||Contra, Christum regem regum adoremus dominum, de sancto Andrea (not followed)
Provisionally I offer the translation by J. M. Neale; the last two stanzas by Father Caswall (Benziger)
|Contra, Sanctorum meritis (Again, someone thought he could improve on the melody.)
The Lord gave a most saving fruit to eat at the time of his death.
|Contra, Granum cadens (= "Granum cadit copiam"), de sancto Thoma.
Multiplied by the fruit of wheat and wine, the faithful rest in the peace of Christ.
|Contra, Novus homo (="Monachus sub clerico"), de sancto Thoma.
The Lord has gathered us together by communion in the chalice where God himself is received, and not by the blood of bulls.
|Contra, Crescente aetate, de sancto Bernardo.
|V/. Panem caeli dedit eis, alleluia.
R/. Panem Angelorum manducavit homo, alleluia.
|V/. He gave them bread from heaven, Halleluia.|
V/. Man ate the bread of angels, Halleluia.
Immensa divinae largitatis beneficia exhibita populo Christiano inaestimabilem ei conferunt dignitatem. Neque enim est aut fuit aliquando tam grandis natio quae habeat deos appropinquantes sibi sicut adest nobis Deus noster. Unigenitus siquidem Dei filius, suae divinitatis volens nos esse participes, nostram naturam assumpsit ut homines deos faceret factus homo. Et hoc insuper quod de nostro assumpsit, totum nobis contulit ad salutem. Corpus namque suum pro nostra reconciliatione in ara crucis hostiam obtulit Deo patri, sanguinem suum fudit in pretium simul et lavacrum, ut redempti a miserabili servitute a peccatis omnibus mundaremur.
Et ut tanti beneficii iugis in nobis maneret memoria, corpus suum in cibum et sanguinem suum in potum sub specie panis et vini sumendum fidelibus dereliquit. O pretiosum et admirandum convivium salutiferum et omni suavitate repletum. Quid enim hoc convivio pretiosius esse potest, quo non carnes vitulorum et hircorum ut olim in lege, sed nobis Christus sumendus proponitur Deus verus? Quid hoc sacramento mirabilius? In ipso namque panis et vinum in corpus Christi et sanguinem substantialiter convertuntur, ideoque Christus Deus et homo perfectus sub modici panis specie continetur.
|(tr. from Breviary of the Order of Preachers, Dublin, 1967)
The immeasurable blessings of divine favor, which have been showered upon the people of God, confer on them an inestimable dignity. What great nation is there, or ever was, that has a God so near to it as te Lord our God is to us! For the only-begotten Son of God, willing that we should share in his divinity, assumed our nature. He was made man, that he might make man divine. And what is more, he gave back to us for our salvation, all that he had assumed belonging to us. For he offered to God the Father, for our reconciliation, his own body as a victim on the altar of the cross. He shed his blood, at one and the same time, a ransom and a purification, that being redeemed from wretched slavery we might be washed clean of all sins.
But that the remembrance of so great a favour might remain with us, he left to be taken by the faithful, under the appearance of bread and wine, his body for food and his blood for drink. O precious and wonderful banquet, health-giving and full of all delight! For what can be more precious than this banquet, in which not the flesh of calves and goats, as in the old law, but Christ true God, is set before us to eat? What is more wonderful than this Sacrament? For in it the substance of the bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ, and therefore Christ, perfect God and man, is contained under the appearance of a little bread and wine.
The multitude of Israelites will slaughter a goat on the evening of the Passover, and they will eat meat and unleavened bread.
V/. Our Pasch, Christ, has been slaughtered. Therefore let us feast on the unleavend bread of sincerity and truth.
|Contra, Te sanctum dominum, de Angelis.
Manducatur utique a fidelibus sed minime laceratur. Quinimmo diviso sacramento integer perseverat. Accidentia etiam sine subiecto in eodem subsistunt, ut fides locum habeat, dum visibile invisibiliter sumitur aliena specie occultatum, et sensus a deceptione immunes reddantur, qui de accidentibus iudicant sibi notis. Nullum etiam sacramentum est isto salubrius quo purgantur peccata, virtutes augentur, et mens omnium spiritualium charismatum abundantia inpinguatur. Offertur in Ecclesia pro vivis et mortuis, ut omnibus prosit, quod est pro salute omnium institutum.
