. And so when the Son is in the Father, he comes forth, and when the Son comes forth he is in the Father: so the Son is always in the Father and always coming forth from the Father. Temporalem autem processionem eius designat dicens et veni in mundum. Sicut autem exitus a patre ab aeterno non est localiter, ita nec adventus eius in mundum est localis: quia cum filius sit in patre et e converso, sicut pater omnia implet, ita et filius; nec est quo localiter moveatur. Dicitur ergo venisse in mundum, inquantum naturam humanam assumpsit, quantum ad corpus, habentem originem ex mundo, non mutando locum; supra I, 11: in propria venit, et sui eum non receperunt. 2162 He mentions his temporal coming when he says, I have come into the world. Just as the Son's coming forth from the Father from eternity does not involve a change of place, neither does his coming into the world imply a change of place. Since the Father is in the Son and the Son is in the Father, then just as the Father fills all things, so does the Son; nor is there any place to go. Thus the Son is said to have come into the world because he assumed a human nature, which had its origin from the world as far as its body was concerned. But the Son did not move to a new place. "He came to his own home, and his own people received him not" (1:11). Consequenter cum dicit iterum relinquo mundum, et vado ad patrem, agit de reditu suo ad patrem: et primo ponit recessum eius a mundo, dicens iterum relinquo mundum, non subtrahendo suae gubernationis providentiam, quia simul cum patre semper mundum gubernat, et semper cum fidelibus est per gratiae opitulationem; Matth. c. ult., 20: ecce ego vobiscum sum usque ad consummationem saeculi. Relinquit ergo mundum subtrahendo se a conspectu corporali mundanorum. 2163 Then when he says, again, I am leaving the world and going to the Father, he speaks of his return to the Father. First he mentions his leaving the world, again, I am leaving the world, but not ceasing to govern us by his providence, because he is always governing the world together with the Father, and he is always with the faithful by the help of his grace: "I am with you always, to the close of the age" (Mt 28:20). Rather, he left the world by withdrawing from the physical sight of the worldly. Secundo ponit reditum suum ad patrem, cum dicit vado ad patrem, quem numquam deseruerat. Vadit autem inquantum se obtulit patri in passione; Eph. V, 2: obtulit semetipsum oblationem et hostiam Deo. Item inquantum per resurrectionem, secundum quod homo configuratus est patri in immortalitate; Rom. VI, 10: quod autem vivit, vivit Deo. Item inquantum in ascensione ascendit ad caelos, in quo specialiter refulget divina gloria; Mc. ult., 19: dominus quidem Iesus postquam locutus est eis, assumptus est in caelum, et sedet a dextris Dei; supra eodem: vado ad eum qui me misit; et nemo ex vobis interrogat me, quo vadis? Secondly, he mentions his return to the Father when he says, and going to the Father, whom he had never left. He goes insofar as he offered himself to the Father in his passion: "Christ ... gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God" (Eph 5:2). Again, he goes to the Father insofar as by his resurrection his human nature became like the Father in its immortality: "the life he lives he lives to God" (Rom 6:10). Further, he goes to the Father by ascending into the heavens where he shines in a special way with divine glory: "So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God" (Mt 16:19); "But now I am going to him who sent me; yet none of you asks me, 'Where are you going?'"