Suavitatem denique huius sacramenti nullus exprimere sufficit, per quod spiritualis dulcedo in suo fonte gustatur, et recolitur memoria illius quam in sua passione Christus monstravit excellentissimae caritatis. Unde ut arctius huius caritatis immensitas cordibus infigeretur fidelium, in ultima cena quando Pascha cum discipulis celebrato transiturus erat ex hoc mundo ad patrem, hoc sacramentum instituit, tamquam passionis suae memoriale perenne, figurarum veterum impletivum, miraculorum ab ipso factorum maximum, et de sua contristatis absentia solatium singulare reliquit.
|(first paragraph from Dublin ed.)
He is therefore eaten by the faithful, but in no way is he mangled. Indeed when the Sacrament is divided, he remains whole under each particle. The accidents, however, remain here without any subject. And this, that faith may be exercised when what is visible is invisibly received, hidden under another appearance; furthermore, that the senses, which judge of he accidents according to appearances, amy be preserved from error. No sacrament is more health-giving than this one, in which sins are cleansed, virtues increased, and the mind enriched with abundance of all spiritual gifts. It is offered in the Church for the living and the dead, so that what was instituted for the salvation of all, may profit all.
Finally, no one can adequately express the sweetness of this sacrament, in which spiritual sweetness is tasted in its source, and the memory is recalled of that most excellent love that Christ showed in his passion. Therefore, to impress the immensity of this love more deeply on the hearts of the faithful, at the last supper, after celebrating the Passover with his disciples, and about to leave this world and go to the Father, he instituted this sacrament as a lasting memorial of his passion. Ut fulfilled the foreshaddowing of ancient rites, and was the greatest of the miracles he worked, which he left as a unique comfort to his disciples saddendd by his absence.
You will eat meat and be satisfied with bread. That is the bread which the Lord has given us to eat.
V/. Moses did not give you bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven.
|Contra, Stirps Iesse, de sancta Maria.
Convenit itaque devotioni fidelium solemniter recolere institutionem tam salutiferi tamque mirabilis sacramenti, ut ineffabilem modum divinae praesentiae in sacramento visibili veneremur, et laudetur Dei potentia quae in sacramento eodem tot mirabilia operatur, nec non et de tam salubri tamque suavi beneficio exsolvantur Deo gratiarum debitae actiones. Verum et si in die cenae quando sacramentum praedictum noscitur institutum inter Missarum sollemnia de institutione ipsius specialis mentio habeatur, totum tamen residuum eiusdem diei officium ad Christi passionem pertinet, circa cuius venerationem Ecclesia illo tempore occupatur.
Unde ut integro celebritatis officio institutionem tanti sacramenti sollemniter recoleret plebs fidelis, Romanus pontifex Urbanus quartus, huius sacramenti devotione affectus, pie statuit praefatae institutionis memoriam prima feria quinta post octavas Pentecostes a cunctis fidelibus celebrari, ut qui per totum anni circulum hoc sacramento utimur ad salutem, eius institutionem illo specialiter tempore recolamus, quo spiritus sanctus discipulorum corda edocuit ad plene cognoscenda huius mysteria sacramenti. Nam et in eodem tempore coepit hoc sacramentum a fidelibus frequentari. Legitur enim in Actibus apostolorum, quod erant perseverantes in doctrina apostolorum et communicatione fractionis panis et orationibus, statim post sancti spiritus missionem.
Ut autem praedicta quinta feria et per octavas sequentes eiusdem salutaris institutionis honorificentius agatur memoria et solemnitas de hoc celebrior habeatur, loco distributionum materialium quae in Ecclesiis cathedralibus largiuntur existentibus horis nocturnis pariterque diurnis, praefatus Romanus pontifex eis qui huiusmodi horis in hac sollemnitate personaliter in Ecclesiis interessent, stipendia spiritualia apostolica largitione concessit, quatinus per haec fideles ad tanti festi celebritatem avidius et copiosius convenirent. Unde omnibus vere poenitentibus et confessis qui matutinali officio huius festi praesentialiter in Ecclesia ubi celebraretur adessent centum, qui vero Missae totidem, illis autem qui interessent in primis ipsius festi vesperis similiter centum, qui vero in secundis totidem. Eis quoque qui primae, tertiae, sextae, nonae ac completorii adessent officiis, pro qualibet horarum ipsarum, quadraginta; illis vero qui per ipsius festi octavas in matutinalibus, vespertinis, Missae ac praedictarum horarum officiis praesentes existerent, singulis diebus octavarum ipsarum centum dierum indulgentiam misericorditer tribuit perpetuis temporibus duraturam.
|For the devotion of the faithful, it is good solemnly to recall the institution of such a saving and wonderful sacrament, so that we may venerate the ineffable mode of the divine presence in a visible sacrament, and praise God's power which works so many miracles in the same sacrament, and give God due thanks for such a medicinal and tasty benefit. Even though on Holy Thursday, when this sacrament was instituted, there is special mention of it in the solemn celebration of the Mass, the whole remaining part of the day's office is about the passion of Christ, with which the Church is busy venerating at that time.
Therefore, to let the faithful people sollemnly recall the institution of such a great sacrement with a whole office of celebration, the Roman Pontiff Urban IV, out of devotion to this sacrament, piously decreed that the memory of this instituion be celebrated by all the faithful on the first Thursday after the Octave of Pentecost. For, even though we used this sacrament for our salvation throughout the year, we can specially call to mind its institution at that time when the Holy Spirit taught the hearts of the disciples fully to understand the mysteries of this sacrament. For at that time this sacrament came into use among the faithful. For we read in the Acts of the Apostles that "they devoted themselves to the teaching of the Apostles and communing in the breaking of bread and in prayer" right after the sending of the Holy Spirit.
That the memory of this saving institution might be more honorably celebrated, and its solemn celebration might be enhanced on this Thursday and through its Octave, instead of the usual distribution of material goods which is done in cathedral churches at the night and day hours, the said Roman Pontiff has granted by his apostolic generosity spiritual allotments to those who personally assist at these hours in church on this feast, so that in this way the faithful may more eagerly and in greater numbers participate in this feast. Therefore, to all who are truly penitent and after confessing their sins assist personally at Matins of this feast, he mercifully grants an indulgence of one hundred days. The same holds for attendance at the Mass, to those who attend First Vespers, and to those who attend Second Vespers. To those who attend Prime, Tierce, Sext, None and Compline, he grants forty days for each hour. To those who attend Matins, Vespers, Mass and the preceding hours during the Octave, he grands a one hundred days' indulgence for each day. This privilege is of perpetual duration.
Elijah saw by his head a baked loaf of bread. He got up and ate it and drank, and walked by the strength of that food to the mountain of God.
V/. Anyone who eats of this bread will live forever.
|Contra, Videte miraculum matris domini.
May the Lord be mindful of our sacrifice, and may our holocaust be fat.
Psalm 20 (Vul 19)
Contra, In caelis gaudent virgines et cantant canticum.
The table of the Lord has been prepared for us against all who disturb us.
Psalm 23 (Vul 22)
|Contra, Sanguis sanctorum martyrum pro Christo effusus est in terra.
Let those who feast at the Lord's table resonate with exclamations of joy.
Psalm 42 (Vul 41)
|Contra, O quam gloriosus est regnum, de omnibus sanctis.
||V/. Cibavit illos ex adipe frumenti, alleluia.
R/. Et de petra melle saturavit eos, alleluia.
|R/. He fed them from the best wheat, Halleluia.
V/. And satisfied them with rock honey, Halleluia.
Huius sacramenti figura praecessit, quando manna pluit Deus patribus in deserto, qui cotidiano caeli pascebantur alimento. Unde dictum est: Panem Angelorum manducavit homo. Sed tamen panem illum qui manducaverunt, omnes in deserto mortui sunt. Ista autem esca quam accipitis, iste panis vivus qui de caelo descendit, vitae aeternae substantiam ministrat. Et quicumque hunc panem manducaverit non morietur in aeternum, quia corpus Christi est. Considera utrum nunc praestantior sit panis Angelorum an caro Christi, quae utique est corpus vitae. Manna illud de caelo, hoc super coelum; illud caeli, hoc domini caelorum; illud corruptioni obnoxium, si in diem alterum servaretur, hoc alienum ab omni corruptione. Quicumque religiose gustaverit, corruptionem sentire non poterit. Illis aqua de petra fluxit, tibi sanguis ex Christo. Illos ad horam satiavit aqua, te sanguis diluit in aeternum. Iudaeus bibit et sitit; tu cum biberis sitire non poteris. Et illud in umbra, hoc in veritate. Si illud quod miraris umbra est, quantum istud est cuius umbram miraris? Audi quia umbra est, quae apud patres facta est: Bibebant, inquit, de spirituali consequente eos petra, petra autem erat Christus, sed non in pluribus eorum complacitum est Deo, nam prostrati sunt in deserto. Haec autem facta sunt in figura nostri. Cognovisti potiora. Potior est enim lux quam umbra, veritas quam figura, corpus auctoris quam manna de caelo.