Lectio 8 LECTURE 8 29 λέγουσιν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, ἴδε νῦν ἐν παρρησίᾳ λαλεῖς, καὶ παροιμίαν οὐδεμίαν λέγεις. 30 νῦν οἴδαμεν ὅτι οἶδας πάντα καὶ οὐ χρείαν ἔχεις ἵνα τίς σε ἐρωτᾷ: ἐν τούτῳ πιστεύομεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐξῆλθες. 31 ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς Ἰησοῦς, ἄρτι πιστεύετε; 32 ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ ἐλήλυθεν ἵνα σκορπισθῆτε ἕκαστος εἰς τὰ ἴδια κἀμὲ μόνον ἀφῆτε: καὶ οὐκ εἰμὶ μόνος, ὅτι ὁ πατὴρ μετ' ἐμοῦ ἐστιν. 33 ταῦτα λελάληκα ὑμῖν ἵνα ἐν ἐμοὶ εἰρήνην ἔχητε: ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ θλῖψιν ἔχετε, ἀλλὰ θαρσεῖτε, ἐγὼ νενίκηκα τὸν κόσμον. 29 His disciples said, "Ah, now you are speaking plainly, not in any figure [proverb]! 30 Now we know that you know all things, and need none to question you; by this we believe that you came from God." 31 Jesus answered them, "Do you now believe? 32 The hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered, every man to his home, and will leave me alone; yet I am not alone, for the Father is with me. 33 I have said this to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world." Positis rationibus et verbis consolantibus apostolos, hic ponitur effectus ipsorum in discipulis, et primo ponitur discipulorum affectio; secundo ostenditur ipsorum conditio, ibi respondit eis Iesus; tertio assignatur praedictorum intentio, ibi haec locutus sum vobis et cetera. Affectio discipulorum est confessionis et credulitatis, unde dicunt ecce nunc palam loqueris. Ubi tria confitentur de Christo; scilicet doctrinae claritatem, scientiae certitudinem, et divinam originem. 2164 After these consoling words spoken to the apostles, we now see their effect on them: first, their reaction is given; secondly, we see their condition; and thirdly, we see the intention of Christ, I have said this to you, that ... The reaction of the disciples is a profession of faith, Ah, now you are speaking plainly ... They profess three things about Christ: the clarity of his teaching, the certitude of his knowledge, and his divine origin. Primum confitentur cum dicunt ecce nunc palam loqueris, et proverbium nullum dicis. Si enim diligenter advertimus, vix in aliquo loco sacrae Scripturae ita exprimitur Christi origo, sicut hic, cum dicit: palam de patre meo annuntiabo vobis, et, exivi a patre, et veni in mundum. Et ideo credentes hanc promissionem, qua dixit, palam de patre meo annuntiabo vobis, eis completam esse, ita ut non alia manifestatione indigeant, dicunt ecce nunc palam loqueris. Sed, ut Augustinus dicit, ita adhuc ignorantes erant discipuli, ut se non intelligere ignorent. Non enim promiserat eis in illa hora se sine proverbiis locuturum, sed in hora resurrectionis vel gloriae. Tamen quantum ad ipsos discipulos iam clarius eis fuit locutus tunc, quamvis alia claritas sermonum eius esset expectanda. Infra XVIII, v. 20: ego palam locutus sum mundo. Secundum confitentur cum dicunt nunc scimus quia scis omnia. 2165 They profess the clarity of his teaching when they say, Now you are speaking plainly, not in any proverb! If we consider this with attention we see that there is scarcely any other place in sacred scripture where the origin of Christ is so openly expressed as here, when he says, "I shall tell you plainly of the Father," and "I came forth from the Father and have come into the world." And so believing that his promise to tell them plainly of the Father had now been kept so that they did not need any further teaching, they say, Ah, now you are speaking plainly. As Augustine remarks, the disciples were still so lacking in understanding that they did not realize they were lacking in understanding. For Christ had not promised to speak to them without proverbs at that time, but at the time of the resurrection or of glory. Yet as far as the disciples were concerned, he was now speaking more clearly, although they were later to understand his words still more clearly. Et quidem in superficie verborum satis evidens argumentum est certae et perfectae scientiae quando quis manifestat quae dicit: signum enim scientis est omnino posse docere, unde dicitur Prov. XIV, 6, quod doctrina prudentium facilis est. Quae enim nostrum superant intellectum, non plane verbis explicamus. Sed tamen hoc apostoli dicunt propter aliam intentionem, quia scilicet dominus scit omnia cordis eorum secreta, et de his quae dubitant satisfacit: consolatur eos promittendo gaudium spiritus sancti, et iteratam sui visionem et patris amorem. Et ideo dicunt nunc scimus quia scis omnia, scilicet secreta cordium; infra ult., 17: tu omnia nosti; Sap. c. VIII, 8: domino Deo nostro nota sunt omnia, antequam fiant. 2166 They profess the certainty of his knowledge when they say, Now we know that you know all things. At first glance, the meaning seems to be that when one clearly explains the things he says, this is a proof of his certain and full knowledge of them: for the sign of one who knows is the ability to fully teach what he knows ‑ "Knowledge is easy for a man of understanding" (Prv 14:6) ‑ and what is beyond one's understanding cannot be plainly told in words. Yet the apostles said this for another reason, which is because the Lord knew all the secrets of their hearts, and could satisfy their perplexities. He consoled them by promising them the joy of the Holy Spirit, that they would see him again, and that the Father loves them. Thus they say, Now we know that you know all things, that is, the secrets of hearts: "Lord, you know everything" (21:17); "The Lord God knows all things before they are done" [Wis 8:8]. Unde subdunt et non est opus tibi ut quis te interroget. Quod videtur praedictis contradicere. Dicunt enim quod scit omnia; scientis autem non est interrogare, sed interrogari: quomodo ergo non est ei opus ut quis eum interroget? Sed dicendum, quod hoc dicunt, ut innuant quod etiam secreta cordium novit, quia et ante interrogationem eis satisfecit supra cum dicerent inter se: quid est quod dicit nobis modicum? Nihilominus tamen Christus interrogat et interrogatur, non quia opus sit ei, sed nobis. 2167 Then they add, and need none to question you. This seems to contradict what they had just said, namely, that he knows all things; for one who is wise is questioned (rather than questioning others). Why then is it not necessary to question him? The answer is that they said this to indicate that he even knew the secrets of hearts, because even before he was questioned he satisfied their perplexity when they were saying to each other, "What does he mean by 'a little while'?" (16:18). Nevertheless, Christ does ask and is asked, not because he needs it, but because we do. Tertium confitentur cum dicunt in hoc credimus quia a Deo existi: et quidem convenienter, scire enim omnia et etiam secreta cordium, est proprium divinitatis; Ier. XVII, 9: pravum est cor hominis et inscrutabile: quis cognoscet illud? Ego dominus scrutans cor et probans renes. Et ideo dicunt a Deo existi, consubstantialis patri, et verus Deus. 2168 They profess Christ's divine origin when they say, by this we believe that you came (came forth, exist) from God. This statement is appropriate for it is a distinguishing characteristic of the divinity to know all things and even the secrets of hearts: "The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately corrupt; who can understand it? 'I the Lord search the mind and try the heart' "(Jer 17:9). Thus they say, you came from God, consubstantial with the Father, and true God. Hic ponitur discipulorum conditio, quae est infirmitatis: ubi primo exprobrat fidei eorum tarditatem; secundo tribulationem futuram imminentem; tertio ostendit se immunem ab omni eorum detrimento. 2169 Now we see the condition of the disciples, which is one of weakness: first, Christ reproaches their slowness to believe; secondly, he foretells their approaching troubles; thirdly, he shows that he cannot be injured by them. Quantum ad primum dicit modo creditis. Quod si accipiatur interrogative, est exprobratio tarditatis eorum ad credendum, quasi diceret: usque modo distulistis credere? Si vero accipiatur remissive, exprobrat fidei ipsorum instabilitatem, quasi diceret: verum est quod nunc creditis, sed statim, quando tradar, dimittetis me; Lc. VIII, 13: ad tempus credunt, et in tempore tentationis recedunt. 2170 As to the first he says, Do you now believe? If this is understood as a question, it is a rebuke for being so slow to believe. It is like saying: Have you waited till now to believe? If we understand this remissibly, Christ is reproving the instability of their faith. Then it is like saying: It is true that you believe now, but as soon as I am betrayed, you will leave me: "They believe for a while and in time of temptation fall away" (Lk 8:13). Ecce venit hora, et iam venit, ut dispergamini unusquisque in propria, et me solum relinquatis. Hic ponitur eis imminens tribulatio et scandalum. Unde sciendum est, quod imminente huiusmodi scandalo, quae antea per Christum adepti fuerant amiserunt. Adepti enim fuerant Christi societatem, passionem, et rerum exonerationem, et omnem communem modum vivendi. Unde haec tria enumerat Petrus, Matth. XIX, 27, dicens: ecce nos, scilicet omnes, quantum ad tertium, reliquimus omnia, quantum ad secundum, et secuti sumus te, quantum ad primum. Et haec amiserunt: et ideo hoc eis praedixit dominus, dicens ecce venit hora, et iam venit, ut dispergamini, quantum ad tertium, propter timorem qui vobis dominabitur, ita ut nec simul possitis fugere; Zach. XIII, 7: percute pastorem, et dispergentur oves gregis et cetera. Unusquisque in propria, quantum ad secundum, idest ad animum possidendi propria; unde Petrus cum aliis reversi sunt ad navem, et propria; infra ult., 3: exierunt, et ascenderunt in navim. Et me solum relinquatis, quantum ad primum; Iob XIX, 14: fratres mei dereliquerunt me, et qui me noverunt, obliti sunt mei; Is. LXIII, 3: torcular calcavi solus. 