|This sacrament was prefigured when God rained down manna for the fathers in the desert and they then ate food from heaven every day. Thus it is said: "Man ate the bread of angels". Although they ate that bread, all of them died in the desert. But the food which you receive, that living bread which comes down from heaven, ministers to you the substance of eternal life. Anyone who eats this bread will never die, because it is the body of Christ. Now, which is greater, the bread of angels or the flesh of Christ, which after all is the body of life? That manna came from heaven, but this from above the heaven. That was of heaven, this of the Lord of heaven. That would corrupt if it was kept more than a day, this is free from all corruption; whoever religiously tastes it cannot experience corruption. For them water flowed from a rock, for you blood from Christ. Water satisfied them for that hour, but blood soaks you forever. The Jews drank and were thirsty, when you drink you cannot thirst. That happend in shadow, this in reality. If you are amazed at what is a shadow, how much more are you amazed at what that is a shadow of? You hear that "God was not pleased with most of them, and they collapsed in the desert. These things happend as examples for us." You have known the better things. Light is better than shadow, reality than a figure, the body of the Author than manna from heaven.
The bread which I will give is my flesh for the life of the world. The Jews argued, saying, How can he give us his flesh to eat?
V/. The people spoke against the Lord saying, We are fed up with this cheap food.
|Contra, Deus qui sedes super thronos et iudicas, de quadam dominica.
Forte dicis: Aliud video. Quomodo tu mihi asseris quod corpus Christi accipiam? Et hoc nobis superest ut probemus. Quantis igitur utimur exemplis, ut probemus hoc non esse quod natura formavit, sed quod benedictio consecravit, maioremque vim esse benedictionis quam naturae, quia benedictione etiam natura ipsa mutatur? Unde virgam tenebat Moyses, proiecit eam et facta est serpens. Rursus apprehendit caudam serpentis et in virgae naturam revertitur. Vides ergo prophetica gratia bis mutatam naturam esse, et serpentis et virgae. Currebant Aegypti flumina puro meatu aquarum; subito de fontium venis sanguis coepit erumpere, non erat potus in fluviis. Rursus ad prophetae preces cruor fluminum cessavit, aquarum natura remeavit. Circumclusus undique erat populus Hebraeorum, hinc Aegyptiis vallatus, inde mari conclusus. Virgam levavit Moyses, separavit se aqua et in murorum speciem se congelavit, atque inter undas via pedestris apparuit. Iordanis retrorsum conversus, contra naturam in sui fontis revertitur exordium. Nonne claret naturam, vel maritimorum fluctuum, vel cursus fluvialis, esse mutatam? Sitiebat populus patrum, tetigit Moyses petram, et aqua de petra fluxit. Numquid non praeter naturam operata est gratia ut aquam vomeret petra quam non habebat natura?
|Maybe you object: "I see something else. How can you tell me that I am receiving the body of Christ?" —And this is what it remains for us to prove. How many examples can we use to show that this is not what nature formed, but what words of blessing consecrated, and that the power of the blessing is greater than that of nature, because by the blessing nature itself is changed. Thus Moses held a staff, threw it, and it became a serpent. Then he took the tail of the serpent and it returned to the nature of a staff. Thus you see that by prophetic grace nature was changed twice, that of a serpent and that of a staff. The rivers of Egypt ran with pure streams of water; suddenly blood erupted from the springs and the rivers were undrinkable. Then, at the prayers of the prophet, the blood of the rivers stopped, and the natural water flowed back. The Hebrew people were surrounded on every side, on one side by the Egyptians, on the other by the sea. Moses lifted his staff, and the water divided and froze in the form of walls, leaving a walkway in between. The Jordan river turned back, against its nature returning to its source. Is it not clear that nature, whether of the sea or of a river, was changed? The people of the fathers were thirsty; Moses touched the rock, and water flowed out. Did grace not operate apart from nature, so that a rock would discharge water which it did not have by nature?
While they were eating, Jesus took the bread, blessed it, broke it, and gave it to his disciples saying, Take and eat, This is my body.