2171 The hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered, every man to his home, and will leave me alone. Here we see their approaching troubles and falling away. Notice that by their falling away they lost what they had acquired through Christ. They had acquired the companionship of Christ, freedom from the burdens of ownership, and a life together. Peter mentions these three things in Matthew (19:27): "We," all of us, referring to their life together, "have left everything," referring to the freedom from the burdens of ownership, "and followed you," referring to their companionship with Christ. They lost these things and our Lord foretold this to them when he said: The hour is coming, indeed it has come, when you will be scattered (referring to their life together), because you will be dominated by such fear that you will not be able to run away together, as a group: "Strike the shepherd and the sheep will be scattered" (Zech 13:7); every man to his home (referring to their lost freedom from things), that is, returning to his desire to possess his own things. And we do see Peter and the others return to their boat and their own property: "They went out and got into the boat" (21:3). And will leave me alone, (referring to the loss of Christ's companionship): "My kinsfolk and my close friends have failed me; the guests in my house have forgotten me" (Job 19:14); "I have trodden the wine press alone" (Is 63:3). Sed discipulorum scandalo Christus nullum patitur detrimentum; unde dicit et non sum solus, quia pater mecum est, quasi diceret: etsi sum unum cum patre per unitatem essentiae, non sum solus per distinctionem personalem: unde non sic a patre exivi ut ab eo recederem. 2172 Yet Christ did not suffer any loss by the falling away of his disciples; thus he says, yet I am not alone, for the Father is with me. This is like saying: Although I am one with the Father by a unity of essence, I am not alone because distinct in person. Thus I have not come forth from the Father in such a way as to leave him. Hic ponit dominus suam intentionem de doctrina sua: et primo ponit doctrinae suae utilitatem; secundo necessitatem in mundo pressuram habebitis. 2173 Here our Lord states the purpose of his teaching: first he mentions the benefit it brings; secondly, why we need this benefit, in the world you have tribulation. Utilitas doctrinae est pax, unde dicit: dico quod ad hoc deducemini, ut me solum relinquatis: et propter hoc propono vobis doctrinam meam, ne in hac derelictione persistatis: et propter hoc scilicet omnia quae dixi vobis in sermone, vel omnia quae in toto Evangelio locutus sum vobis, ut, ad me redeuntes, in me pacem habeatis. 2174 The benefit his teaching gives is peace. He says to them: I am telling you that you will be reduced to leaving me alone; and so I am teaching you so you do not continue in this abandonment. Indeed, everything I have said to you in this talk and everything I have spoken in the entire Gospel is aimed at having you return to me, that in me you may have peace. Finis enim Evangelii est pax in Christo; Ps. CXVIII, 165: pax multa diligentibus nomen tuum. Cuius ratio est, quia pax cordis opponitur eius perturbationi, quae oritur ex malis supervenientibus et crescentibus. Si quis autem habeat aliquando luctum vel gaudium superexcedens illa mala, patet quod perturbatio non manet. Et inde est quod homines mundani, qui Deo per amorem non sunt coniuncti, habent tribulationes absque pace; sed sancti qui Deum per amorem habent in corde, etsi ex mundo habeant tribulationes, in Christo habent pacem; Ps. CXLVII, 14: qui posuit fines tuos pacem. Finis enim noster hic debet esse ut pacem habeamus in Deo; Ps. LXXVI, 3: renuit consolari anima mea, scilicet in rebus mundi, sed ubi memor fui Dei, delectatus sum. Truly, the purpose of the Gospel is peace in Christ: "Those who love your name have great peace" [Ps 119:165]. The reason for this is that peace of heart is opposed to its disturbance, which comes from the evils that afflict it and grow worse. But if one has affliction only now and then, or a joy greater than one's evils, his disturbance does not last. This is why the worldly, who are not united to God by love, have troubles without peace; while the saints, who have God in their hearts by love, have peace in Christ even if they have troubles from the world: "He makes peace in your borders" [Ps 147:14]. And our purpose here should be to have peace in God: "My soul refused to be comforted," with things of the world, "but I remembered God and was delighted" [Ps 77:3]. Necessitas autem huius pacis est illata vexatio a mundo; unde dicit in mundo pressuram habebitis. Et primo praenuntiat futuram angustiam; secundo dat contra eam fiduciam. Quantum ad primum dicit in mundo pressuram habebitis, idest a mundanis; I Io. III, v. 13: nolite mirari si odit vos mundus; supra XV, 19: quia ego elegi vos de mundo, propterea odit vos mundus. Quantum ad secundum dicit confidite: ego vici mundum. Ipse enim liberat nos; Eccli. LI, 6: liberavit me a pressura flammae. Quasi diceret: recurratis ad me, et habebitis pacem: et hoc ideo quia ego vici mundum, qui vos premit. 2175 We need this peace because of the troubles imposed by the world; so Christ says, In the world you have tribulation. First, he foretells their future distress; secondly, he gives them confidence to meet it. In regard to the first he says, In the world you have tribulation, that is, from the worldly: "Do not wonder, brethren, that the world hates you" (1 Jn 3:13); "I chose you out of the world, therefore the world hates you" (15:19). Referring to the second, Christ says, but be of good cheer [have confidence], I have overcome the world. For Christ does free us: "You delivered me ... from choking fire on every side" (Si 51:4). He is saying in effect: Return to me and you will have peace, for I have overcome the world which is oppressing you. Vicit Christus mundum, primo quidem auferendo ei arma quibus impugnat: haec autem sunt eius concupiscibilia; I Io. c. II, 16: omne quod est in mundo, aut est concupiscentia oculorum, aut concupiscentia carnis, aut superbia vitae: quia scilicet divitias vicit per paupertatem; Ps. LXXXV, 1: inops et pauper sum ego; Lc. IX, 58: filius hominis non habet ubi caput suum reclinet. Honorem per humilitatem; Matth. XI, 29: discite a me quia mitis sum et humilis corde. Voluptates per passiones et labores; Phil. II, v. 8: factus est obediens usque ad mortem, mortem autem crucis. Item supra IV, 6: Iesus autem fatigatus ab itinere sedebat sic supra fontem; Ps. LXXXVII, 16: in laboribus sum ego a iuventute mea. Qui ergo sic ista vincit, vincit mundum: et hoc est quod facit fides; I Io. V, 4: haec est victoria quae vincit mundum, fides nostra: quia cum sit substantia sperandarum rerum, quae sunt bona spiritualia et aeterna, facit nos contemnere bona carnalia et transitoria. 2176 Christ overcame the world, first of all, by taking away the weapons it uses to attack us: these are its allurements: "For all that is in the world [is] the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the pride of life" (1 Jn 2:16). He conquered the allurement of riches by his poverty: "I am poor and needy" (Ps 86:1); "The Son of man has nowhere to lay his head" (Lk 9:58). Christ overcame the allurement of honors by his humility: "Learn from me; for I am gentle and lowly in heart" (Mt 11:29). He overcame the lusts of the world by his sufferings and labors: "He ... became obedient unto death, even death on a cross" (Phil 2:8); "Jesus, wearied as he was with his journey, sat down beside the well" (4:6); "I have labored from my youth" [Ps 88:16]. Anyone who conquers these, conquers the world. And this is what faith does—"This is the victory that overcomes the world, our faith" (1 Jn 5:4) ‑ because since faith is [the present possession of] the substance, the basic reality, of what we hope for, which is spiritual and eternal good, it causes us to disdain sensual and passing goods. Secundo vicit mundum, mundi principem excludendo; supra XII, 31: nunc princeps huius mundi eiicietur foras; Col. II, 15: expolians principatus et potestates, traduxit confidenter, palam triumphans illos in semetipso. Ex quo praebuit nobis Diabolum ut a nobis vincendum; Iob XL, 24: numquid illudes ei quasi avi, aut ligabis eum ancillis tuis? Ad litteram, post passionem Christi, iuvenculae ancillae Christi et parvuli illudunt ei. Secondly, Christ overcame the world by casting out the ruler of the world: "Now shall the ruler of this world be cast out" (12:31); "He disarmed the principalities and powers (Col 2:15). This shows us that the devil is also to be overcome by us: "Will you play with him as with a bird, or will you put him on a leash for your maidens?" (Job 41:5), which understood literally means that after the passion of Christ the little boys and young handmaids of Christ will make him their plaything. Tertio homines mundi ad se convertendo. Mundus rebellabat movendo seditiones per homines mundi, quos Christus ad se traxit; supra XII, 32: ego si exaltatus fuero a terra, omnia traham ad meipsum. Unde supra VII, v. 19, dicunt: ecce totus mundus post eum vadit. Sic ergo non debemus timere pressuras quia victus est; I Cor. XV, 57: Deo autem gratias, qui dedit nobis victoriam per Iesum Christum. Thirdly, Christ overcame the world by converting the people of this world to himself. The world rebelled by stirring up dissensions through worldly people. But Christ drew these to himself: "I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all things to myself" [12:32]. Thus it was said: "The world has gone after him" (12:19). So, we should not fear its oppression because it has been overcome: "Thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Cor 15:57).