V/. The men of my tent said to me, Who will let us eat his meat to our full?
|Contra, Qui cum audissent, de sancto Nicholao.
Marath fluvius amarissimus erat, ut sitiens populus bibere non posset. Moyses misit lignum in aquam, et amaritudinem suam aquarum natura deposuit, quam infusa subito gratia temperavit. Sub Helisaeo propheta, uni ex filiis prophetarum excussum est ferrum de securi, et statim immersum est. Rogavit Helisaeum qui amiserat ferrum. Misit etiam Helisaeus lignum in aquam, et ferrum natavit. Utique etiam hoc praeter naturam factum cognovimus. Gravior enim est ferri species, quam aquarum liquor. Advertimus enim maiorem esse gratiam quam naturam, et adhuc tamen propheticae benedictionis miramur gratiam. Quod si tantum valuit humana benedictio ut naturam converteret, quid dicimus de ipsa consecratione divina, ubi ipsa verba domini salvatoris operantur? Nam sacramentum istud quod accipis, Christi sermone conficitur. Quod si tantum valuit sermo Heliae ut ignem de caelo praeponeret, non valebit sermo Christi ut species mutet elementorum?
|Marah is a most bitter river, where the people could not drink. Moses put a piece of wood in the water and the bitterness which it had by nature was tempered by grace suddenly flowing in. At the time of Elisha the prophet, one of the sons of the prophets lost his axehead and it sunk in the water. He complained to Elisha, who put a piece of wood in the water, and the axehead floated. This too we recognize to have happened apart from nature. For the nature of iron is heavier than water. So we see that grace is greater than nature, and we admire the grace of the prophet's blessing. If a human blessing could be so powerful as to change a nature, what do we say about the divine consecration where the very words of the Lord Savior are at work? For that sacrament which you receive is effected by the pronouncement of Christ. If te pronouncement of Elijah was so powerful as to bring fire from heaven, is not the pronouncement of Christ strong enough to change the nature of elements?
Jesus took the cup after he ate and said, This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this in memory of me.
V/. I will continue keeping it in mind as my soul is downcast within me (Lam 3:20).
|Contra, Virtute multa, de sancto Bernardo.
I will go to the altar of God and receive Christ, who renews my youth.
|Contra, Ascendo ad patrem meum, de Ascensione
Psalm 43 (Vul 42)
The Lord has fed us from the best wheat, and gave us plenty of rock honey.
Psalm 81 (Vul 80)
|Contra, O per omnia laudabilem virum, de sancto Nicholao.
From your altar, Lord, we receive Christ, for whom our heart and flesh exults.
Psalm 84 (Vul 83)
|Contra, Gloriam mundi sprevi, de sancto Nicholao.
||V/. Educas panem de terra, alleluia.|
R/. Et vinum laetificet cor hominis, alleluia.
|V/. May you bring bread from the earth, Halleluia.|
And may wine give joy to the heart of man, Halleluia.
Secundum Ioannem: In illo tempore dixit Iesus discipulis suis et turbis Iudaeorum: Caro mea vere est cibus et sanguis meus vere est potus. Qui manducat meam carnem et bibit meum sanguinem, in me manet, et ego in illo. Sicut misit me vivens Pater, et ego vivo propter patrem, et qui manducat me et ipse vivet propter me.
Omelia beati Augustini episcopi de eadem lectione:
|Since people expect food and drink to relieve them of hunger and thirst, the only food and drink that offer this are those that make their consumers immortal and incorruptible. And that is the company of the saints, where there will be perfect peace and full and perfect unity. Therefore, as men of God before us understood, our Lord Jesus Christ presented his body and blood in things that are assembled in a unity. For bread is made from many grains, and wine is made from many clusters of grapes.
He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him.