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 16:2 in the Summa Theologiae: I-II, q. 19, a. 6, s. c.
 Tract. in Io., 93, ch. 3, col. 1866; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:1-4.
 Ibid.; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:1-4.
 Cicero, Tusculan Questions.
 Tract. in Io., 94, ch. 1, col. 1868; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:1-4.
 Ibid.; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:1-4.
 In Ioannem hom., 78, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 421; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:1-4.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 16:7 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 57, a. 1, ad 3; q. 57, a. 6, s. c.; q. 72, a. 1, ad 1; q. 75, a. 1, obj. 4.
 In Ioannem hom., 78, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 421; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 Tract. in Io., 94, ch. 3, col. 1869; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 De Trin., 1, ch. 9, no.19; PL 42, col. 833-4; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 In Ioannem hom., 78, ch. 1; PG 59,col. 421; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 16:8 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 57, a. 1, ad 3; q. 59, a. 1, obj. 3; Jn 16:12: ST III, q. 42, a. 3, ad 2; q. 45, a. 4, obj. 4; Jn 16:13: ST I-II, q. 106, a. 4, obj. 2; III, q. 39, a. 7.
 Tract. in Io., 95, ch. 1, col. 1870; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 Tract. in Io., 95, ch. 2, col. 1871; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 Augustine, Sermones de Verbis Domini 144; ch. 1; PL 38, col. 689; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 Ibid, ch. 5, col. 790.
 In Ioannem hom., 78, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 422; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:5-11.
 Tract. in Io., 96, ch. 1, col. 1874 ; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:12-15.
 Summa-Holy Spirit receives his essence and knowledge from the Father and the Son from eternity.
 St. Thomas quotes Jn 16:14 in the Summa Theologiae: I, q. 36, a. 2 ad 1.
 Summa-manner in which the Holy Spirit receives his being as opposed to the way creatures receive theirs. -thru 2115.
 De Spiritu Sancto, II, ch. 38; PL 23, col. 136A; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:12-15.
 Didymus, Ibid.
Hilary, De Trin., 8; PL 10, col. 359-360; St. Thomas includes these references in the Catena Aurea, 16:12-15.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 16:22 in the Summa Theologiae: III, q. 55, a. 3, ad 1.
 Tract. in Io., 101 ch. 1, col. 1893; cf. Catena Aurea, 15:4-7.
 St. Thomas refers to Jn 16:23 in the Summa Theologiae: II-II, q. 83, a. 7, obj. 2.
 Tract. in Io., 101, ch. 4, col. 1894; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-28.
 In Ioannem hom., 79, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 427; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-28.
 Tract. in Io., 102, ch. 2, col. 1897; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-28.
 In Ioannem hom., 79, ch. 1; PG 59, col. 428; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-25.
 Tract. in Io., 102, ch. 2, col. 1896-7.
 De Trin., 1, ch. 11; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-28.
 In Ioannem hom., 79, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 428; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-28.
 Tract. in Io., 102, ch. 4, col. 1897; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:23-28.
 Tract. in Io., ch. 3, col. 1897.
 In Ioannem hom., 79, ch. 2; PG 59, col. 428.
 Tract. in Io., 103, ch. 1, col. 1899; cf. Catena Aurea, 16:29-33.