V/. No other nation is so great that its gods come near them as our God comes near to us.
|Contra, Felix vitis, de sancto Dominico
Denique iam exponit quomodo id fiat quod loquitur et quid sit manducare corpus eius et sanguinem bibere. Et qui manducat meam carnem et bibit meum sanguinem in me manet et ego in eo. Hoc est ergo manducare illam escam et illum bibere potum, in Christo manere et illum manentem in se habere. Ac per hoc qui non manet in Christo et in quo non manet Christus, procul dubio non manducat spiritualiter eius carnem, licet carnaliter et visibiliter premat dentibus sacramenta corporis et sanguinis Christi. Sed magis tantae rei sacramentum ad iudicium sibi manducat et bibit qui immundus praesumpsit ad Christi accedere sacramenta, qui alius non digne sumit nisi qui mundus est de quibus dicitur: Beati mundo corde quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt.
|Finally he explains how what he had spoken about happens, and what it is to eat his body and drink his blood. "He who eads my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him. Therefore to eat that food and drink that blood is to dwell in Christ and to have him dwell in us. And thus he who does not dwell in Christ and does not have Christ dwelling in him certainly does not eat his flesh spiritually, even though carnally and visibly he bites with his teeth the sacramens of the body and blood of Christ. Rather, he eats and drinks to his own judgment the sacrament of so great a reality, who presumes to approach Christ's sacraments unclean, which no one worthily receives unles he is clean. Of such it is said: "Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God."
The living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father. And whoever eats me lives because of me.
V/. The Lord fed him with the bread of life and understanding.
|Contra, Verbum caro factum est, de Circumcisione.
Sicut me misit, inquit, vivens pater et ego vivo propter patrem, et qui manducat me, et ipse vivet propter me. Non enim filius participatione patris fit melior, qui est natus aequalis, sicut participatione filii, per unitatem corporis et sanguinis, quam illa manducatio potatioque significat, efficit nos meliores. Vivimos ergo nos propter ipsum manducantes eum, idest ipsum accipientes vitam aeternam quam non habemus ex nobis. Vivit autem ipse propter pater missus ab eo, quia semetipsum exinanivit factus obediens usque ad signum crucis. Sicut misit me vivens pater et ego vivo propter Patrem, et qui manducat me et ipse vivet propter me. Ac si diceret: et ego vivo propter patrem, id est, ut ad illum tamquam ad maiorem referam vitam meam exinanitio mea fecit in qua me misit. Ut autem quisque vivat propter me, participatio facit, qui manducat me. Ego itaque humiliatus vivo propter patrem, ille rectus vivit propter me. Non de ea natura dixit qua semper est aequalis patri, sed ea in qua minor factus est patre de qua etiam superius dixit: Sicut pater habet vitam in semetipso sic dedit et filio vitam habere in semetipso, id est genuit filium habentem vitam in semetipso.
|"As the living Father sent me," he said, "and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me." For the Son who is born equal does not become better by participating in the Father, in the way that we become better by participating in him as children through our unity with his body and blood, which that eating and drinking signify. Therefore we live by him when we eat him, that is, when we receive him, te eternal life which we do not have of ourselves. Being sent by the Father, he lives because of him, since he emptied himself, made obedient unto the sign of the cross. "As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me. Regarding his words, "And I live because of the Father," he might ask us, "Why can I refer my life to him as someone greater? —Because of the state of emptiness in which he sent me. And why can someone live because of me? —Because he shares my life by eating me. Therefore in my state of humilitation I live because of the Father, and the righteous person lives because of me." He is not talking about that nature by which he is always equal to the Father, but about that in which he was made less than the Father. Of this he said above: "As the Father has live in himself, so he gave the Son [the prerogative of] having live in himself, that is, he begot a son having live in himself.
The many of us are one bread and one body, all of us who partake of one bread and one cup.
V/. From your sweetness you have made a spread for the poor, you who make us live of one mind in the household.
|Contra, Ex eius tumba, de sancto Nicholao.
||V/. Panem de caelo praestitisti eis.|
R/. Omne delectamentum in se habentem.
|V/. You gave them bread from heaven.|
R/. Containing every delight.
|FOURTH NOCTURN, for monks
The merciful and loving God has made a memorial of his wonders, he has given food to those who fear him.
Psalm 102 (Vul 101)
Memoria mea in generationes saeculorum: qui edunt me adhuc esurient, et qui bibunt me adhuc sitient, alleluia.
Psalm 104 (Vul 103)
Qui habet aures audiendi audiat quid spiritus Dei dicat ecclesiis: vincenti dabo manna absconditum, alleluia.
Psalm 105 (Vul 104)
|V/. Comedi favum cum melle meo, alleluia.|
R/. Bibi vinum cum lacte meo, alleluia.
|V/. I ate comb with my honey, Halleluia.|
R/.I drank wine with my milk, Halleluia.
De totius mundi operibus legisti quia ipse dixit et facta sunt, ipse mandavit et creata sunt. Sermo igitur qui potuit ex nihilo facere quod non erat, non potuit ea quae sunt in id mutare quod non erant? Non est enim minus dare, quam mutare novas naturas rebus. Sed quid? Cuius argumentis utimur, suis utamur exemplis, incarnationisque struamus mysterii veritatem. Numquid naturae usus persensit, cum dominus Iesus ex Maria nasceretur? Si ordinem quaerimus, viro mixta femina generare consuevit. Liquet igitur quod praeter naturae ordinem virgo generavit. Et hoc quod conficimus, corpus ex virgine est. Quid hic quaeris naturae ordinem in Christi corpore, cum praeter naturam sit ipse dominus Iesus partus ex virgine? Vera utique caro Christi quae crucifixa, quae sepulta est. Vere ergo illius carnis sacramentum est. Ipse clamat dominus noster Iesus: hoc est corpus meum. Ante benedictionem verborum caelestium, alia species nominatur; post consecrationem, corpus significatur. Ipse dicit sanguinem suum. Ante consecrationem aliud dicitur; post consecrationem sanguis Christi nuncupatur. Tu dicis: amen: hoc verum est. Quod sermo sonat, affectus sentiat.
|Regarding God's works in the whole world, you have read that "He spoke, and they were made," "He commanded and they were created." Therefore could not the Word, which could make something from nothing, also change what exists into something else? Nothing less can be conceded than to admit that he can change things into new natures. What, then? If we use his arguments, let us use his examples, and consider the truth of the Incarnation. Was the Lord Jesus not aware of the natural process when he was to be born of Mary? If we go by the order of nature, a woman has a child by intercourse with a man. So it is clear that the Virgin had her child outside the order of nature. And what we effect [in the Mass] is the body that came from the Virgin. Why should you look for the order of nature in [the presence of] Christ's body, when the same Lord Jesus was born of the Virgin apart from the order of nature? Yes, it is the true flesh of Christ which was crucified and was buried. Therefore it is really the sacrament of his body. Our Lord Jesus Christ himself cries out: "This is my body." Before the heavenly words of blessing it was a different thing. After the consecration it is designated his body. He said [the same] with regard to his blood. Before the consecration it was called one thing; after the consecration is is designated his body. You say "Amen. This is true." What you speak, may you also feel in your heart.
R/. Melchisedech vero rex Salem proferens panem et vinum, erat autem sacerdos Dei altissimi, benedixit Abrahae et ait.
V/. Benedictus Abraham Deo excelso qui creavit caelum et terram.
Panis est in altari usitatus ante verba sacramentorum. Ubi accessit consecratio, de pane fit caro Christi. Quomodo autem potest quod panis est esse corpus Christi? Consecratio igitur quibus verbis et cuius sermonibus est? Domini Iesu. Nam per reliqua omnia quae dicuntur, laus Deo offertur, oratione petitur pro populo, pro regibus, pro ceteris. Ubi autem sacramentum conficitur, iam non suis sermonibus sacerdos, sed utitur sermonibus Christi. Ergo sermo Christi hoc conficit sacramentum. Quis sermo Christi? Hic nempe quo facta sunt omnia: caelum, terra, maria. Vides ergo quam operarius sit sermo Christi. Si ergo tanta vis est in sermone domini Iesu Christi, ut inciperet esse quod non erat, quanto magis operarius est ut sint quae erant et in aliud convertantur? Et sic quod erat panis ante consecrationem iam corpus Christi post consecrationem est, quia sermo Christi creaturam mutat, et sic ex pane fit corpus Christi. Et vinum cum aqua in calice mixtum, fit sanguis consecratione verbi caelestis.
|Bread was handled on the altar before the sacramental words. At the consecration, from bread there became the flesh of Christ. But how could it belong to bread to be the body of Christ? The consecration happens, therefore, by which words and whose pronouncement?—Those of the Lord Jesus. All the rest that is said [in Mass] is praise offered to God, or petitions made for the people, for kings, and for others. But when the sacrament is effected, the priest does not use his own words, but the words of Christ. Therefore the pronouncement of Christ effects this sacrament. What is the pronouncement of Christ?—That by which everything was made: heaven, earth, the seas. So you see how efficacious is the pronouncement of Christ. Therefore, if there is so much power in the pronouncement of Christ, that something could come to exist from nothing, how much more efficacious is it in converting something that previously existed into something else? And so, what was bread before the consecration is right away the body of Christ after the consecration, because the pronouncement of Christ changes a creature, and thus from bread there becomes the body of Christ. And the wine mixed with water in the chalice becomes by the consecration the blood of the heavenly Word.
R/. Calix benedictionis cui benedicimus, nonne communicatio sanguinis Christi est? Et panis quem frangimus, nonne participatio corporis domini est?
V/. Quoniam unus panis et unum corpus multi sumus, nam omnes de uno pane et uno calice participamus. Et panis quem frangimus, nonne participatio corporis domini est?
Sed forte dicis: speciem sanguinis non video, sed habet similitudinem. Sicut enim mortis similitudinem assumpsisti, ita etiam Christi similitudinem sanguinis bibis, ut nullus horror cruoris sit, et pretium tamen operetur redemptionis. Didicisti quia corpus accipis Christi. Vis scire quia verbis caelestibus consecratur? Accipe quae sunt verba. Dicit sacerdos: fac nobis, inquit, hanc oblationem adscriptam, rationabilem, acceptabilem, quod est figura corporis et sanguinis domini nostri Iesu Christi qui pridie quam pateretur, in sanctis manibus suis accepit panem, respexit ad caelum, ad te, sancte pater, omnipotens aeterne Deus, gratias agens benedixit, fregit, fractumque Apostolis suis, et discipulis suis tradidit, dicens: accipite, et edite ex hoc omnes; hoc enim est corpus meum, quod pro multis confringetur. Similiter et calicem postquam coenatum est, pridie, quam pateretur, accepit, respexit ad caelum, ad te, sancte pater, omnipotens aeterne Deus, gratias agens benedixit, Apostolis et discipulis suis tradidit, dicens: accipite et bibite ex eo omnes. Hic est enim sanguis meus. Inde, omnia illa Evangelistae sunt usque ad Accipite, sive corpus, sive sanguinem. Inde verba Christi sunt: accipite et bibite ex hoc omnes. Hic est enim sanguis meus. Vide singula. Qui pridie quam pateretur accepit, inquit, in sanctis manibus panem. Antequam consecretur panis est. Ubi autem verba Christi accesserint, corpus Christi est. Deinde audi dicentem: accipite et edite ex hoc omnes: hoc est enim corpus meum. Et ante verba Christi, calix est vino et aqua plenus. Ubi autem verba Christi operata fuerint, ibi sanguis efficitur, qui plebem redemit. Ergo vide quam potens est sermo Christi universa convertere. Deinde ipse Iesus testificatur, quod corpus suum et sanguinem suum accipiamus, de cuius fide et testificatione dubitare non debemus.
|But you may object: "I do not see the appearance of blood, but only something like it." Just as you took on the likeness of his death, so you drink the blood of Christ in its likeness, so that there would be no revulsion at the blood, while the price of redemption is at work. You have learned that you receive the body of Christ. Do you want to know by which heavenly words it is consecrated? Here are the words. The priest says, "Let this offering for us be certified, reasonable, acceptable—which is a figure of the body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ—who, before he suffered, blessed it, broke it, and gave it to his Apostles and his disciples, saying: 'Take this, all of you, and eat from it. This is my body, which will be broken for many.' When supper was ended, likewise he took the chalice, looked up to heaven, to you, holy Father, almighty and eternal God, and giving thanks blessed it and gave it to his disciples saying: 'Take this and drink from it, all of you. For this is my blood.'" All the preceding are the words of the Evangelist, up to "Take this body" or "this blood". So it is Christ who says: "Take and drink from it, all of you. For this is my blood." Observe the details. It is said, "Before he suffered, he took bread in his sacred hands." Before it was consecrated it was bread. And before the words of Christ, the chalice was full of wine and water. But when the words of Christ took effect, then it became the blood which redeems the people. Therefore see how powerful is the pronouncment of Christ to convert it wholly. Then Jesus himself testifies that we receive his body and his blood, and we have no right to doubt his trustworthiness and testimony.
R/. Ego sum panis vitae. Patres vestri manducaverunt manna in deserto et mortui sunt. Hic est panis de caelo descendens ut si quis ex ipso manducaverit non moriatur.
V/. Ego sum panis vivus qui de caelo descendi. Si quis manducaverit ex hoc pane vivet in aeternum. Hic est panis de caelo descendens ut si quis ex ipso manducaverit non moriatur.